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vHDmm. TUB BOPEMiwtMaammtm or rmm woamrt worn 







VOL. I. 






VOL. I. 


lun.— Tin nifU Him to 

'fttfilt Hon. LortUAnu. 

a', t, uufin,*^, uia. 

Thjn.»,W,^ B.,, U 




wRtTTKN i» Bcrrr oukinc the trabs 
1833. W, AND 35. 


VOL, I. 





or TlIK 





1833, 34, AND 35, 

THAT COUNTRY IN THE YEARS 1825, 26, 27, AND 28. 


VOL. I. 




Printed by W. Clowxs and Soirt, 

Stamford- Street 


/>' ? <, 
V. I 



Cairo, IR 

Dcftiita & former visit U> this country, umlfrlakcii 
cUiefly for (he purpose orMuiljiiig llie Arabir Inii^ajtr 
in its Diost &moiis xchnol, I dtvol«il much vf my al- 
lentkm U> the ranunpra and customs ul' the Arab 
uihabilMiU; and, in Hu intercourse ol' two yeori und 
u half with this jieoplc, soim luuiiil that all Die infiir- 
tnalkin wliich I bad [iretiuusly tieen nble lo obtain 
respecting them wu insuHideiit In bu uf mitch use tit 
the student of Arabic litemlnre, or to ^utisty the 
curiosity of the general reaHer. Hence I wbk in- 
duced to cover some quires of paper nitb note* on 
t>ie most refflarkEible of ttieir usages, partly for luy 
own benefit, und partly in the hope tbatliniglithave 
it in my power tomakesomeof my countrymen belter 
acquainted with the domiciliated classes of one of the 
ntost interesting; nations of the world, by drawing a 
detOiiled picture of the inhabilants of (he laigest 
Arab city. The period of my first visit in this counlry 
did not, liowever, suffice for the atcomplishment of 
Ihis object, and for the prosecution of iny other 
Rtudies; and I relinquished the idea of publishing 
the notes which I had made on the modem in- 
habitants : but, five years after my return to England, 
those notes were shown to some members of the 
Committee of the Society for ihe Diffusion of Useful 
Knowledge, at whose suggestion, the Committee, in- 
[ere!!ted tnlh the subjects of ihem, und with ihe 


novelty of some of their contents, engaged 
complete and print them. Encouraged by their 
approbaliori, and rclyin-r upon iheir judgment, I 
immediately determined to I'ullow ihek advice, and, 
by the eariiest opportunity, again departed to Egypt. 
After another residence of more than a yeur iu the 
metropohs of this eountiy, and hall' a year in Upper 
Egypt, I have now aceompllslied, as well as I urn 
able, the task proposed lo me*. 

It may be said, that the ['English reader already 
poBsesseE an excellent and ample description uf AraV 
manners and customs in Dr. Russell's account of 
the people of Aleppo. I will not (brfeit my owO 
claim to the reputatiou of an honest wriicr, by ut,- 
fempling to detract from the just merits of that vulnable 
and interesting work ; but must asserl, that it is. 
Upon the whole, rather an account of Turkish ihas 
of Arab manners ; arid llmt neither the original Au- 
thor, nor his brother, to whom we are indebted fur tb^ 
enlarged and much improved edition, was suflicienily 
acquainted with the Aruhic language to scrutiniie 
some of the most interesting subjects of inquiry which 
the plan of the work required [hem to treat : nor 
would their well-known station in Aleppo, or perhaps 
their national feelings, allow them to aesume lliose dia^ 
finises wiiich were necessary to enable them to become 
faitiiliar witii many of the most remarkable nligious 
crr«moQiea, opiniou«. und superstiUons, of the people 
whom they have detcribed. Deficienaies iu theic 

* ll filn mB mucli pleasure lo find, tlut, wlule I bavc beea. 
■MnyMv lo I'nwrve mcmDtUls ut' the muiiiei* and cus'oma 1 
4|1te aortwulii^rd nodeia Atab people, oite of my lcauie4 

111 ' ," ^ •n'---'' '" - been otcupi^ii, wilb mi---- ' 

W^^ Anantoi from obliviuu muay intenKliag natici 
ttehMHi7'"(lki*MH^ AibIk, and IbKt UDutber (M(. Wilkiumi^ 
^fttHNt, gnpina(lo im|Htt to us nii sccouat oS the private | 
41k >^MiBB» Jbu ui U> Aucieut iLgipUaiu, 

nmnrkic on thne xiilJeeU nrv ihe only Atnlt* of iOlf 
[nip«in»ncp thai I «ui dtscover in Ihtir etrell^tit and 
feantuii work *. 

I how been rfiffewntly drcumrtnnreH. Previnuslj 
to my fifsl \isit to lhi« countn', I wqulrml w>m«; kimw- 
!ei^ of the Inn^age tuwl IlWfature ol' Ihe Arnb« ; «iul 

■ Among 111* im-n 
Eigrpt u one SHlill*. 
■adernc* d« rK|irii<e : 

lo,Ui« I 

■' tlln l^I^B 


I JMiilihuDDiadiLn houn. wid m lh« 
" , B.Utiou ) or the 

„_^ , ^ , juit (ihiloiuphii 

but Ihete occupy too larm u iitoportioa gf ■ meniuir ncareulr 
(RMdlng tiM third of Oib «tent of Ihe preient nork. 1% 
Aa* that filtae renarkl ue not mcda in ui intidwiia nplril. 1 
MMtWiUingly vxpieH mylu((h wlmirAtiDD af othrr nuU of 
''tli»fie«twotll"(«»P^'*lij'l»=o'''"''"l'°'" of &L JumiKdj, 
ItUUng to subjects wUch havs Hlike empluyeil my riiiiul ind 
pM, and upun iihich I shitll prabablf pulilUh my obimntioni. 
— Bwekhatdt'i " Arabic Pnnerti*" ud Ibeii illuatmtioni cao- 
Mp natty notionB of iflraacliBble euitoma and trail! u( cha< 
ndar of the modem Egyptian! j but ore very I'at fiom 
cgnipaung oconiplelo expoiiiion, every cuie, a true dne; 
brnatiOQiilpioTeTbs are bad teat* of Ihe murality nf u pruplc. 
b-Thne 11 one work, however, which preHBts moat ndmiru- 
Ue pieturta of Ihe manni-ri and euatonu of the Anbn, anil 
MrttniUlly of those of the K^vptianai it ii "the Thaiiaonit 
ud One Niithte," or Arabian IJighta' EntTrtainmenla : if Ihe 
Euflish reader poiseBBed a close ttanBlation of il wiih aufll- 
etggt illlutTati-re notea, I might almost have spared myKlf Ihs 
bbottt ol »» prrteat aoieittkxog. 


In a year after my arrival here, I was able to c 
verse, with Ihe people amona; whom I was residing, 
with tolerable ease. I have associated, almost ( 
lusivejy, with Moos'lima, of various ranks in Eoclet 
I have lived as they Kve, conforminir with their 
general habits; and, in order to make them familiatr 
and unreserved towards me on every subject, have 
always avowed my agreement with them in opinioa 
whenever my conscience would allow me, and 
most other cases, refrained from the expression of 
my dissent, as well aa from every action which 
might give them disgust; abstaiiiing from eating 
food forbidden by their religion, and drinking wine, 
&c. ; and even from habits merely disagreeable to 
ihem ; such as the use of knives and forks at meaU. 
Having made myself acquainted with all their com- 
mon religious ceremonies, I have been able to escape 
exciting, in Ettangers, any suspicion of my being a 
person who had no right to intrude among them, 
whenever it was necessary for me to witness any 
Mohhnmmadan rite or festival. While, from the 
dress which I have found most convenient to weffl 
am generally mistaken, in public, for a Turk, 
acquaintances, of course, know me to be an Englisln 
man ; but I constrain them to treat me as a Moos'- 
lim, by my freely acknowledging the band of Provi- 
dence in the introduction and ditfiision of the Moh- 
hammadan religion, and, when interrogated, avowing 
my belief in the Messiah, in accordance with the 
words of the Ckoor-a'n, as the Word of God, infused 
into Ihe womb of the Virgin Mary, and a spirit pro- 
ceeding from Him. Thus, I believe, I have acquired 
their good opinion, and much of their confidence; 
though not to such an extent as to prevent i 
having to contend with many difficulties. The Moo 
bms are very averse from giving information on sub- 
Jects coimecUsA with tbeir religion or superstitions (a 

»h1i t.i ■'.<■«; 

bicucr. ::\,itm- 

kiitx- • ' i''itrt. 

btuH •<! < "lad, 

etai'^ ' ■ ''<>ver> 

III. --.t.- •" Wlur 

inliOTT'. ' SVC UII«(Hll>tf 

«•< < '1 have liad 

|)iii.. ' aciinmatUn roU- 

mibuiiuitu; lo tJieiii queBUonn nn fuiy uhiiIit- n'>i|ienl- 
iiitt wlui'ii I Hill JH iloubt, lisM' i>iiili>-iiiii-Hiifl or 
corm'tetl, iiml iiiUl-cI to, ilii; iiilormatiiiii <li-j-i\i-(l troll) 
coiivcrwtiim willi my uUwr Iriemla, Ucvoaioaitlly, 
also, I iinvc up(jlltd lii liiufber nutburiticfi ; huvin( 
ttit' bapiiiue^is lu uutnbcr amuiif^ my frieiiUii in tliix 
eitjr Home pt^^ruoiia of Hie higliest Ktainaienla in 
Jift^leru leiniiing. 

. P«vhap« ihe reiulor tnny ndt be displmsi^ if I titce 
utlstntit. in BU|iiaint turn more rsrlicuLwiy witb one 
iiiy MooVlitn ftieiiiis, Ibe firsl of tlujue nbow 
alluded to ; and to show, t>t Uie Naini; iJmc. Ibe liartat 
iu «hi(di b«, like otlicnt of hia couutry. ra|<:iirds loc in 
nijr prownt ailiinliun. — '4'be shcykb Alib'mitd (or snj/d 
Atil/iiiud ; hr Iw is utie of ttic numerous i;l>i« of 
thtrei^/i, or de*cendaiila of the Proi>b«i> is somewhat 
more ibnn lurly yenrs of a^, by his own coiilMsion ; 
but itppears nmrc near to (ihj. He in an KJmaUahie 

n pl^EJoKwiny an in chnmcler. His atauire i* under 
tlui middle stxe i hiit b«iud, reddisb, and uotv becum- 
■agtigrey. Foi' many ycant lie hm been nearly bUnd : 
one (if llis ey«s is almost entirely closed ; aotl bulh 
are woafDeiited. on punicular occasions (iit Ifusl on 
4lie Mo Krand aaiiiwl fentivals), with a. border of 

the black pigment called koMil, which is «rtMtt 
used but by women. He boasts his descent nnt iinl^ 
from the Prophet, but also, from a very celebnitei 
saint. EBh-Shaara'wee*; and his complexion, whictf 
isyery fair, supports his assertion, that his anceatortf 
for several generations, lived in the north-west era 
pttrts of Africa. He obtains bis aubiistence froirf 
a Blender patrimony, and by exercising the trade ^ 
a bookseller. Partly to profit in this oecupatiotB 
and partly for the sake of society, or at least to enjo^ 
some tobacco and coffee, he is a visitor in my hoo^ 
almost every evening, 'J 

For several years before he adopted the Irade of fl 
bookseller, which was that of his father, he pursued 
no other occupation than that of perfnrniinu^ in Ih)^ 
reli gious ceremonies called ^lAr.?; which consist irt 
the repetition (if the name and attributes, Ac, nt 
God, by a number of persona, in chorus ; and iw 
Buch performancefi he is still often employed. Htf 
wai then a member of the order of the Siiaflee'yelf 
dnrwee'shes, who are particularly famous for tie-' 
voiiring li^e serpents ; and he is said to have beeS 
one of the serpent eaters : hut he did not con"-' 
fine himself lo food so easily digested. One nijilrtj 
dnrinir a meeting of a party of dnrwee'shes fit' 
his order, at which their sheykh wa.s present, my 
friend became aff.'oled wiih religious freniy, seizerl 
K tail glass shade which surrounded a candid 
liUrMl oil the floor, and uie » lai'ge portion of iti^ 
Hie shevkh and the other durweeshes, looking af 
kaH with astonishment, upbraided him ^vhh having' 
^ikw the institutes of his order; since the ea<ing'_ 
•f c^B was not among the miracles which ttiej^' 
«^ dhrMd to perform ; and they immediately 

« I^M taoBBiilf jmnoiineeil, fat Kih-Shaaia'nve. 

niMllMi bim. i! < I L' order W ilw 

Alitim«iiac'y«^h : .iv. nrver tUs 

^u*. he ili'lcrnm ii. Hcnvrvn-, 

Kwji Bfter. al II ^ nilirL-n of tiM 

onlet, wiicli HtviTiJ S'i;iO!t'jvli ai-u wrre prracnl, 
lie aiiBiB "un sci)^ wiUi ('rFnx;r> ■<)i)> JiHiipina iqi 
Ui ttchiuwlclicr. luiu^t liujil ui' otii' «1 tlir miiall qii^n 
kiii|N atlacbcU U> it. anil ikvuureil about luUf of it, 
MMlluwiliK aIso tbo ntt uhI watvr wlucli il cuulaiwM. 
He was ooodiicled btfan liia ShcyMi.ti) U- tried ftir 
ibisdfiefleF; biit, on bi> tukinff nn tnlti nmer tn ckI 
^tss ninuii, ht was iieillicr puiiislml nor expelled itw 
vcAti. Nutnillialamliu^ lliiouiith, 1>« tmun attain pru- 
iifi«il lii<' pro|t«nsi(y tu cat a fctae* iiiiii]) ; imd a liru- 
Iber (Uirwee'sh, who wns |>rcs«mt, allriii[itrd to do 
Ibr same ; but a large frtKinent aliick lu-twrm the 
Vm^Tue anil palate of lliis nith per<i»ii ; anil my 
Ihesil hud ifreal rfoubii! lu oitracl it. Hi- was ajrain 
UitA b) biii Sheykh ; uqiI, bein^ rcpruitched lor hn*- 
ihf; lirokrii his oatb and row nf rrpvnliiitLv, he 
unllji answered, " i re|ient og'uiu : rcpeitlame is 
guild ; fur He wliose aaiiie I>e cxikll«d liuih mikI, in 
it» Exeolleiil &ui>k, 'Verily. God luvtih thr tc- 
pentaiiL'" The Sb^jkli, iit ait^r, oxclaiined, " IhnA. 
ltiaud«re tit net In ilii^ miinner, iind iheii com* mul 
6le tbe CluKir-u'ti before me?"- — and willi thi« rr- 
flwi, be ordered [bat be sboulcl be iinpriMiiied t«n 
days; aUer whioh, he made bim afrjin »v<fM in 
klni&Hi from eaiina; gl^s* ; mid nn Uiis conHition he 
9m sUowed to remain a member nf (lie Ahhraedee'- 
feb. TliiB !«cnnd ualh, be prolesses not to Imve 
Wken. — ^Tbe perwin whose office it waa lo pruseciiic 
Un related to aie these fftuts; and my Iriend re- 
tuOvrtiy confessed tticm to be true. 

Whfn I was first ac<iiiiilnled with the sheykh 
Ahfa'taad, he bad lung been content with one wife ; 


but now lie has iudulged himself with a wcond^ 
who continues to live ia hei parents' bouse: yei ht 
has taken cttre lo assure me, ibat he ie not riott 
enough to refuse my jearly preseat of a dress. Oil 
my visiting; him lor the second time during my prfr 
HDt re^ence ia this pluce, his mother came. t«) itM' 
door of the room in wliich 1 was sitting witli himi 
to complain ta me of his conduct in taking' this iua^' 
wife. Piittingr her hand within the door, to ginl 
ptreater etfett lo her words by proper action i(«r 
perhaps to e^hon how beauUrully the pulm, and tbft 
tips of the fiufrers, i^loned with the Iresh red dye of 
the hhe?k'vd), but concealintr the rest of her perEOoi 
she commenced a most energetic appeal to my gym- 
pathy. — " O Efen'dee ! " she exclaimed, " I thrtiw 
myself upon thy mercy! I kiss thy feet! I ban 
no hope but in God and thee 1 " " What %*arda axt 
ihepe, my mistreiB ? " said I : " what misfortune ha* 
befallen thee? and what can I do for thee? Tell 
me." "This son of mine," she continued, "thi* 
my son Ahh'mad, is a worthless fellow: he basi 
wife here, a good creature, with whom be has liY«tl 
happily, with God's blessing, for sixteen years ; and 
now he has neglected her and me. and given him* 
self up to a second wife, a young, impudent wenohi 
he lavishes im money upon tbia monkey, and otheiH 
like her, and upon her lather imd mother ilnd unclea 
and brother and brother's cbiidren, iind I know not 
whom besides, and abridges us, that is, mjself and 
his first wife, of the eomlorte to wliich we wern b&t 
fore accustomed. By the I'l'ophet '. and by thy durtt 
bead ! 1 speak truth. I kiss thy fert, and beg IhM 
to insist upon his divorcing his new wJfe,'~trho 

' He nToresscK to have hud moro Itian thirty iriVei ill Hie 
tonne or his life ; tut, in saying «o, I buliuvc he grPitly e^- 

foat man looked n bttlv foolnh while hb mother wm 
ihw Dftdressing mc from l«hiiid thr rfimr ; nint u 
uma a* she wni ^nc, ])roinis«il lu <li> what *iw 
ilwired. " But." »aiii Ut, "it w a (liffifuli caw, 1 
was in tlie habit of sieepinK nmiukiniilly in Um 
tmuc of th« bmttitr nf Ihc girl whom I hutr \nt\y 
token as my wife : lie is a clerk in Ibe empio* of 
'Abtm'e Bn'fihB ; milt ntlier more than a y«ar agn, 
'Abba'H Ba'shit sent for ine, and <>»i<il, ' I hear that 
vnu are often nlecpin^ in the house of mj dcfk 
Huhbam'mad. Wliy dn you act so ? Do yon not 
know that il is very improper, wlii-n then? are women 
in ilie house?' I said, * I am (^ing; to marry hli 
finter.* 'Then why have jou not mnrried her 
ilreiu^?' naked ihv Bu'sho. 'She is only nine of age.' ' Is the marriuge contract made ? ' 
'No,' 'Whynol?' 'I cnnnot alforti, ut present, 
U> giw the dowry.' 'Whnt in the dowrj- to be?" 
'Ninety piasiers.' 'Here, then,' said the Ku'nha, 
'lalie the money, and let the rnntrnct be mnrliided 
immedialely.' So you nee I waa ohiigwl tu marry 
the giri; and I am afniid (bat Ihe Bu'bIui will be 
■ngry if I divorce her: bnt I will act iu §iicli a 
manner tliot her brother shall insist upon the divorce; 
Mid then, pliiusii God, 1 f'hitll live in pence n^iin." — 
This is n good example of the comfort of havin)^ iwo 

A short time ^nc«, upon hts oBcring me a copy 
et tite Ckoor-o'n, for aale, be thought it necessary to 
make some excuse for his doing so. He remarked, 
Ihal, by my conforming with many of the ceremonies 
uf the Mumlims, 1 tocilly professed myself to be one 
lit rhem ; and that it was incumbent upon him to 
mratd me in the most favourable light, which he 
was ibe more willing to do because he knew ttiat I 
iliDuU incur the displeasure of my King by making 
ID open profession of the iUohhammadan taife, uni 

tberpfore could not do it*. "You give me," sai4 
he, "Ihe Balulnlion of ' Peoce be on you!' and it 
would be impious In me, being directly fnrbidden b;f 
my religion, to pronounce you an unbeliever; fof 
God, whose name be exalted, hath said, ' Baj QOl 
unto him who greeteth thee with peace. Thou aA 
not 3 believer t ': therefore," he added, " it is no i ' 
in me to pul into your hands the noble Ckoor-a' 
liut there are some of your countrymen who will tak^ 
it in unclean hands, and even sit upon it! I be^ 
Qod'a forgiveness for talking of such a thing: fiif 
be it from you to do so: you, praise be to God^ 
hnow and observe the command, 'None shall toucll 
it but those who are cleanj'".^ — He once so" 
copy of the Ckoor-a'n, on my application, to a c 
Iryman of mine, who, being disturbed, just as tiu^ 
bargain was concluded, by some person enterKig ttiQ 
room, hastily put rlie sacred Look upon the seat, an^ 
under a part of his dress, to conceal it. The hoolc'^ 
seller was much scandaliged by this action j think'\ " 
ing that my friend was sitting upon the book, an J 
that he was doing so to show hia contempt of it i 
he declares his helief that he has been heavily, 
punished by God for this unlawful sale. — There was 
only one thing that I had much difficulty in perK 
Huulinc: him to do during my former visit to thik 
country ; which was, to go with me, at a particula^ 
period, into the mosque of the Hhasaney'n, the re- 
puted burial-place of the head of El-Hhosey'n, aiirf. 

• It ii 

lomniaa bvlieC nmoag (he Kgypliai 
seller who visits fheit country ■ ■ 

emisaary fn>^| 
difficult to coDVinCB them that this iff 


not the oiBe; w> 8tr>ings to them ia the idea .. _ . 

eurriog great trouble uud etpeime toe the purpose of aciiuiri: 
the knuwlrdj^o uf fureij^n coiintiJea and naliona. 

f Ckoor-u'n, chap. !»., ver. 9fi. 

/ Ckoor-a'B, chap, hi., v». 78. 

Ib« DHMt Mcrn) of the iButquo in Uip EgrpliAB 
BictrapoIitL On my {mssini; willilklin WCun unc of 
the eiitnini:es ol'thii tiuitiliii^, one aficrniMni durljiff 
the lost of Huin'iula'ii, wIumi it wiu rrowdril arita 
Turks, wtd uiaiiy o( tliv pniiLipaJ neiiplc at' die city 
wm anioiig tlw ron^jpilioii, 1 Uiuuitlii it n food 
opportunity to scr it bi llitr ■^valaM BilvHntaj^e, and 
Mind tny campuiiiin In ga in with mr. He pwilivdy 
mfined. in iixe I'enr o{ my l«ing dis-inDrcd U> he 
ta EngliNlmiaa, whlih luiuilit lu ruuft lliu ranutic 
Mger (jf some tif the 'I'wi* tlietv as In rx|ioii« mo In 
wme act of viokncc. I tlirreluro riileml' ulone. 
n« rvmsinwl at ihc door, Inllnwing me Hiiii tus «yc 
Wily (or his only rye), trnd wotidcriH)r iit my Budft- 
dty; but ns MKin its be saw me Dcinii tnyiwlf in the 
tuuttl tcanner, by wulkiii); ruuni) the lirunxi! Hvrren 
nAutSi HurfouiuU tlie iiiouii incut over ibu itpoi where 
fhe head of thi.' murtyr i« ukid Ui bo buried, kud 
then putting; itiy»«lf into the regular poctiires of 
^yer, he camE in, uiid said his iiruycra by my side. 
After relatiiii; these unettlnies, 1 sluiulil mcntiou, 
that lite charui-lrtM of uiy ulher EtuiualiitAnce* here 
are not marked by similar ecMiitridtie*. My >llea- 
6baa U> my visitors ha\« btaii geuerolly confined to 
llie comtaon usages nfGosiern hospitality i supplyii^ 
Atm with pipes and cutTte, and welcoming them to 
.a tfaare of my dinner or sujiper. Many of their 
communications I have written in Arabic, at their 
(lietation, ami since triinsluLed, and inwried in llie 
following pai;cs. Whiil I liave principally aimed at, 
in this work, is eorrtclness ; and 1 do not scruple lo 
Mnert, thut I am not cnnscious of havio;; endeu- 
TOured to render interesting any matter that I liuve 
telatetl by the slightest aatrifice of truth. 

Sijice writing Uie above, it has occurred lu n\«, 
jbal IsbcaU offer some apology for tlie wiiusuaV mo&t 


in which I have written Arabic words in the follow- 
ing pages. Hod I found it necessair only tii insert 
a few oi such words, already found in the works of 
many of my countrymen, 1 might have eipressed 
them in ihe same monuer as most of those authors 
have done; writing "Mahomet" or "Mohammed" 
for " Mohkam'mad," " Koran " for " Ckoor-tin" 
"Caliph" for '' Kluile^fih," "SulUn" for "Sooi- 
ta'n," "Dervise" tar " Dunix^gh" "Bedouin" for 
'^ Bed'atcee," "Divan" for " Deewafn," "Harem" 
for " HhaTcJin," &c.; but since I have been obliged 
to employ a great number of Arabic words, and many 
wliich I have never seen in European characters in 
any former work, I have thought it better to write a,H 
of them according to a particular system that ap- 
pears to me best calculated to enable an EngUah J 
reader to pronounce them with tolerable correct- | 
ness *. According to this system, I 

a is pronounced as in our word bad : ' 

<i, generally as in father; but sometimes its sound 

approaches to that of a in bait : 
ch represents a guttural k : most of the people of 
the metropolis of Egypt, and those of some pro- 
vinces, cannot pronounce it, and substitute flir it a 
hiatus; while in Upper Egypt, the sound of g in 
^ive is used in its stead: 
e is pronounced as in bed : 
e*, as in there : 

ti, as our word cyi; : 
ei/, as in they : 

g, generally as in give ; but in some parts of Eirypl, 
as in gem, or nearly so : 

gh represents u very gutlunil g ; Uie *onn>) prcMluwl 

in gargling; 
M leprewnls a Blrong aspirate, very cliflirrt-nl from 

i b prgnounceii ut in bid : 

M reprrseiite u. guUural suund like (hot pnxtiiced in 
txpelliug suliva from the thrual: i( ctptironclicH 
nearer iw the sound vbkh I exprt^ b} M tluui (n 
tbal of it - 
b pronounced as iii oUy (obort) : 
/, aa in bone : 
,00, >s in boo/c: 
iCO', as iu bool : 
oa, aa in down : 
tt, aa in 6u^ 

An i^itroplle deuutes a g^ittural sound to wliich nn 
letter ol' uMr iil[ibab«l a^ipruiiinates : it is tike Uiut 
which is heanl in tlie bl<;atiii^ of sheep. 
TW usual sign ol" a diebretit is employed to sbow 
that a flnal r. is not mute, but priinounced fw Ihat 
letter wlien unaccented in the beg;inniiig ur middle 
, of & word. 

, Witli regard to the engravings which accompany 
JJiia work, I should mention, that they ore from draw- 
inga nrhich I have made, nut to embellish the pages, 
neittly to explain the teit. 


: 1 


* r 



Tlw Country and Clinwt> — ifctnipolis — Hooms — 
Population •.•..! 


Personal Characteriatici and Dnm of the Mootlia 
Egyptians • • • .36 


Infancy and early education . . .78 


Religion and Laws . . . . .92 

Government • • • • .150 

Domestic Life. (The Higher and Middle Orders) . 180 

Domestic Life — continued. (The Hharee'm) . . 213 

Domestic Life — continued. (The Lower Orders) . 266 


• ''i 


= ^4 

. '. -.r- 

~ 4{ 

■ i 



Pre£u6 • •••.•! 


Hie Country and Climata — Metropolii — Houtet — 
Population • • .1 


Personal Characteristics and DreM of the Moos'lim 
Egyptians • • • . .36 


Infancy and early education . . . .78 

Religion and Laws . . . . .92 

Government • • • • .150 

Domestic Life. (The Higher and Middle Orders) . 180 

Domestic Life — continued. (The Hharee'm) . . 213 

Domestic Life — continued. (The Lower Orders) , 266 





Common Usages of Society . . . . 273 


Language, Literature, and Science ... . 285 


Superstitions. (Genii, Saints, and Durwee'shes) . , . ,. ,. 3|f)5 


Superstitions— continued. (Charms and Angulation) 

• ' 338 


Magic,' Astrology, and Alchymy . .• 

. 360 


. ■■ .0 

Character . . . • . 

. m 

■ r 

i , . . , 

' ^■' 

, ' 


...... . mV 

VOL. I. 





1. Pri«teHouM.iiiC«i« 

. ft 

2. Door ot k Print* HoUH 

. 9 

3. SpccimeiHor Unicc-worfc . 

. 13 

4. Court of ■ Print* HoD^a in Ckiro 

. IS 

S. F<.«n»in .... 

. 17 

6. SoofW, .... 

. 13 

7. P«vemcnlof.l>«iick.'-.h . 

. 19 

^ 8. SpMimen. of P.Bel.wprk . 

. ai 

9. Ceiling of mDoarcka'-ih 

. 2J 


11. ACk»-ah .... 

. 3S 

IZ. Wooden Lock 

. as 

13. M«a of the Middle ■Dd HigherClisHi 

. 41 

14. Uen of Ihi Loocr Clus« 

. 4ft 

IS. TlieHoocklfb 

. 49 

IB. An Bye omtmcnled wllh Kohhl 

. ftl 

17. Hook'hhcKtl'iiht ai>il Mir-weda 

. S2 

IS. AniricDl Vend ud ProlH br Kobhl . 

. 53 


•ncienl mode 


20. Hiid. tod I'cet .Uined «ilh Hh.n'n. 

. 54 

21. ATUlooedGirl 

• 57 


33. T.tlooed Hands and Pool . 


34, A LmIj in the Dren worn To private . 

. fiO 

. 63 

28. Udim Mtirad for Riding ot Wallilng 

. 66 

V. Women Md Children of the Lower C1ii~ei 

. 69 

!S. A Wonmn dad in Ihe Mik'yrti, &c. . 


^^^_^ fuu I. 





29. Ornamented black Veils 

30. The 'As'beh 

31. A Woman of the Southern Province of 

32. Parade previous to Circumcision 

33. A Scbool^boy learning the Alphabet 

34. Vessels for Ablution 

35. Postures of Prayer. (Part I.). 

36. Postures of Prayer. (Part H.) 

37. Interior of a Mosque • 

38. Pipes . • • 

39. Cofifee-service . • 

40. 'AVckee and Mun'ckuds • 

41. An Ass equipped in the usual manner 

42. Tisht and Ibree'ck . 

43. Washing before or after a Meal 

44. Koor'see and Seenee'yeh • 

45. A Party at Dinner or Supper 

46. Water-bottles (Do'rucks) . 

47. Water-bottles (CkooFlehs) • 

48. Earthen Mib^har'ah and China Do'ruck 

49. Brass Drinking-ciips 

50. Sherbet-cups, or CkooFlehs . 
$1. Lantern and Lamp • • 
M. lAntern,&c. suspended on the occasion 
ML Bridal Procession. (Part I.) • 
M. Bndal ProoessioD. (Part II.) 
^ Meeh^aU . 
^«. l'h«Mt«'ief 
V. UmJmm KMug 
Miw Ckgvn'ekoom and Miblihar'ab 
Ml 0Ook» awl Apparatus for Writing 
(MK Magic lavocatioa and Charm 
^1. Itagie UiafiMa and Mirror of Ink 

Upper Egypt 

for riding 

of a Wedding 

. 73 

. 74 

. 76 

. 83 

. 87 

. 99 

. 109 

. 110 

. 115 

. 185 

. 188 

. 190 

. 191 

. 194 

. 195 
. 196 
. 197 
. 20.2 
. 204 
. 205 
. 207 
. 208 

• 222 

• 228 
. 229 
. 234 
. 260 
. 263 
. 280 

• 288 
. 368 
. 370 

>i>/ . i 



is nDemlly absertnl, thai many of the iiioKt re- 
irk^le peculiarities in Ibe muinerN, l-uhIoiiis uni) 
chancter of a nation, are attributable to Uie phjHknl 
'peculiarities of the country. Such causes, in un npc 
ad manner, affect the moral and sodul slal» of the 
modetit Egyptians, and therefore lierc require some 
prclimiunry notice : but it will not as yet be neceti- 
BUy U> explain their purlicitlar influences : thcM will 
be evinced in many subsequent parts of Ihe pre.sent 

The Nile, in its course through the narrow and 
winding valley of Upper Egypt, which is confined 
ail mch side by moutitaiuous and sandy deserts, as 
well as through the plain of Lower Egypt, is every- 
v^re bonlcrefl, excepting in a very few places, by 
enltlvated lields of its own t'ormstion. These culti- 
vated tracts are not perfectly level, being somewhat 
lower towards the deserts than in the neighbourhood 
of the river. They are interspersed with palm-groves 
and villages, and intersected by numerous canals. 
The copious summer rains which prevail in Abyssinia 
wnd the neighbouring couijtries begin lo ^\ttjw &»« 
^OB in Egypt, by ihe riiiiyj of the Nie, ii»ttl. Oat 


period of Lhe summer solstice. By the antumnal 
equinox die river attains its greatest height, nhlcb 
'is always suliident to flU the canals by which the 
tields are irrigatetl, anil, generally, to inundate Inrge 
portioua of tike cultivable land ; it then gradually Md 
until the period when it again begins to rise. Being 
impregnated, particularly during its rise, with rich son 
waaheddown from the mountainous countries whencll 
il flows, a copiouB deposit is annually spread, eith^ 
by the natural inundudon or by artificial irrigation,' 
over the fields which border it; while its bed, from' 
the t»ine cause, rises in unequal degree. The Egyp^ 
tians depeud entirely upon their river for the ferU&>J 
xatiouoftbe hoiI ; rain being a very rare phenomenodi 
ill their cuuntry, excepting in the neighbourhood df 
the Mediterrane^i ; niid as the seasons are perfectly 
regular, the peasant may make his arrangements witK 
the utmost precision respectinj^ the labour he wiV 
bftyo to perform. Sometimes his labour is light; but' 
when it consists in raising water for irrigation, it tfl 
excessively severe. " 

The climate of Egypt, during the p;reater part of 
the year, is remarkably salubrious. The exhalatiuoa' 
from the soil afler the period of the inondalion rendet' 
the latter part «l' the autumn less healthy than Ihn* 
Bummer and winter; and cause ophthalmia and Up-' 
lienUry, aJid some other diseases, to be more prevaleflf 
iWn than at other seasons ; and during a period of* 
tiOniewbiU more or less than filly days (called el^hvi* 
m'a'iee'ji), commenomg in April, and lasting through^ 
out Muy, hut coutberly winds occasjunally prevail (<ir 
about tliree days together. These winds, though the^ 
seldom tmuse the Uiermometer of Fahrenheit 10 riW 
above 9a°in LowerEgj-ptior, in Upper Egypt, lOS"*,* 

■ Thlii* thetempsc^itnriiiiilliebliutle. AtTbi>l>»s, I knVfl; 
aknrveii the ihenaoiaetet to rise abuvt! WPA ■ kW' 


trtdtvadfoUy optvtwivt, »fen b> Uw natlm*. VTbM 
ilir ploguv vl<iu Egypt, tt is i^Mwnilljr in ihe *prin|t t 
aod this dikTiu* is moat Mwera in the period o( Uw 
ihutn'o'see'D. Kgypt is tiXno Mibject, ptrtlenbtrlr 
iliuvng tb« B|>riug mid summer, Iti ih« hot wladoallH 
Ihe fr^Win, wbich io kIlII more ujiprMiiw ihm llu 
t[nim'a'fi«i!'ii winds, Inii nl' inneh ritortcr "hiwilffii [ 
kMobi biMtiiir luiiifer ihuii a i)uttrt«r «f an bniir, or 
twenty iiiinuUiH. Il g«iu!rall; proae«lii fnim llio Hxilh- 
twt, or HnUb-ooiith-vB«l, ofMi curried wltli It ctimdi 
wf liost niul Buiul. Tlie fencrul height u( ihe th«r- 
mp etet e t in llu> depth pf winter in Liiw«r Kirypt, In 
the aflcmoun untl in the idudf, in from 50^ lo <W i 
iniht! butleal husoii il is trom HH" in lUO"; ami 
tboui Ml ilt^«tra hi{!lii:r in th« niuthcm partM of 
Uhmi £g?P'' B"'< UM)u<ih the DUnuniM- ixrM \» ■» 
gtnt. it t§ Mklom v«ry o|)pr«Haive i l>eing s^iKrally 
Mwiapanied bj- a refrcKhiDg Donherlj' breew, and 
the air being ttlreini'ly dry, 'Diere in, liuwever, onr 
SKtt. MNirce (>r (Uecomtiirt ariBiiig from Ihiit drymnw, 
KDUirl), uii excessive i^unntity ofdusl; nnd tbt^renre 
otlier jilugiies whitrh very much detracl from Ihe onn- 
fi>rt which the pnt)v«s uf Eit>pt, and viniters to llielr 
country, otlierwise derive Irom its geninlclimaU. lii 
"pnng, summer, and uiturou, Mies are «u ubundantus 
tol)e£xtrem*ilyauniiyini;(luring (he daytime, and mu»- 
qiUtocH iu-« truubletwme ul night (unless a curtain lie 
iDwtt HW of to keep them away), and Houiptiines even 
intlieday; »nd every hcniRethatcoiitHinH muchwood- 
wuilc (as mu&t of llie better houses do) swarms with 
liugs during the warm weattier. Lice are uiit alwais 
to be nvpided in any season, but they are easily 
ffA rid of; and in the ctwier weatlier We-is are 
eu«B8ive]y numerous. 

The climtUe of Upper Egypt it, more liealttiy, 
thouirh hD««r, fliao lliat of Lower Eg^^V. t\« 
"^'~' " aacenda tar above Cmtq, the tneVToyJiwi 


e iDai'ahy purls of the countrf r 
near the Medi terra neaa. During the la&t ten years, 
the country having been better drtkiaed, and ({uaran- 
tJDe regulations adopted to prevent or guard against 
the introduction of this disease from other catmtriqs* 
very few plague-cases have occurred, excepting in t^ 
parts above-mentioned, and iu those parts the pet^ 
tence has not been severe*. Ophthalmia is .b$sw 
more common in Lowei' Egypt than iu the sntthwib 
parts. It generally arises from checked perspirati^ ;. 
but is agirravated by the dust and many other caupijs. 
When remedies are proniptly employed, this diAMfsQ 
is seldom alarming in its piogress ; but vast num^rfl' 
of the natives of Egypt, not knowing how Id Met 
jt, or obstinately resigning' themselves to fate, a 
deprived of the sight uf one or both of their eyes. ! 

When c[ue8tioned respectinglhe saluhrity of Egypt, 
I have oflen been askeil whether many aged persons 
ve seen among the inhabitants : few, certainly, aUtin 
a great ^ge in this country ; but how lew do, in ©ur 
own land, without more than once suffering fToia,at 
illness that would prove fatal without medical Aid, 
which is obtained by a very small number in Egypt ! 
The heat of the summer months is suflicientty op- 
pressive to occasion considerable lassitude, wlule, at 
the same time, it excites the Egyptian to iuteoiper- 
anceiu sensual enjoymenis; and the eKuberABt Gertflity 
of the soil engenders indolence ; little nouriabl^ent 
sufficing for the natives, and the sufficiency iMiug 
procurable without much exertion. 

Thin reniBrk was written before the lerrilile plague i 

ent year {\S35), which was certainly iotn>dui!ed , 

rkey, ami eilanded tliroiighout the whule oFEgyplIthaugb 

ilnij'cil not lesi tbHD eighty thoiuund pctsDasiuflainl; that 
M, uae-lhird ot the populaliun ; and far more, 1 bi'Iiove^'lliiio 

; >» 



. I 


. I 




The modern Kiirptiait mstropati!>,loth« inhaUUnU 
of whioh molt iil'the ODiitrniKoftlief'ill'nrin^ poi^ 
n!it«^ in noM called Jtfuir ; but wa« formerly naiivKl 
Ei-CkafhirtKi wlwiicfl EumpeAnn bate lurnicH ibc 
Qune ar Catro. It is limuu-d at thr eutratice of tht 
tttlkiy uf Upper nfrypl, siKlway bvlweeii the Nllt> and 
tbtcwMru nKiuiiiaiiirmgoorMuockiit'nim. Iletween 
h aiul ihi- riv«r therr intrrvpiiea B tmtt "f land, for 
the most purt cultival«d, which, in the northern portii 
(where tlic port uf liou'lu'ek iw Hitusied), U mura 
than n niile in iviOtli, uiid, ul the Miuthem part, lew 
Uuiu liulf u tiiile wid*^. 1'he nielrouolU occapies a 
space equal lo ubout three M|tiare mlle«; and ita po- 
polatian in nboiii two hundred and I'nrty lltciuaand. 
Il ja mirroundod by a wall, the g:atca of which are «h»U 
at night, and U cnmtniuided by a larf^ citadel, Hituated 
al an angle dl' tbe town, ueur a {Kiint uf the luountaJn. 
Tlui streets ui'e unjiuved ; and muHl of them are nar- 
row and irregular : they might mure properly be called 

By a Btranirer who merely passed ibron^h ibe 
stt«^ls, Cairo would be regnrded as a very close and 
crowded city ; but that ihi* is not the case, is evidetit 
lo a person who overlixiks the town Irom the top of 
a lofty house, or from the in i naret of a mosqne. The 
^at thoTDUghfare-streelB have generally a row of 
shops along each side*. Above tbe shops areapart- 
meota which du not comtnunicate with them, and 
which are seldom occujiied by the perwms who rent 
the shop. Tolheritcht and leftofthe great thorough- 
fares are by-streets and quarter)). Most of the by- 
streets are thoroughfares, and have a lai^ wooden 
gate at each end, closed at night, and kept by a porter 
within, who opens to any persons requiring to be 
admilted. The quartets mostly consist of several 

* A view of ahiipi in ■ itnet of Caiio will be loiuid in thi* 


• » 


. A' 

. 'I 



Tb* OKidem EfrypUaii m«tropoll*, to I be Inhabltanli 
■ whitb most of tbe tntUcnl* nftba following; PM^ 
nlMe, is now called Mu»r ; Iwi wu fltmirrly nBm«il 
ffCfra'AinrA .• whnnce EiMupeatm h«»p IbniiKl thp 
nwne ol" Cairo. \l Ib aiUwterl at ihc culrttiK* of Ih* 
mllcyi.t L'juier L: irypt, midwuy bcWwii thr Nile wid 
Ibi ca)>(«rii muunuuii r:vns!euf Mnuckiit'tum. Hotwven 
ilatiil lUe river thrre intcncncii n tnwt uf land, for 
tliv miist purt eiiUivale<l, wtiirh, in the mirthern [inrt* 
(whure Ilic port of lloola'ck in hUuhIwI), U miiro 
ilmn n mile iii wiflih, nnil, Ht the wiuthrm purl, leva 
Uian lialf n mile? witl«. The mclrowiUn oceiiple* n 
ffKf equal lo ul>oiit the** »<ni»rB mlW; aiid lt» po- 
(vlauon tM about tMvu hundrrd siid forty tlKnuwiid. 
lli8!iurrouDtlt.-(l by » wall, the gHl** of which are shut 
Uiii^hi, and in cottintwidMtby niarge ciiadvl, sltuaWd 
lUii aii^e nf the town, nvttra poiul of ihe mounti^ii. 
Tbestrcels ure u<«i>r»VHl; uud mcwt nf ihem are nar- 
■nw uid irreipilur - th«^ init;hl mure prop«rly b« eaUH 

fly a atraiigrwr *v*w rtterelj- jtossed thrmi|;h ttu 
■^ I, Cairo *vot»l<l ^ rvgnnled u ft very rlone ami 

*cl citv ; btit that ihis is uol the m», U widen 

Oa person 'who ovt^rlooks ihe town from ihe lop q 
hStf house, or rrt>««» th« minoretof » motiqiie. Tt^ 
Itot lboroiig'Ur»-r«-«l>-«*U have Renerally a rrm « 
BM nlonir «?»c-U «»'»» ■ Above the shop. »r« ap^ 
Mil which <*<» ""' *^mmunicaw with Ihtm, r- 
fch are 9el«^«>i" occiivied by the per»f«u wha , 
~ ■ a ix-o tt«c t"'*?*** aodlertoftbeitt^Mr 
. by-streets and quarter*. Ma^'^ 
•cut «re tfaoroO^W'^'eB, and have ■ | 
taieach e«<l. t^»(««d«nighl,,iMj fc 

lii., wh«» opens to «nj per**, „ ^ 

lilted TThe quarters oionlj uxwM •^wZ. 
A -= off -hop- i« •»'™«<*C.i-«iJIUl„«.4?^ 


narrow lanes, having: bul one general entrance, nift a 
gate, which is also closed at nighl; but several have 
a by-street passing through thera. 

Of the private houses of Ihe metropolis, it is 
ticularly necessary that I should give a description. 
The accompanying engraving will serve lo give a 
i^eneral notion of their exterior. The found ation- walls, 
to the height of the tirst floor, are cased, externally 
and oflen internally, with the soft calcareons stone at 
the ouighbouriD"; mountain. The surface of the 
slone, when newly cut, is of a light yellowish hue ; but 
ils colour soon darkens. The alternate courses of iho 
front are sometimes coloured red and while, par* 
ticularly in large houses ; as is the case with most 
tnosqui^s*. The superstracture, the front of which 
({eiierally projects about two feet, and is supported by 
coebelsor piers, iaofbrick; and often plastered. The 
bricks are buml, and of a dull red colour. The 
motbir is generally composed ofmud, in the propor- 
liiin of ont-hnlf, with a fourth part of lime, and the 
nunalning pari of the ashes of straw atid rubbish. 
Hrni'fl Iho unplnslereil walls of brick are of a dirty 
miour; nii if the bricks were unbumt. The roof is 
flat, and rovered with a coat of plaster. 

Tho iiinst nBiml urdiiteetural style of the entrance 
nf A tirivulo houao in Cairo, is shown by the sketch 
ti*i«> (iiiwrlpd. The door is often ornamented in the 
nirtntipr hero represented: the compartment in which 
|« the aiM'i'i|>Uun, and the other similarly-shaped com- 
|wHuit»iit*i niv painted red, bordered with white ; the 
(^ itf Ul* 'urlkce of the door is painted irreen. The 
<HMrit)tti'**> " 'I*^ ('- '^- ^™') '^ ^''^ Creator, the 
^NwW^lliit" (tlic object of which will be explained 

\o Tionuiit 

, ■ I 

• ■. • i 



iriiini I Ire&l ur the auprralilinnx iif the B^Tptloni), 
if Mcn <*n many Huom ; bul in lur IViim bciiit; ^na- 
rsl : it is usually pBinicil iu blnck or trliile ctiitmckn. 
Ftw tloors but those ol' lante tiouwn arc puiiited. 
They genciuMy Iwve sii iron linochcr, iinri a wnodi-n 
lock i and there is uaunlly a mountiRg-stune by tlie 

Hit gnmnd-tl'ior a[>urimenbt nrxt the sired hnvn 
Rin all wooden (^t«<l wiiiduw^plucnl nitfliripntly hifcli 
lo rtnder it impossible for u pernim poHsinff by iu 
the Etrert. evrn an taonebuck, Iu ''ei? iliruufrh thein. 
Tbe windows of tbe upper BpartniviitHgeuenilly nmjrct 
a loot and ii hair, or more, and nrc mostly fonneil 
111' turned wduden luttice-work, which in m> cIom tbul 
il shuts out RiuL-h of the licht and sun, and nck«iis 
(he iitiiuites of the lumsc tnini the view oT penoils 
witbuul, while at the same tittic it ndmits the air. 
They jue generally of uiipaint«d wood; but some 
few are partially painted red and green, unil some arc 
entirely poitiled. A window ul' this kind is called n 
m'tkan, or, more commonly, a mnhrfbe^yrk, whieh 
latter word hits another application that will be men- 
tioned below. Seterul wiiulows of diOerent desctlp- 
lions ore represented in some of Ihe illuBtratlona of 
this work ; and sketches of the motit common patterns 
of tlie lallice-wort, on a. larger scale, are lierc in- 
serted*. Sometimes a window of the kind above 
described has a little meshrebec'yeh, which somewhat 
rcRCinbles u m'shan in miniature, projecting from the 

* No. I iia view Bad mcl ion ofapcrtiBDoflhemiiit aimpla 
kiiul' TbiK aud Ihvolhcifuur kinds an heia ra[im«Dted on a 
■cbIc of uliout one-sevcalh uf the k*X »iie. No. ibgwi the 
l>eneraL prupintiiius of fhti aide of apn:^ecda^ vindoir. Tbe 
portion A ii, ia moil iiuliuiceB, of Uttios-wuck limilar to No. 
I, Hud comptisi:! alnul twi:lie ruws af heails in the width : the 
purtion B ia c^ommonly dither of Ihe imne kiad. or like No. S 
oifla- 3; and the amiiU lattice CiWhichia uttwhcd by bioi^ei, 
it poeiallj ■imilM'lo No. 4. 



ttoat, OT from each side. In this, in order to be ex- 
pused to a cuneat of air, are placed poroua eurtheu 
bottles, which ore used for coolinr; water by evapora- 
tion. Hence the name of " meshrebee'yeh,"' which 
signifies " a place for drink," or " — for drinkiug." 
'The projectinu; window ha.s a flat one of lattice-work, 
or of grating of wood, or of coloured glass, imuiflii- 
alely above it. Some projecting windows are wholly ' 
constructed of bourds; and a few have frames orglass' 
in (he sides. In the better houses, also, the windows 
of lattice-work are now generally furnished with 
frames of glass in the inside, which in the winter are 
wholly closed ; for a peiietratiDg cold is felt in Eg^ pt 
when the thermometer of Fahrenheit is below 60°. 
Ijhe windows of inferior hou»es are mostly of a 
different kind; being even with the exterior sur&ce 
of the wail: the upperpartisof wooden lattice-work*,! 
of grating ; and the lower, closed by hanging shut-J 
t^rB i but many of these have a little meshrebee'yek 
ibr ike water-bottles projecting from (he lower parti 1 
The houses in general are two or three stories 
high t and almost every house that is sufficiently largei 
encloaesan open,unpaved court, called a AAo'dA, which 
IS entered by a passage thatis constructed with oneor 
two turnings, for the purpose of preventing passen-j 
gers in the street from seeing into it. In this pas-^ 
sage, just within the door, there is a long stone seat, 
called mw'tub'aA, built against the back or side wall; 
fcr the porter and other servants. In the court is 
a well of slightly brackish water, which filters through 
die «D>1 from the Nile; and on its moat shaded side 
■It, ctnaaonly, two water-jare, which are daily re. 
■fetuited with water of the Nile, brought from the 
•' -' The principal apartments look iuW 

10 No. 1, 01 No. 5 ■ i 

bki« tiro coud* ; tho lanet fbi Uitllihi^ 
a both of theie,tb«re is uiual^KUiUU 





'»'r ■ 

■ m • 

' ., 

#• • ■ 


•i , ■' 


f . 

■ '»! 

■ ■■1 ... 

I ' i 



■ ■ .\: 



IM court ; and their rrteriiw ""lis (tho»e which tin 
of brick) nre plnstercil and whii«w>sheH. Tbrrc 
ire several doors which are entered from the murl. 
One or the";e is calletl Mb il-hharrr'm (ihe door of 
tlie bhart^e'tn) : it is the enimncr of Ihc xlsini which 
lead lo the aiiartmeiitsapprnprinlcd rxchinivrly to Iho 
nomen and their muster and hin children*. 

In general, there in, uu the (rnmiul' floor, an Bpart- 
[TKiit called a mttn'ttar'aft, in which nialtr ^isttiirii 
ire received. TbishnHU wide, wooden, )rrati?d winilnw, 
at two windows of this kind, iie il the miirt. A onialt 
part uf the floor, extending frcim the dixir In the 
opposite side of the room, is six or seven inchett 
lover than the rest : thisiiart is called llic iloorvka"ahf. 

Arched wood-work, in «1 

* In the accompanjing view of the raurlof 
of the hli«ee'm is Ih.t which Tscea the jpect: 

t Tha lien at a cka^ah, njipoiitH pot^u li, ^ 
ball tha deacriplioD of the mua'dat'a'L. 



In VL. handsome houssi th« doorcka"ah of the mufi'i 
tiar'ali in paved with white and black marbKaiid liltln 
pieces of red tile, inltiitl in complicated and tasteful 
patterns, and has in the centre a fountain (called 
nickee'geh), which plajK intu u small, shalbw pool, 
lined with culoured marbles, &c., like the sunmiudiag 
[laveinent. 1 ^tb, a» a specimen, the pattern of ths 
pavement of a doDrcWalii Gucli as I have above lie* 
ecribed, and a. sketch of the tbimtnin, Thtt wat«r 
whicli falls fram the fountain is drained olTfrora Itw 
pcol by a |upe. There is »;enerall;, fronting the door. 
Bt the end of the dDorcka"ah, a shelf of marble or 
common stone, about four feel high, called a saiif'frh, 
Bupportei! by two or more arches, under whicli are 
placed utensils in ordinary use — such as perfiiming 
vessek, and tliu basin antl «wer which arc used fur 
washing before and after meals, and for the ablution 
preparatory to prayer; water-bottles, coffee-cups, &c., 
Are placed upon the sunf'feh, In handsome houses, 
■he arches of the eoof'feh are faced with marble ani 
file, like the pool of the foimtain, an represented in ihe 
akeldi; and somelimcs the wall over it, to tht 
bdtrht of about four feet or more, is also cased witb 
similar materials ; partly with large upright slabs, and 
partly with small pieces, like the doorcka"ah. Tha 
rwfied part of the floor of the room ia callcil lecwa'n 

r«W4T» BOMKfc 


fbramolef ■ DnslM"!]!^— The oiiltb of Ihli i> ibml alfhl 

* , . .Met BiB"'""" ' 'S 

, off v.. >V>» ™ S>e lewa'nP 

S ("* "'!,Suc.a. Tbe™'''»?,t" tool - W> 

''MiViiV <(M«IU!' 



ifcrcoFrnption of "el-eewa'n," which signifies "ani 
ToisM place lo sil upon," and also "a palHce"$i 
KTery.person slips off his Glioes on the doorcWsA 
before he nt^s upon the leewa'u'. The leeWa.a 
generally paved with common stone, and wwered iri^ 
atnat iaaumnier, and a carpet over the mat in winter: 
BOd has a mattress and cushions placed against end 
pif ita three walls, composing what is called a tUewt^A 
or divan. The mattress, which is generally aboatttnd 
feel wide, and three or four inches thick, is pti 
either on the s^ound or on a raised frame ; and 
eushicms, which are usoally oT a length equal U) tBi 
width of the mattress, and of a height equid to hai 
ihat measure, lean against the wail. Both maltre^ 
and cushions are stuffed with cotton, and are coverA 
with printed calico, cloth, orsomemoreexpensivesti 
The walls are plastered and whitewashed. There! 
are generally, in thu walls, two or three sliallow cup-i 
boards, the lioors of which are composed of very smalt 
panels, on account of the heat and dryness of ihtt 
climate, which cauEe wood to warp and shrink as if U 
were placed in an oven ; for which reason the door^ 
of the apartments also are constructed in the sanij 
manner. We ohserve great variety and much ingej 
nuity displayed in the different modes in which them 
small panels are farmed and disposed. A tew specil 
mens arc here introduced. The ceiling over the leewa'd 
is of wood, with carved beams, generally about a foot 
apart, partially painted, and sometimes gilt But thai 
part of the ceiling which is over the doorcka"ah, in .& 

j handsome house, is usually more richly decoratea : 
'jbere, instead of beams, numeruns thhi strips of wood 

f [ate nailed upon the planks, forming patterns curioualf 

^"Qneof Ibe chief reuonb of the ciwtom heie menlioaHTfJ, 

""W defiling a mat or catpet upon which prayer ia tituHlly 

This, as many authors liave obiftved, illiulraton pa*. 

tflheScriptulce,— ExDdu>,iii. ^, and Joshua, v. 15.' 

"Mt?/t» AMiUW 


'•« ' ,hrs>o»"'l " ! ^ alms* "'"'.t^S 

here, ta«'"> °' .jTSmta, [on»'»S V" ^ 

"HaTM AWiwr 



compKctttediyetperfecHyregTUar, and having a "hlgfajy' 
ommnnvt^J. edect, I ghe a sketch of thu heJf ' of t^ 
ceiling thus decuralcd, but tiot iti ttm mnst comt^io^al 
styie. The strips are painted ydlaw, ur $ilt ; vtd Hut' 
spaces withiii, painted gceen, red, and blue ". In tM 
exunple which 1 Imve inserted, the coluurs iiK Ms 
indicated in a sketch of a purtion tif the same '«s ft, 
In^^ scute, which in prefixed, exceptingin ths Bquare j 
ill tiu! centre of the ceiling, where the strips are blocjcn, 
upon a yellow ground. From the centre of thia3qut(r(i| 
s chanifelier is often suspended. There are hmay ^ 
paltcrus of a similar kind ; and the colours generally, 
occupy similar places with regui'd lo each other) but 
in aome houses these ceilings are not pointed. Tt(e 
ceiling of a prDJecting window is often DrnqmeRt^, 
in the same manner. A sketch of one is here added* 
Good taste is evinced by only decorating in this man- 
ner parts which are not always before the ejesj for 
ta look long at so many lines uitersecdug each other in 
VKrious directions would be painful. 

In some houses (as in that which is the subject of 
the engraving in page lb) there is BuMber room, 
called a MiiitA"ad, for the same use as the mun'dar'ah, 
having an open front, with two or more arches, and a 
low railing; and qIeo, on the gromid-llonr, a square 
recess, called a Tiikhlabo'sh, with an open front, and 
generally a pillar to support the wallabove; its floor is 
a paved leewa'n; and there is a long wooden soSi'i 
placed aiotig one, or I wo, or each, of its three wa]U. r 
Tije court, during the summer, is frequently sprinkled .1 
with water, whicli renders the surrounding apartinejita 1 
^reeably cool— oral least those on the grouiid-flopc,' L 
All tike rooms are furnished in the same manner as that^' 
fiitet described. '^ 

Among the upper apartments, or those of the HW- 

ree'm, Bifire is generally one called a C(ta"oA, whicjiii 



particularly lofty. It has two leewa' 
hand {if a pcrsou eute[iii;r : one of the» is i^nentOr 
larger thau the other. Bitd is the more honourable pnm 
A portion of the roof of this ealooo, the part which ■ 
over the doorcka''ah that divides the two leewa'ns, lk 
a little elevated above the rest ; and has, in the centi^ 
a small lantern, called mem'riick, the ndes ol' whicft 
are composed of lattice- work, like the windows beforf 
described, and support a cupola. The doorcka"ah it 
commonly withoui a fountain ; but is often pavea 
in a similar manner to that of the inuii'dar'ah ; whiclf 
the cku"ah also resembles in having a handsom^ 
aoof feh, and cupboards of curious panel-work. Tliere 
b besides, in Ibis mid, !U)i>ie other apartments, a narrow 
shelf of wood, extending along two or each of the 
three walls which boiind the leewa'n, about seven feet 
or more from the floor, just above the cupboards] 
but interrupted in some parts — at least in those portt 
where the windows are placed: upon this are ar- 
ranged several vessels of china, not so much for ge> 
neral use as for ornament*. All the apartments are 
lofly, generally fourteen feet or more in height; but 
the cka"ah is the largest and must lofty room, and ia 
a large house it is a noble sakiun. 

In several of the upper rooms, in the houses of Ifaa 
wealthy, there are, besides the windows of lattice- 
work, others of coloured gla^s, representing buDchss 
of flowers, peacocks, and other gay and gaudy ot^ects, 
or merely fanciful patterns, wliich have a pleasing} 
etTect. These coloured glass wi|idows, which «■■ 
termed ckum'aree'ytks, are mostly from a foot aaS 
a half to Iwu feet and a half in height, and frum ooe 
to two feet in width ; and are generally placed along 

• In the larger houses, and same others, there is iIm, a4f 
joiniug Ihe priniripiLl Baloon, an ulevsteiUloit^I, deai^ed u Ht 
urahraira, ^r female Bin^'en. A deuriplion uf Ihia will W 
' ■ -"■ 'a thaeluplei oi " ' 


■I r. 


« 1 

■ c 



■ .J 

'. r "w 


(t» Upper v»H o( tlir fimjrctiiie luritco-wiDdow, lit 
krnri or nunc thai kiiul iirwinrlow, diiptwod in » 

rnp, so ma to form n liiTt;^ -iiuarr ; or cUcwlirr* 
the nppcr partt of the w^lbi, utiinlly niiiKly, ur in 
pairs, nWe by Mr. Thty an- conipoooii of ■inDll 
piei.'Mi of gUv", of rarioiiR oulowrB, Kft in rim" of line 
plaster, aiiif Fncltisol in u t'mme of \maA. On tjip 
piteliirrd nails nf some apirtnii^nbi ore ntilc pnint- 
inp of the temple of Mrk'keh, or of the Uinib of 
d» Prophet, or of flowers nnri other objectti, executed 
Vy native Moos'lim nrtists, wlin hnve not the leaat 
notion of the rules uf pervpcctivti, and who conae* 
qnenll; deface what lliey thus atlenipt to dccnmie. 
Sometimeii, also, the walls are omameiitcil with Ara- 
bic lascriptionfi, of moximo, Ac, which are more 
(Uually written on paper, in un embellished Bl;le, and 
enclosed in tcla^i^ IrBmes. No chntnlicni nrr fiiniished 
IS bed-rooms. Tlie bed, in the ilny-time, h rolled 
upi and placed on one aide, or In an afUolnin^ cliMct, 
called khux'ntk, which, in the winter, \» n tleepinic- 
place : in munmer, many people sleep upon the hmise- 
lop. A mat, oT carpet, spread up<m the raised part 
of the stone floor, and adeewa'n, constitute the coni- 

Elete (iimilnre of a room. For mcnls, a round tray 
: brought in, and placed upon a low stool, and the 
company eit round it on Ihe i^ound. There Is no 
lire-place*: the room is warmed, when necessary, 
liy burning charcoal in a chafininlish. Many hmiseM 
Uve, at tne top, a Glo])iiii! shed of boards, called a 
mid'ckuff, difccled towards the north or nonh-wesl. 
lO convey to n fi^hkaK (or open upurtinent] below, 
ft* cool breezes which genemlly blow from those 
Every door is furnished with a wooden lock, called 

* Sienrting in (he kitcheo, in which ua Hierd imall n- 
cqilaclra foi fin, coaaliucleil oa a kind of IwDch of bi' 
t Se« •guin llm tngiaviag in pag« IS. 



a duVheh ,- the mechanism of which is shown by 
skiitch here inserted. No. 1 in this sketcli is a froi 
view of the lock, with the bolt drawn back ; Nos. _ 
3, and 4, are back views of the separate parts, B.11A' 
the key. A number of small iron pins (four, five. 


or mora) drop into corresponding holes in the slidins 
bolt, as soon us the latter is pushed into the hols or 
staple of the door-post. The key, also, has small piaa, 
made to correspond witli ttie holes, into which iitxg 
are introduced to open the lock ; the former pins being 
thus pushed up, the boit may be drawn back. Ttw 
wooden lock of a street-door is commonly about four- 
teen inches bng*: those of the doors of aparUnei^d, 
ci^>boarda, S;c., are about seven, or eight, or oiae 
inches. The locks of the gates of quarters, public 
bujldings, Slc, are of the same kind, and mostly ,tHo 
feet, or even more, in length, it is not difficuUilp 
0sV this kind of lock. .|. .^u , 

■ Ttuib^nwMunafthealidiDgbaKi "' 

. in tb« i>lan of olniou svn? Iiouw tli«t» i> ui uUvr 
<nnt of ret^Urtty. 'i'bt.' npatimcnu mv neneroUy oi 
difltivni twiptit* — m Ikmt a pcnuiu bM lo oMKod er 
dHnntl unc, two, or mvre Mcp*, W (mm Ihiin an>r 
chamber lo uimilirr ndjiriiilnft It. The |iriiicipnl Kim 
nf the nrchilecl is to nndtr the hotiw im ptlmic d« 
ponibV, lutnicDlsrly th«( tmn nt' il nUcb it iiiba- 
nted by the nome n ; and not In mtika any window 
in mKh ft irituiilion us in uvcrliMk til* iiparunvnto i>r 
UMtter bniMi.'. Another object iil' tlio BivhilnH, iu 
fanildiiig a hooN fbr a. pertuii of wralUi nr rank, lo 
ta mak* ■ oeeret Aoot (ha'h lirr). from whidi llie 
lenaiit mn|f n>ake hi> oKcnpe in ciwe nf rfniii^r IVinn 
hn ftresi, tirmi nUcinptutiuwuvHJiiiiliiHi^^irby whifh 
lo give acuess iiiid ej^rofni lo u |)urumimr ; uikI il b 
ftl*o eominon lo nitike a hi(1iiijt-iiliu:e for uvMure 
(called miikh'hii) in Hnnie pure ot' the hoiiw. In ihc 
htUuve'in of a Ifir^ houso, tliere in ^ntmny n both, 
wliicli is heuleil in the eame mnnner no tlie public 

AnotlKrHlyle oTbuiliijughHiiliilely beeniTry gem:- 
nllj Mlopteil for hounen of the more wvulthy. These 
Ai not tWH^r much fmin thowe alrewly ilewribMl, n- 
fCfiliiKriitUie wiiulowv, which are of-JilaRn, luxl^itnctHl 
>tiirait«l(ne tD(a:tlKr. Much window of the lihnrre'ni 
kMH, unttiide, a Mklin^ frame of cIom wnndcn trellit- 
•wHi, W roier the lowpr h>lf. The mimemus giwb, 
^iritidews nrv ill fl(ln|ite<1 to ti hoi climate. 
' AVhCTi sbnps oeciipy the lower pari i>rthe buiUiiicc>- 
ffto Wvrt (lis is icenerntly (he case in the ( llio- 
mi|rtirnre< of Ihp tnetropulis, and iti some of the bv- 
«mMh), the siiperstriictiire is uHually divided inici 
flwlnct kidginiitiH, and is termeil riib'H. Thew Mg- 
fBg« ere M^wrale from each other, as well as from 
Hie diops beiuw. and let lo fnmiljes who rannot affbnl 
Hk rent .•er'H whole lionse. Each lodging- in a rub'& 



comprises one or two sitting and sleeping-rooms, ai 
generally a kitchen and latrina. It seldom hM • 
separate entrance from the Btreet; one entrance uni^ 
one staircase usually admitting to a ran^e of ae.vttfi 
lodgings. The apartments are similar to those of 
the private houses first described. Tliey are newoi 
let read;- furnished; and it is very seldom that -9 
person who has not a wife or female slave is allowai 
to reside in them, or in any private house: such A 
person (unless he have parents or other near relatiotlf 
lo dwell with) is usually obliged to take up his abodi 
in a ffeka'leh, which is a. building chiefly designed 
for the reception of merchants and their gooiM 
Franks, however, are now exempted from this re> 

Very few large or handsome houses are to be si 
in Egypt, excepting in the metropolis and some otbdT 
towns. The dwellings of the lower orders, partictk' 
larly those of the peasants, are of a very mean dttr 
scription: they are mostly built of unbaked brick^ 
cemented together with mud. Some of them are 
mere hovels. The greater number, however, compriae 
two or more apartments; though very few are twp 
stories high. In one of these apartments, in the 
houses of the peasanis in Lower Egypt, there is 
generally an oven (foorn), at the end farthest froiV 
the entrance, and occupying the whole width of [b« 
chamber. It resembles a wide bench or seat, and 
is about breast-high : it is constructed of briok a: 
mud; the roof arched within, and Hat on the top. 
The inhabitants of the house, who seldom have any 
night-covering during the winter, sleep upon the tap 
of the oven, having previously lighted a fire witMlt 
it; or the husband and wife only enjoy this lijxury, 
and the children sleep upon the floor. The chaiobei]* 
hav« Bmall apertures high up in the walls, for (IW 

POn'tATIOK, 31 

of liehl ami uir-<-a(Hn«liD)e* runii«k«l with 
■ irnliiip of WiMxl. Tlie riior* uro fornieil of (wJtn 
bnticbct nnd pnlm leaves, iir of millet stnik*, Ac., luid 
npoa rut'tcrs ol' ilie Iniuk of the {Hilin, mul ciivcrcd 
«iib a plastifr of luud uikl cliop(ivd sinw. Tlw fur- 
•Mnre coDsists of n mat or two to siti'p upuii, a lew 
•uthen vensrlx, ami n hand-mill la fcrind liia uoni. 
In mftn]' viihicrs, lnnT« (■'^■^^'""'^S of a mjuiuv 
Ibrm, but wiih iixv wuIIh xliplitly iiiclimiig^ iawunja 
(like many of iLt< ftnclriit Ej^yplian buililiiii^), or of 
Ifae fonn nl* a Hugar-K»i', ure cunatructoil u[iou llw 
hwft of the huta, with truile brick, poller)', luul roud •. 
MoMof the villages of Bgypt ntn hjIuaIfiI upuii enij- 
oniMs (if rabbish, which rise « few I'eet alHive the 
(each of the iuiinddtion, anil are surroumltil by |nUbi 
BreM, or have a few of these trees in (heir vicinity. 
The rubbish irhich they occupy cliiefly coiuihIh of the 
nMerialii of former huts, and seems l» increae* in 
idxnit the same degree as Ihe level of the nlluTJai 
pbJns and the bed of the ri^-er. 

In K country where neither births itor death* are 
TCgiMercd, it is nest to impowible to aacertuia, with 
|irecision, the ammint of the population. A few year* 
■f|D, a calculation wits made, founded on the number 
of houses, in Egypt, and the supposition thiti the iiiha- 
btuita of each bouse in the melropotis amount to 
fl^ld persons, and in the provinces In four. TliiE 
imputation approsimates, I believe, very nearly to 
the truth ; but personal observation and inquiry incliue 
me to think that the houses of such towns as Ale&- 
endria, Bno'la'ck, and Musrel-'Atee'ckah contain each, 
m the Average, ul least live persons : ilashee'd (or 
'ftosetia) is half deseJied ; but as to the crowded town 

', The eailhtn [■otn uwil i" tlio corulriction of these pigiion- 
lilnu^Sili; ofajiuvnl form, wilh n wiili^tnoiilli. which ilplusd 
mlwMilit, KnS a Bnial) hall! at tbe Dthu- cod. Each pairilf 
pigeum ocmpn'ii a lejiacata pqt. 


of Oimya't (or Damietta), we must reckon as mami 
as six persons to eaeh house, or our estimate will liilf 
far short of what is generally believed lu be Vhe nuDK 
ber of its inhabitants. The addition uf one or tvKi 
persona tn each house in the above- men lioned tgwnE 
will, however, make liltle difference in the comp^t»; 
tion of the whole popultition of Egypt, which v^u 
found, by this mode of reckoning, to amourit (o rtitbr* 
more than two millinos nnd a half; but it is npi 
much reduced. Of 2,500,000 souls, say l,aQO,()d| 
ate mslea ; and oDc-third of lliis utunber (400,OC 
meu tit tor milititry service : from this latter numi 
the present Ba'sha of Egypt has taken, at the li 
800,000 (tlrat i!S one-hall~ of the most scrvicenbl« , 
lion of the male population) to form aiid recruit 
armieK of regular troops, and for the service of hL 
navy. The further loss ctiiiBed by withdrawinj^ ^ 
muiy men from their wives, or preventing' their u^ar^ 
ryiDg.during ten years, must surelyliir exceed 300,000 . 
consequently, tlie present population may be oalculBUd 
BB less than two millions. Theuumbernof the several 
cIuBea of whldi the population is mainly cumjMtatl 
are nearly as follow : — ■ ' 

Mooslim Egyptians (fflla'hhce'n, or i 

peasants, and toWHspcojile) . . 1,750,000 '* 
Christian Egyptians (Copts) . . . 150,000 ,, 

'Osma'nlees, or Turks lO.OOil ■, 

Syrians 5,000 f 

Greeks f'.OOO ' 

Armenians 2,000 ' 

Jesre 5,0110 „ 

Of the remainder (namely, AraWaits, Western Araib^ 
Nubians, Negro slaves, Memlou'ks [(ir whitG.muJe 
slaves], female wliite slaves, Pniiiks, &::.), omounting 
lo about 70,U00, the respective numbers are very un- 
certain and variable Tlie Arabs of the neighbouring 


dntrta ought not to be iuclurlcd amoiu; tlie populolioo 
of Egypt'. 

CaiTik, I have tiaid, contaliiN sbimi li'lO.OOO inhabit- 
utst- We t'hofild be ^atly litcL-ivptl If we juilitctl 
of Ihe papulation of this city fyoin iht? crowil-i that 
we meet in the principnl tborotif;hfari<-Hlrvets nntl 
markets: in moat of the Ity-Htrvrtx nnH qnarwn. \erf 
few passengers are seen. Nor shniild we Juii^ from 
Ibe extent tit' the city and suburbs; fur there iire 
witbin the walls many vnuint places, Mime ol' which, 
diiring Ihe season ofthe inunilutiuu, ure laketi (tu the 
tiii^el el-Eibekee'yeh, BiKltet el-Feel, &c.) The 
gan!ens, severnl burinl -grounds, the courts of houM**, 
■ml the mosquei, also occupy a considerable ipace. 
Ofthe inhnbiiiinls of the metnipiilii, about 190,000 
»'«EgJ'plialiMooM'lims; about lO.OOO.Coptx; 3,000 
ot 4,000, .lew* ; and Ihe rest, strangers from varioia 
Gountries t. 

TV population of Egypt in the times ofthe Plm- 
nnhs was probauly about six or seven millintis^. 
31ie produce of the soil in the present age would so Dice, 

. ■ The HdoiIidi £g)ptisas, Cupli, SyiisiK, ud Jeni af 
St^Tpt, with few EiLCeptioDB, ipeBlmo lauguage but the Arabic, 
whuvi u aloo tha language i^pnenlly used by th« farei^ners 
■eltlcdiu liiiB country. The Nubians, lunimg thcmKlvei, 
■peak tbnr own dialccti. 

f The population of Cairo haa incrcaied to Ihif amoant, 
bMB abcnit 200,000, wilbia the laiUhncw Gnirjeaii. Since 
fiwManutalioD here Mated waa made, Iba plaic* "^ thii 

CI (1635) hat ileilroyed not tawet than onf-ttiiid of it* in- 
ilinti, aa befuce mentioned; but lhi> iloficieocy will be 
nfidW lupplied fmni Ihv villagci. 

{ AlMiit ane-lhird of the populatloa ot the metTopoliii coD< 
tiiti of adult n-.alui. Of tbia uumber (ot 8U.D0D) abuut 30,000 
1^ merthaDta, petty Bhap-keei«ci, KnilarliMn*; '^0,0110, do- 
nikltie lerTanta : 15,000, cammoo laboiireti, poller], &c.: the 
jader chiefly cantiati of military and civil letvanti ot the 

J „jj tblaee but Utile leliance oa IheaccounUor ancient authoii 
I ^.^ subject. 

« IS 


if nOK wm oporled, for the maiafenuice of a papd* 
kCii)aBmountingio4,000,000; andifall thesoil whi^ 
bcnpsbleoT cullhtdion w*re sawn, the proiliice Would 
bt MiSdent lor tbe maintenance of 8,U00,000. BM' 
dtl« would be (be utmost number that Egypt could 
W>ii>Win in jvan of plenliliil inundution: I therefoifl 
taaapBU the ancient population, at the time Wh4L 
■gvicullnre w»j in a veiT Ijourishing' state, to haM 
amounted to <nhal 1 iirsi slated ; and must HUppoN. 
H to have brcn scareelj more tlian half as numennU 
to th* times of the Ptolemies, and at later jieria^ 
■ hw»aaT«>t<)uanIityofcorn was annually ciported*i 
TtiH n)cutktion ^rees with what Diudorus Sioulit» 
njs(in lib. i.,cap. 31) ; namely, that Egypt contaiaed| 
!a ibe tiuws erf* the ancient kings, 7,000,000 inhli* 
"iMts, aod in his own lime not less than 3,000,000, 

How diflVrvnt, now. Is the state o! Eg^pt Ihmt 
iimu;ht be; possessinc: a population of Bcarcelji 
tbui one tiuarter of the number that It might 
_. ftndered rapnble of supporting! How great a 
efauurt raif^hi be eHected in it t^ a truij' enlightened 
llinr«nini«ut ; by a prince who (instead of oppressing 
the peuantry by dapriving them of their lauds, tu^ 
br lib mnnopoiies or tlie most valuable productioue 
<^ Ike soil; by employiii!; the best partion of the 
popuUtiou lo prosecute his ambitious schemes of 
ftnvlgn touquest. and another lai^ portion in tha 
rain attempt in rival European manufactures) would 
([i\T his people n ^dter interest in the cultivation of 
the firliN, anil mftke Egypt what nature designed ft 
to be— almost esclusively an agricultural country! 

• It hM lM*n «ugtfe»l«! to msy '!'**■ if ™rn *" sxportwl, 
nmtthinK wfeqiwl tslua «»» iniuorleil ; and thsl tU« eiporlm- 
and to TiDpulBtiun ! Imt 1 ilo "M know whrt euuld be importMl 
IhM would BU uu lh« measuie of the food necwuarj' lo tliitaia 
a poimUlion much peattt than thai irhieh wwld cvaiunw Uw 


'Its produce of cotton alone would more tlmn suffice 
toproeure all the articles of foreign manufacture, and 
iD ttie natural productions of foreip:n countries, tliat 
'Ibe wants of its inhabitants demand*. 

. •Daring the preMent vear, 1835, mora tkaii 100,000 bal«s of 
'eoHoii (each bale weighiug a hundntd-weight unci three 4uar^ 
- len^ hare beea ahipped at AleEondria. The pricejiaid fur this 
fnatitj by the merehaats esceeiWd 700,0(K)/. The 4tiaiitily 
Mpoitad last year was 34,000 bales, which is coiikidurably lens 
t^^ usuaL — ^The policy aboYe recommended is strongly ad- 
fMtad by Ibrahce'in Ba'sha. 

mJNlir') a&xocui^ 

Chapter I. 


Moos'lims of Arabian origin have fur many centurwf^ 
mainly compiaed the population of Egypt; they haijti, 
changeditslanguage.laws, andgeneml manners; anl 
its mctropolia they have made the principal Beat ofi 
Arabian learning and arts. To the description vt. 
this people, and especially of the middle and higtwiA 
classes in the Egyptian capital, will be devoted tb% 
chief portion of the present work. In every point oli 
view, Musr (or Cairo) must be regarded as the firati 
Arab city of oar age; and the manners and custoniai 
of its inhabitants are particularly interesting, as tfaejt 
are a combination of^ose which prevail most getic^ 
rally in the towns of Arabia, Syria, and the wbola[ 
of Northern Africa, and in a great degree in Turkey^t 
There is no other place in which we can obtain s(|« 
complete a knowledge of the most civilized claAscA-j 
of the Arabs. From statements made in the intrcM. 
duction to this work, it appears that Mout'iim Eiryp-* 
tians (or Arab-Egyptians) compose neurly four-fiAfaa>i 
of the population of the metropolis (which is eom-v 
puted to amount to about 240,000), and just seieiiTU 
eighths of that of all Egypt. :[ 

The Moos'lim Egyptians are descended from vaw) 
nous Arab tribes and families which have settled ilCP 
Egypt at different epriods; mostly soon after ihtt^ 
conquest of this country by 'Amr, its tirsl Arab gp^ 
vernor; \l^^l by intermarriage<i with the Copts and 
oiia^ who have become proselytes tu thi^ faith at 



El^n'm, us well m» hy the ctunge from » life of 
nudering lu tktt of cttiieiisor of t^cultunntx, ibeir 
ptnonal cliaracteristics haw. by dtgtvca, become bu 
much altered, that Uwrc U a Ktrorii^ly- marked iliirer- 
tUM between them nnrf the nolues ol* Arabii'. Yet 
tby ore lo be regnriU'il us iiiilleNKgciiuiiic Arnbothon 
the'trfwftHpehpte (if Arabia ilneil'; umucii^ wlioni luw 
.onpTuod very (^^nerallyprei'alled ii cuhUihi uf kei!)ti»); 
Abywiaiaii female Hinves, either JoHteail uf mairyiiig 
BfelTMlWn cmrntrywnmen, or (as in cummuiily the 
one' with the upulvnt) in addition tii tlicir Arab 
tHrcs ; so that they bear almost aa strong; a renem- 
In&iiee tij the AbysBiuiuiii as to tlie nud'nwees, or 
Arabs of the Desert. The lerin 'Ar'ab, it Blumld 
bm-bc roiiiurked, is used, wlkerever tlii; Arabic lan- 
guage is spoketi, only to designate the Ited'uwee^ 
i]n(li>eTrvitly : in »penktii^ of a tribe, or of a small 
UDmlwr of tluisi- (lecipJe, the word 'OrMit k al»u 
UBtdt and K sitif^Ie itidividttal is called Beil'auve'. 
la- the m«lropulis and otiier Unvns of Egypt, tlie 
tKiHiietion or iribei is almoxt wholly lust; hut it i» 
inntned among the peasants, who have retained 
muny Becfawee customs, of wliich I shall liave to 
speak. The native Mooa'lim Inhabitants of Cairo 
commonly call themselves El-Muarcei/ec'tt, Owla'd 
Mntr (or Ah'l Miur),an>i Owla'd e/-Bei'erf, which 
ikntfjr people of Musr, children of Musr, and children 
oFillkie tnwit: the singular forms of these appellatioiw 
are-ilfuf'riir, Jb'n Mritr,and Tbnpl-Bei'e.df. Of these 
ttiRe lermii, Ihe last is most common in the (own 
itSfllf, The country people are called El-FeUa'hlue'n 
(or the Agriculturists), in the singular Fflla'hh\. 
tkit Vtaks, often apply this term to the Egyptiaii<: in 
gMeralin an abusive sense, as meaning *' the boors," 





or " llie clowns ;" and improperly stigmatise thetn 
with the appellation of Ak'l Far'oo'n', or " Bie 
People of Piiaroah." 

In general, iKe Moos'lim Egyptians attain the 
hel9;ht of about five feet eig-ht, or five feet nirte 
inches. Most of the children under nine or Wa 
years of age have spare limbs and a disK^nded -A- 
donien ; but, as thfiy grow up, their forms rftpldJy 
improve : in mature age, most of them are remark- 
ably well-proporlioned ; the men, muscular atld 
robuBt; the women, very beautifully formed arid 
plump; and neither sex is too fat. I have never seen 
uorpulent persons among' them, excepting a few p 
the metropolis and ottier towns, rendered so by a 
life of inactivity. In Cairo, and throughout ibe 
Horlhern prorinces, those who have not been muth 
exposed to tlie sun have a yellowish, but very clear 
eoinplexion, atid sofl skin; the rest are of a consSdel*- 
ably darker and coarser complexion. The people (if 
Middle Egypt are of a more tawny colour, and tho^ 
of the more southern provinces are of a deep bronza 
or brown complexion — tlarkest towardsNubia, whMe 
ftte climate if hottest. In general, the countenance, 
of the Moos'lim Egyptian (I here speak of the nifai)' 
is »f a fine oval form : the forehead, of moderate si^Ct 
seldom high, but generally prominent ; the eyes ajiv 
deep sunk, black, and brilliant: the nose is straight, 
but rather thick : tte mouth, well formed ; the lijja 
aw rather full than otherwise : the teeth, particu- 
larly beautiful f: the beard is commonly black aniil l 
eurly, but scanty, I have seen very few individuals 

■ Tfeua,CainiiiDnlypraDguDcedfor Fir'ow'n. 
f Tuath-iuihe ik huwuTcr, a very i 

Bi Herodotus (lib. ii., cup. si) 
eJaiags of Sgyptiaa physiciani. 
Mat aeaoag ipp higher oitltn. 

leut^naB probably the caw, fl 
lentioD. dBBlirt. .uiooa t& fl 
It is, uf mune, moit piefj- ■ 


oftlusTacsvrilh gteytytsior rathaTi to* ferteot 
luppoeed ta W ol' tlua rata; tor I md inctinfd lo 
think Lh«iu llieoffspritiffurArabwrnman b^Turkaur 
nllier furpig'iiers. Tllc Fvlla'tiheu'ii, tniiu ii'Diaant 
csposura to Ihe »uu, liavi- « Iih1.ii i-I liall'-ahultin^ 
tb«k rjGs: llijs is ulso chiiivi;r.-ri-1ic of (he llMfa- 
«tB&. Giwal nunibcnot ihc K^'^piiun* »ra bbad iu 
uae or bolli e^'cs. Tbe; frviivrdly (.have ihal ]«n 
oT Ibe cluck which i« &bove (hii luwrT jaw, und 
likewise tt tiaiall >{iiice iiiider the luwer bp, IravtitK, 
bowercr, ibc luirs wLich grow in Ihe iiiiiiiile uutWr 
Uic moulb i or, iusUkd uf nhaviiig llime pans, they 
pluck nut Uie buir. They &ls<> Kbave a (lart uf iIk 
DMnJ aaAtT the clitn. Verj* few obm- tlw rest ol' 
liieir beards *, anil none i|k«ir mustacbeH. The furmar 
they suSrr li> gia*' tu the length of uUmt n kiaiid's 
breadth below Uie cUu (huch,si least, is the ^neral 
rule, and !^ui:b was Uie cuatuiit uf ttic l^phct) ; and 
(heir mustaches they du nut ailow in bet'ome ■» 
loog as to Incummode tbi;rii in eating und drinking. 
Tbe practice oT dyeing ihe beard is iitri cujnmoti ; 
fot agrey bciirdis much re»pevt«d- Tbe Egyplian.-i 
^ve tdl the rest of the hair, or leave oniy a »maJI 
,tllA (oalled ihoo'tktb) upon the crown of the head. 
This last cufttODi (which is almost miivenial ainuug 
thein), I hakv been lold, origiiiuted in (Uc feitr iliut 
if the MoQs'lim should fall into the bands uf an 
inltdel, and be slain, the latter might cut utT the 
head of his victim, and, finding no hair by wluch 
;tpti6id il, put his impure band into the 

" •' A A* or tlie temstt, sad aome otben. ihive thelt kearda. 
The ratpect which OiientaU in geoersl pay tg Ihe beard baa 
•Itra been reniBilred. They meat by it, and lay that a „,j„ 
'4fap^ee>ll by an exil actioti. The imDi*"ent treoriled in 
■«&itWicb.i.. '. ••ilia.frMueDtly beeoptKliMd in nmd«m 
WAAtol not ■ouften as Ibe ataanug a' the ahuU of the 


order to carry it ; fur the beard might nut be suffi- 
ciently hng*. With the like view of avoiding im- 
purity the Egyptians observe other cnstoais, which 
need not here be describeilf. Many men of the 
lower orders, and some others, malte blue marks upon 
their arms, and sometimes upon the handa and chest, 
as the women, in speaking of whom this operation 
will be described. 

The dress of the men of the middle and higher 
classes consists of the following artic1cs|. First, a 
pair of full drawers (in Arabic, liba'ii') of linen or 
cotton, tied round the body by a running string or 
band (culled dik'keh or tik'kek), the ends of which 
are embroidered wilh coloured silks, though ^n- 
cealed by I'ne outer dress. The drawers descend a 
little below the knees, or to the ankles ; but many of 
the Arabs will not wear long drawers, because prO' 
hibited by tlie Prophet. Next is worn a shirt (tjta- 
me^i), with very full sleeves, reaching to the wrist: 
it is made of linen, of a loose, open texture, or of 
cotton stuff, or of muslin, or silk, or of a minture of 
silk and linen or cotton, in stripes, but all white.§ 
Over this, in winter, or in cool weather, moat per- 
sons wear a soodey'rec, which is a short vest of cloth, 
or of striped coloured silkand cotton, without sleeves. 
Over the shirt and the soodey'ree, or the Ibrmer 
ulone, is worn a long vest of striped silk and cotton H 

• Pemoni of litorary ami religiouB ptofewionn generally 
>]>pruvu ul' the shoo'bneli. 

-f-TlieyitemBationeiliiitlie " Mishcat-ul-Mwibili," tuI. 
f. »ag. and an) ubseried by both svws. 

t Therashiauortheir ilroainimaina&lmDit th* same during 
thi' Uv>i! of ccnluriui. 

J Thn Ptupbet foibada nun to v/mr siik clcrthing, but 
slloweil vrumrn to du lo. Thi- prohibition in. liawever, atltiiidcd 
to by very few modern Mom'IIiiis, exceptiug thu Wah'ha'ljee*. 

[I Thobttipai aiBMlcium plain: they are gBnatally figur"-' — 

-1., ..^^^IH 

DREM. 41 1 

''^''^^H^ Hi 

hf MldiUa ud Blg)»[ Clixm. ^^^^fl 

DftKSS. 43 

(oiled chtfta'n, or raoro commonly tkaoflnn), Jc- 
snnding to the ankle'', wilh lon^ t<lervci cxU?iidi[ij[ 
■ few inches beyoiiti tb« fui^re' rnils, but divirlvj 
fran a point a lilde tbaw Ute wrist, ur kbout ibe 
oiddle of the l'or«-BriD ; no that the twatl it geoc- 
rally expoBnd, though it may be cunceuted by th« 
■leeTe when necesnory ; t'ur it is ciututnary to cuvrr 
the h-jnds in the presence at' a persiin uf liiffli rank. 
Huudd this veil Ls wound the girdle (hhtia'm), which 
is > coloured ahawl, ur a lu<ig piece of while figured 
munlin. The ordinary outer robe \n a long cloth 
coat, of ail) colour (called by the Turks joo/i'beh, 
but by the Egyptians "ifficA), the sleeves of which 
reach not quite to the wrist*. Some persons id*o 
•rear a benee'th, or brn'iik ; which is a robe of cloth, 
with long sleeves, like tho<^e of the ckootla'n, but 
more ample t ' it i^t properly, a robe of ceremony, 
end should be wont over the other cloth coat; but 
many persons wear it inttrad of the gib'l>ch|. The 
headdress consists, first, of a sniull, close-fitting 
cetlOD cap (cntled ta'ckec'j/eh, or 'oracAee'ytfA), which 
is often chnnged ; next, a lurboo't/i, which is u red 
cloth cap,a!sa tittiug closely to the head, witji atusoel 
of dark blue silk at the crown ; lastly, a long piece 
of white lUDslia, generally figured, or a Kashinee'r 
tliawl, which is wound round the turboo'sh. Thus 
is formed Uie tnrbun, or 'fma'tniJi. The Ka'ihniee'r 
ihawl is Heldom worn esccptiiig in cool weather. 
Some pemoiis wear two or three turbno'sheii, one over 


npnnyinit engtaviiiB 


e to the (eft 


e enirravinc. 

to cold UT 

obI «eath«r 

ii kiud nf hlsck woollKn cloak 

Ed 'oWa-jr*,!. commonly 


.i.o>«thc h 

ad. In wii 

ter also 

nany peiaona Hra|i 

tin 01 Diher a 

hawi (suih 

s they us 

e I'or B turban) abou 

head utA Bbo 


e Died a lUiycA' &\ilitl ]«b- 

(wiled ckuftarn, or more commonly rkoofla'n'^ d*« 

•ceiiding (o ihe an|il«^ with loiig sleeve* extcndinj 

■ few int-hes beyotxl lti« fiogtrs' eiiiU, but divided 

frnm a poln; a liiUa sboie the wrist, or about liit 

middle of thp rore-Krm ; so (hkt the hanil w gen«< 

nlly «xf>oK(d, ihuugfa it may ba Goiicculcd by Om 

■le^e wlieii nec«M*i-y ; fur it in cufilntnary to cover 

iw hundfl iu lb« prencncK of a pereim of lugU ratik, 

Buuiid this ve-i is wounil (ha girJle (AA^io'm), which 

is k culoured abawl, ur a luiig piece uf white figurvd 

niisliii. Tbe urdiitar? outer robe is a long do ih 

«»[, of Biiy eoloui' («>lled by the Turks joob'brh, 

but by the Egyptians ^i6'<wA), ll)e Hl««ves of wbltJi 

reach not tjuite to the wri»t'. 8oni« persons aJ«» 

wew a benrr'sh, or bm'uk ; which is arabe of cloih, 

with long tile«ve>:, lik* those of the ckoofln'n, but 

more ample f : it is. properly, a robe of ceremony, 

«nd should be worn o'nt the other clolh coat; but 

msny persoiib wear it ituUad of the gib'bch]. Th« 

fiMd'dress i-onsists, lirat, of a small, closo-fitliiig 

eeUou cap (called ta't:kfe'ydi,iit 'arachte'yeh), which 

i> often changed ; uext, a lurboo'th, which is a red 

doth cup, also fitting closely to thehcRd, with ataasel 

of dark bitie silk at the crown; lastly, a long piece 

of while muslin, generally figured, or a Kashmee'r 

•liawl, which is wound round the turboo'ah. Thm 

" formed the turban, or 'ema'meh. Hie Kasbmee'c 

awt 19 seldom worn excepting in cool weather. 

line persons wear two or three lurboo'shes, one < 

Sm file forennost figure in the aefonjiiflnyiDn eogrMin- 

, See tl« figure to the left iu Ihe wue ongravini;. ^' 

I In eoU ..r ™ol wealhe. a kii.d oF bUck wuuTltn c1„hV 

mled 'oMo-yrA-i* eommonly *Dcn(B). Sometime, thu 3 

^wooTerlhe l.e*d._ J° 7"'t«r also mBi,y ,„,. 7 



pnother. A »heree'f{oY descendant of the Prnpliet) 
wears a green turban, or is privileged to do so ; but 
■ no other person ; and it is not common for any but k 
sheree'f to wear a bright green dress, Stockings are 
Dot in use; but some few persons, in cold weather) 
wcur woollen or cotton socks. The shoes (muTkoo'b) 
are of thick red morocco, pointed and turning up 
at the toes. Some persons also wear inner shoes 
(called mtai, or more properly, mezd*), of sofl; ' 
yellow morocco, and with soles of tlie same : tb< 
murkoo'b are taken off on stepping upon a, carpet o; 
mut^ but not the mezz ; for this reuson, the formei 
are often worn turned down at the heel- 
On the little finger of the right baud is worn a seal- 
ring (kha'tim}, which is generally of silver, with & 
cornelian, or other stone, u]mn wbich is engraved ths 
wearer's name: the name is uctompacied by tha 
words "his servant" (siguilying "the servant 
worshipper of God''), and often by other words ex- 
pressive of the person's trust in God, &.c.-\ The 
Prophet disapproved of gold; therefoie few Mooa'lims 
wear gold rings ; but the women have various 
naments(rings, bracelets, &c.) of that precious mi 
The seal-ring is used for signing letters and othefr' 
writings; and its impression is considered more valid ' 
than the sign-manual |. A little ink is dabbed upon 
it with one of the fingers, and it is pressed upon the 
paper — the person who uses it having first touched 
his tongue with another linger, and moistened the 
place in the paper which is to be stamped. Almost 
every person who i-'an afford it has a seal-ring, even 
though hebeasenaot. The regular scribes, literary 
men, and many others, wear a silver, brass, or copper 

• Fiam tha Ttildsh, men. 

+ See St Juhn'sGaEpe1,iii. 33) andEiudus, xxxix. 3( 
i ThL'iefure. giving llicring tu another pcnon ia lh« uti 
mack uf ccmliJcDce.— 8«e Geoesia, xli. 4S. 

ilawa'y*h, which is a cos* with rcCfplnclcK for iak 
«tid pens stuck in tbu ^irillr *, Higmv have, in Uu 
l)liice of llii-s iv in udditinn to U, k cuekiiile, or n 

The Kgy()Uiiu freuerully lakeulii* [t^ wilh bim 
wliercvrr hu ttoeit (iiiileiB it be to Uiu niOKjueJ.or tuu 
B aervtiul ,b) csrrf iti lliuti|;li tt is not ii rouimoii 
cu£iufli to viBuku wliih' riiiiii)^ or "ulkiiif[. J ti« 
UiUux'o purKe \\V cmnis itiuj his buMirn, (he vkouru n 
b«iiu( ltfK>!i >nii lu|j|)iiif; over in I'ruui. A liaudkcr- 
chiet', cAtDmidcred will) culourud Bilks ami guld. mid 
iwallj' liililcU, in aim plitoetl ui ihe bufuai. Miuiy 
persona of the middle unlera. who wisli tu uvoid 
In-iiig' ttiouiibt rich, cuiK'Ctil such a drchS u I haw 
(leseribwl by a loug black gown of cotton, similar to 
the i;oM worn by most )>cr!w>iii> ni ttie tiiwer cbusep. 

'I'tia toGtumc uf the mvii of (lie lower ordera l.t 
Mry tfiin{>l«. TlieKe, if mit of ihi^ very poorvbi class, 
wear • pair of dniwer>i, ami & long aiiil i'ull shirt or 
guMn ofblue liiieu or cotton, iir of hrowu wootlen 
3tutf'(dM! litruicr culled 'rr'i-<-, nml (he Litter zaaioo'l), 
upen frtrm the neck nearly in tlie waist, aiid bti\in^ 
ntde aleevest. Over lhi«, -ume wear a white or red 
ivunlkii ({irdie, TlieirliirUui is gcneruUy compoaed 
uU while, rtd, or yellow wriolteii uhD,wl,oral'upiece 
ufcoar«E colloii or inujtjin, itotind round » turboo'sh, 
under' ifliieh in n white or brnwn I'clt cap (Called 
'i&'lM) : but miiny are w poor a^ In ha\e nu other 
WR iltui tile liliMeh— no (urban, nor even drawers, 
not jitioes, but only (he blue or brown sliirt, or 
Kieririy & lew rugs; while many, on the other hund, 
"cur.a stKideyVee under the blue shirt; und some, 
[iiirtidllBtly servants in tlie houses of great men, 
>ftar &* while shirt, n sooHey'ree, and a ekoona'n 
oi'^ilb'teh, 6r both, nnd the bl<ie shirt over all. The 

• tiilil u a <m uncieat cuiilum.— S»£t«kl.l. it. 2, 3, 11. 
t The znnbuu't is ninrtjjr fmn ia Ihe wiutat. 



full sleeves of this shirt are sometunes drawn upjc 
by iiieiina of cordB, which pass rouni) each shoulder 
uiitl crona behind, where they are tied ia a knoC 
This custom is adopted by servants (pai-iicularlV 
grooms), who have cords of crimson or dark-bJuei' 
silk tor this purpose. In cold weather, many persona 
of ihe lower classes wear an 'abba'yeh, like thas 
betbre described, but coarser; and sometimes, iiv 
stead of beinu;' black, having broad stripes, broiva 
and white, o/ blue and white, but the latter rarei% 
Another kind of cloak, more full than the 'abba'yeji 
of black or deep-blue woollen stuti; is also vei;^ 
commonly worn : itia called dy^e'ye/i*. ThesboM 
ore of red or yellow morocco, or of sheep-akin. ; ', . 
Several different forme of turbans are rep^esentao, 
in some of the engravings which illustrate this worl^ 
The Moos'lims are distiiifp^ished by the colours (|F 
their turlrana from the Copts and the Jews, who (m 
ivell as other subjeots of the Turkish Boolta'n wiv> 
are not Moos'lims) wear black, blue, grey, or light' 
brown turbans, and generally dull-coloured dresses. 
Thcdiatinciion of sects, families, dynasties, &c., among 
the Moos'lini Arabs, by the colour of the turbari and 
other articles of dress, ia of very early origin. Whea 
the Ima'm Ibrahee'm Ib'n Mohham'mad, asserting 
his prelensiona to the dignity of Khalee'fehf, was 
put to death by the Oom'awee Khalee'feh Murwa'u, 
many persona nf the fiunily of EI-' Abba's aasiimed 
black clothing, in testimony of their sorrow for his 
fate ; and hence the black dress and turban (which 
latter is now characterislic, almot^t solely, of ChTistlaif. 
and Jewish tributaries to the 'Osma'nlee, or 'I'urkish, 

« Akindofliluflttnil white pliiid (tnlUd niiVi/j.A) ik also 

wonibj- sume men, .but miin: comraiMily '- - ■' 

■rtount o£ whose dteiB il "ill bo further 

|W« it ovrt the ihaalcl^iis. or wrap il abc 

t ConimoDli writUn by Knglish nulhui 



Soolta'n) becume th« di<<liiii|;ulghin^ costume of the 
Atilrn'Me Khalee'fFlis, and iif their ti(tic«ra. Wh«n 
tn officer under this dynnsty waN di«g rated, hp wa* 
made la wear a white dress. White wiih ndnpttd 
bj' tbe fsl^e pniptiet Muuclntn'nn', tti diiitinjtuinh h\» 
p»rty from the 'Ahba'^ew : unil the Fnwu'iiui at 
Ejypt (or Rhutee'fehs of the nee ul" ru'tinieh), m 
rtviils of the 'Abba'wcs, wore a while contume. El- 
Mel'ik El-Afih'raf Shuabn'n, d Soollpi'n of Ejypt 
(whu reigned from llie jeur of the Fli[;ht '764 to 
778, or A. D. 1 362 to 1 87«). wns the first who ortlercd 
(be ikeree'fs to diMitifriiish themselveBby the green 
lUfban and dre-s. Some darwee'shefi of the sect ol 
ibe Riftt''ees, ond h few, but very few, other Moo»'- 
u turban of blaek wonllen Mtuff, i: 

; hut 

Wry <Iee|) oUve-cohmic*! (almost black) niiis 
thftt'of tbe Copts, JewB, Ac, is generally of Uack i>r 
iht tnuslin, or linen. There are not itmuy ditferetit 
|6hrtJof tnrbans now worn in EgyjH; ibatwuvn by 
inofitofthe servants is very formal. Tbe hind codi- 
man amotiE; llie middle ftiid higher elates of ihc 
tradesmen and otliBr cili;r.ciia ot the metropolis and 
liiTgetfiwns is also very forninl, biit iess so thnu lliat 
iusi before alluded to. TheTurkish turban worn in 
Egypt is of a more elegant mode. The Kydan is 
dbtiDguished by its width. The 'ool'ama, and men 


oFnligion and letlerR in general, used to Wear, aA 
some do stilt, one particularly wide and Ibrmal, called 
a moock'Mi. T<)e lurbaD is niuc:li resjiected. In 
houses of tile more wealtliy cittHsea, there is usuall; 
a chair (called koor'see ei-'ema'meh) on which it ia 
placed at niglit. Tills is often sent with the fuinU 
ture of a Itride. It is common for u ludy to have one 
u|K)n wb'cii to place her head-dress. This kind of 
diair is never used Ibr any other purpose. As aa 
ioBtani-e of the respect paid to llie turbau, one of vaf 
ti-iends mentioned (o me that an 'a'lim* being ihrOWD 
oif his donkey in a street of this cily, his moock'leh 
fell off, and rolled alon^ for several yards ; where* 
upon the pasEengers ran af1:er it, crying, "LiflupUi^ 
crown of El-Isla'm 1" while the poor Vlim, Whom 
uo one came to assist, called out in anger, " Lift up 
thejAcjrWitof El-lsla'm!" 

The general form and fealurea of the women must 
now he described. From the age of about fourteen 
to (hat of eighteen or twenty they are generally 
models nf beauty in body and limbs ; and in coun- 
tenance most of t'lem are pleasing, and many e%' 
oeedingiy lovely : but, soon after they have attiinefl' 
tbeu peri'fct growth, they rapidly decline ; the bosom 
early loses ali its beauty, aciiuiring, from the relaiin^ 
nabiTetif Che chmate, an eKcesGi\-e length and llatne^ 
initsforms, even while the face retains iis full cW 
and tiiough, in most other respecLs, lime does hdit' 
commonly so soon nor to much deform them, at the ' 
age of forty it renders many who in earlier years' 
imssessed considerable nUraclions absolutely ugly.' 
In the Egyptian female. ^ fbrms of womanhood^ 
begin to develop themse1\-es itbout the ninth or lentil 
yeai : at the age nf fitieeii ot sixteen they generally' 

• Tiii» ajipclliLiion ^of iihich 'mTii-aa ii the phital) Mgnia* 
' ^ '■ Sheyltli" here eigi^liuii mcrtw. or rfoc/nr. 

aU«in ^ir liigheM degree of pcrfwltou. With 
Kgard W (tieir coiapleiiunR, the uib* remftrlui k(i^)i 
li> iheax Its to th« men, with anlv itiin diUipreuce, 
th&l their faces, twiag geuemlly veiled utliei) lliry 

Sahnittd, ar« nut quite ui much umnecl u tliosc uf 
imcD. Tiiey ar« charactemed, like ilie mcii, by 
a liiie oval vouiiUinftitce ; iboufcti, in >riinie insUinccH, 
jL is raUior brDftd. The ryes, wt Lb very Tow t!ico|i- 
liODC, are liluck, large, uiui of u lacif nlmoDd-Aim. 
wiUi loqg and bcautiliil Usliea nnd uii cxijuinitaly 
wft| bewitcliiug vspres»iuii ; eyes luore Iwiiutiful cwi 
baldly hv ci>nteivtid : ttk«ir cliartniii^ «tfec< is inuph 
koigiitemid by the (;oii<;ealiiient<>f the other fealurea 
(Bttwever pleating the laXler may be), «ih1 is rta- 
dftvd «tiil nnre strdnog by « i>ractJt« universal aoMMiR 
.the families of the biglier and middle clotises, anil 
very (iimmnn among liiose of the lower orders, which 
is Lhul of blucki-iiing Uie edg« of the eye-lids, botli 
above und below the eye, with a black powder csIImI 
kahhi. This is u collyriiiiii commonly cumpotted 
of the smokt-'bUck which is produced by burning a 
kindof liba'n — nn arotnalit resin — a species of frank- 
incense, iiRed, I nni told, in (iKference to the better 
kind of frank ill cense, as heiag cheaper, and equally 
good for this purjwie. Kniihl is also prepared of 
the smoke bl^k pr>Mliic>;il by bunun^ the shells of 
almonda. These two kinds, Uiuugh believed to be 
.beneficial to the eyes, arc used merely fur o 


of religion and letcers iti ^reneml, used ti 

•dine do sUU,ofie particiilui'ly wide anil Ibrmal, called 

moBck'ieh. Ttie turban is mucli resi>ecledi la U14 
s ol' tl>e more wealtliy classes, there is usually 
ir (called koor'tee el-'ema'tneh) on which it it 
placed at niglit. Tliio \s often sent Willi the Airni- 
tureot'a bride. It is common for a lady lo have oM 
u))0[i whicU tu place her head-drt^sa. This kind of 
chair is never used for any other purpose. As tia 
instance of the respect paid to the turban, one of my 
irieDdi mentioned to nie that an 'a'lim* being' thrown 
off Ilia donkey in a street of this city^ his nioock'leh 
fell off, and rolled along^ for several yards ; where- 
upon the passengers ran at^eril, crying, "Liduptit^ 
eiDWD of El-Isla'm I" while the poor 'a'lim, wh^M 
BO one came to asnist, called out in anger, " Lift lip 
theWieyi/itof El-l5la'm !" 

The general form and features of the wo 
now be described. From the age of about fourteen 
to that of eip:hteen or twenty they are generally 
models of beauty in body and limbs ; and in coun- 
tenance most of tliein are pleasing, and many ex> 
ceedingly lovely : bul, soon after they have attained 
their perfect growth, ttiey rapidly decline ; the bosoni 
^rly kuesall its beauty, actjuiring;, from the relaxing 
notuieof the climBle,an etceseive lengtli and tlatneai 
in it8forms,eveii while the face retains its full char 
aod though, in most other reapeets, lime does not 
commonly so soon nur bo much deform them, at the 
age of forty it renders many who in earlier years 
possessed considerable tttracllOns absolutely ugly. 
In the Egyptian femalas Uk forms of womanhood 
begin to develop themselves about the ninth or tenth 
yeai ; at the age of fifteen or sixteen ttiey generally , 

aiipelliiliuii (of which 'aotama is Ihu jiUit. 


ottafit Uwi'' J)igh«M (legrw of |>erti»clton. With 
; pqpird lu Uieic cuupleiion*, ihe tatnt ramarks »pf>ly 
Id (iiejn as U> the in«ri, wiili oiil>' tii'n diUtrencc, 
ihM Iheir faces being geueraUy vriled wiivii lliey 
gp Abruatl, arr tigt quite !<o mui-li taimeil u iIiimc of 
tltemen. Tliey ar« i/Wactericeil, Iikr the men, by 
ft 6nc o\ai couiiUiiiiiim- ; ihuugti, iu suum iostancei, 
it is ntii«r htutd. The t'yeH, with very few t-iuD|i- 
lionH, am Uack, luge, miiI ot'a loii^ itlmoad-funn. 
witti lung ami bruiitiliil lushe* «ud an cxr|ui«it»ly 
sgft, bewitching r\pref<uuii i eyes mure bewittlul Cftu 
bsnlly U- ciJiiceivtid ^ Uieir ulia^nuiii^ vlFeci is much 
liMglitMiiNl by tiie conceal me 111 of tlie other (eaturca 
(huwei'er plea^ini; [lie (lUWr nwy be), tiiid ia nn- 
tl«rcii Htill ui«re Hiilnn^ by a practice universal amonfc 
the teiiiiilo of the higlier und middle clusseH, and 
very cDniiium among those of tiie lower orders, which 
j^ tliat ul bluckeniiig the edge ol' the eye-lids, both 
above und below tlie eye, withtibl»ck jMiwder called 
kolihl. This is u cwlyrium commonly composed 
oFthe smuke-bbcU tthith is produced by burning' u 
iliaiuf liba'n — «ii amtniitic reMD~aspccJesuri>>iiik' 
incense, used, I uni W>ld, in [irererenee to the better 
kind ul' frankincelise, as being cheaper, and equally 
ypod for tliiB iiurpOse. Kulihl is also prepared of 
tbe ,^moke black jsoduccd l>y burning the >heUHut' 
almonds These two kinds, tliougb belicv-ed to be 
.benelicial to the eyes, are used merely for ornament ; 

Int there are several kinds used for their real c 
Bjjpposed medical pro|ierties; particularly the powder 


. DPraligion snd letters in {i;enertLl, used to WCar^ U 
same do still, one particulerly wideHndtbrmal, called 
amooek'ieli. The turban is miiuti respected. In tha 
liouies of the more wealthy classes, tliere ia usmlly 
a cliajr (called koor'see el-'ema'tneh) on nhJcli it i* 
placed at iiigliL Tliis jm often sent with the fuirnU 
tureot'a briile. It in common Toraliuiy to have ooe 
upon whicll to place her liead-dresa. Tills kind of 
chair is never used li)r auy other purpose. As aa 
ioBtance of the respect paid to the turinn, one a(taf 
friends mentioned to me that an 'a'lm' being tlinMre 
oS his donkey in a street of this cily, liis niouck'leti 
tell off, and rolled aloag for several yards ; wtiare* 
upon tlie passengers ran after it, crying, " Lift Up W* 
Grown of £I-Isla'm 1" while the poor Vlim, whodi 
no one came (o assist, called out in anger, " Lift lip 
the (AeyMt of El-lsla'm ! " 

Tlte general form and features of the women must 
now be described. From the age of about foui-teeli 
U) that of eighteen or twenty ihey are generallf 
models of beauty in body and limbs ; and in cuuiit 
teiiance most of them are pleasing, and many e)[- 
ceedini^ly lovely : but, soon after ttiey have atlaiti^ 
theirperfect growth, they rapidly decline; the bOsom 
e»rly loses all its beauty, acquiring, from the relaxltifc 
natuceufthe climate, an excessive length and flatdM 
initsfomiE, even while the fucerelainsils full charms;, 
and thougli, in most other resjiccts, time does ndt 
commonly so soon nnr so much deform them, at tlie ' 
age of forty it renders many who in earlier years 
possessed considerable Mllfaclions absolutely ugly. 
In the Egyptian femalM ^ l\>rms of womanhood' 
begin to develop themselves alxiut the ninth or tentli 
yeai : at the age iif firtceu or sixteen they generally ' 

• This appellmiun (of »hieU •eti'tuaa is tilt plutol) Hgnifi* 
k nr'an Of dciuwcti ■>[ leamin);. 
' 'f '• Siie}''k\i" i\rre ngai&ei mctlti; 01 lioclcr. 

oUnii their higher Je^rvr ot' perfection. Hiih 
Rgftrd U) Uieit ci>iD|)teiion*, ttie (Uac rvnitukit ftp|Wy 
Id them as lo tlte man, miIIi only llii» ()il)i>n-ii(.¥, 
HM liw'iT faces beiiig gciieruliy veiled wticii ibry 
jp abroad, nre nut quite m> mucli tiiiiii«il um iJiose nf 
tbetnen- Tlie; arc chiiraul^riEed, like llie men, l>y 
B Aae uvid couiihs nance ; iliuugh, in Mime inHtancw, 
it is raiimr liroad. The eyes, wiib very Itw eiceic 
lioDtt, arv block, lurgtr, luiil ol & lonr aliniHid-furiB, 
with long nnd bvnulilul Ituilu!* ^uiT an c»|ui«iit«ly 
soft, liewittliiiig «x|>R'!uiuii : eyes marc liewtliiu) con 
lunlly bf conceited: tUeir cluiriniii|C utTect is mucli 
Lei(hlMMit l>y tl>c cmicealmeiU iil* tlw otlier featufM 
(buweier plrtutiiig llie iauer uiny 1n>), and U reii- 
deiyd <>ti(l idoi'c strikuu; by • |iractiec univerKat amoag 
tile t'ciiuile.s of th« higlier unil middle clasps, anil 
^ery ciimin'in omuuii: those of lJielow«rurdera, which 
is ibiU ut bluckening tiie edge of the eye-lids, buth 
above and below t)ic eye, with ti black )H)wder called 
iali/il. This is u collyriinii Liiiiimonly L-omposeii 
ofthe smoke-btack which is produced by born in^ u 
kind of liba'n — an aromcuit realn — a species of frank- 
incense, met), J am lulil, hi [ireference lo the better 
kind of frankintense, a» being' chea|ier, and equally 
good for this purpO'e, Kuliiil is also preparetl of 
the smoke bliick producetl by burning the shells of 
slmoixlB. These two kinds, though bcheied to he 
.bene&ri&l W the eyes, are used merely for o 

^m ttiere are several kinds used for their real or 
medical projiecties; particularly the ponder 



of religtoH «id lelKra in general, used to weart U 
■BDie do stilt, one particularly wideandtbrmBl, called 
a moQtk'ieh. The turban is mucli res|)ccted. In the 
hcmses of the more wealthy classes, there is usually 
a chair (called kooT'see el-'ema'meh) on which it il 
placed at night. Tliis m olien seiit witli the fuTui- 
ture oi' a hride. It w common for a lady to have one 
U|M»u which to pla<:e her head-dreas. This kind of 
chuir is nevvr used lor any ulher purpose. Ah an 
iostaDoe of the respect paiil to the turtHiti, one of my 
Ijiende mentioued to me that an 'a'Utn' being' throtm 
off his donkey in a. street of t\iK city, his mooCk'leti 
lelt off, and rolled along for several yards ; wfaerc> 
upon t)i» passengers ran aRerit. erying, "Li(lunt|l« 
crawn of El-Isia'm I" while the poor Vlim, wheftl 
oo one came to assist, called out in anger, " Lift lip 
the theybh-t of El-Isk'm ! " 

The gencrul form and features of the v 
now be described. From the age of about fourteen 
tt) that nf eighteen or twenty they are generally 
models of beauty in body and limbs ; and in coun- 
tenance muKi of tliem are pleasing, and many ex- 
ceedingly lovely : but, soon after they have attsinefl 
.their ^erft^et growth, they rapidly decline ; the bosonf 
eurly loses ail its beauty, acquiring, from the reloiiti^ 
saitureuf the cliinate, an excessive length and flatneH 
in its forms, even while the face retains its full cWnii; ■ 
and. though, iu' most other respects, lime doea ii"~ 
commonly so soon nor eo much deform tbcm, at tl 

a^e of forty it reudws nuiiy who in earlier ) 

possessed consideraltle itttractions absolutely 
In tile Egyptian femiilv^. (W fiirms of womanhondlfl 
begin to develop tliemselves about the ninth or tenllt J 
yeai : at the aire of Mtevw or sixteen they generally a 

* Tliis ai>iiellatiun (of which ■psAouin is 
•f " Sbej'kh" here rigiiifiti ' 

aitiill their iMffliul (Ie|;n.>c of pertipctjan. With 
leptrA U Uieic cui»pl«tJuiiii, llie wune remnrkx »ppiy 
to ^em us U> the man, wil!i uuly ilita dillrrpnci-, 
that liuir facfs, being goneruUy v«ile<l when they 
gp abnuMli Mr- nut quite sn mucli laiincl an (Iiuk »t' 
5iemco. Tlicy are dianu-UriKcd, lilt the u«», by 
a. line cnul couuteiiauw.' ; Lboufcli, iu mmic instances, 
, it. tx nttJier broad. Thu eyen, wiili wry lew eKce[>> 
, tkus, an black, largv, uiil of h long altnuud-luRB, 
witli long nnd beautiful jashes ami uii i'Kt|uiiiitBly 
sort, be wi tilling EkprciuiiiMi ; eyes more beaulil'ut cMn 
bani'r la^ com;eive(l : tlteir diurraii^ elfect is inucll 
ket^it4t»i:<l b\ ilic concha lio« lit of tlie otiier (raturcH 
(buwever pltanijuf lh« laUcr may be), and lo rtn- 
den'd bIj II morvMrikiiu; by* practice universal aBWDfi 
ihe fi^iiulcM of the tiitrlier uiid middle ciaHsea, and 
veiy tinnmon among; those of tiie lower onlers which 
ix ^lat ut blackening the edge of the eye-lide, both 
above and below the eve, with n black powder called 
ioli/it. This ia a cuilyriiim commcmly composed 
of the sraoke-bkck whith is produced by burning a 
kind of Uba'n — an aromMic reain — a species of fnuik- 
itnceuae, used, I am told, in pteferenee lo the better 
.bind of frankincense, as bein^ cheaper, nrid ecjually 
.gpod for this purpose, kniihl bi also prepared of 
tq^ smoke blacK )iroduccd by burning the ^hellHof 
alntfiDdsL These two kinds, though believed to be 
■ .bene&aal to the eyes, are used merely for o 

bflt' the« nre several kinds used for their real or 
supposed medical proiieities ; particularly the ponder 

of several kinds of le&d ore*; lo wlrioh are aflesit 
added swcocollaf, long pepper J, sufcar-candyi fin'ei I 
dust uf a Veiietiaa sequin, Mnd sometiinea powdered 
pearls. Antimoiiy, it is said, was fbrmerly used for 
painting the edges uf the eye-lids. The kohhl is 
applied with a small probe, of wood, ivory. Or siWer, 
tapering towards the end, but blunt: thisis moistened, 
sometimes with rose-waler, then dipped in the powder, 
and drawn along the edges of the eyelids ; it is called 
nuT'wed; and the glass vessel in which the kohhl is 
kept, mook'kliool'ah. The custom of thus ornament- 
ing the eyes prevailed among both sexes in Elgj'ptin 
very undent times : this is shown by the sculptures 
and paiutings in the temples and tombs of this 
uoutitry; and kohhl-Tessels, with the probes, and 

even with remains of tlie black powder, have oflea j) I 
been found in the ancient loinbs. i have two iiimyni f 
~Iut in many cases, tlie ancient modf 'ti 
menting with the kohhl was o little different. 

■ KotMel-WittB'at. 


t 'A(iiai — '*■ 


instances. The same ctistORi exisled among llii.- an- 
cient Greek ladies and among the Jewish wonii;ii in 
early times*. The eyesoilhe Egyptian women are 
generally ihe miitii beuiUifnt ol'their ieaturea. Conn- 
lenancea allogelher tianitouiiie are &r lem common 
among this rave iban bandsome figiirea; hut 1 have 
seen among (Jiem faces dislinguiatted by n style of 
btauty poBsei:sing such sweetness of expression, th^t 
thej ■have struck me as exhibiting the (Htrt'cctinn of 
Tcmale InveliiiesR, and impressed me with the idea 
(porbiaps nut false) that their equals could nut be 
(butiil in any other country : with such eyes as many 
iiflhvm hbve. the face must be handsome, if its 

• Sm 2d King>, ii, 30 (whtre, in our common «aTlioi\, we 
ml ilut ooidi^ " {ttinfail het bice" for " pBitntcd hn tyca'", 
nd EmIucI, xxiii, 40. 



.flther features be but moderately well formi 
llie nose is generally straight: tlje lips are in( 
rather fuller than those of tlie men, hut not in 
least degree partaking of the negro character. 
hair is of that deep, glosss' black, which best t 
ull but fuir complexions : in some instances : 
rather coarse and eriep, but Qever woolly. 

The females of the hiE;heT and middle clasBes,. 
many of ihe poorer women, stain certain parl^ 
their hands and feet (which are, with very few 
ce pti on s, beautifully formed) with the leaves of! 
blieu'iia-treef, ivliicb impart a yellowish red, or d 

OSB or nHKK NA. " 

Hiaiercolour. Many thus cijc ontj ibt natii of the 
tifff* whI Ioks ; tiUirn t-:ilrni1 ih« ilje *v high ils 
fe 6tM juiul of r«cli fiiigrr nnil lo* ; mjiiic uIhu 
w^ ft strL|W sJoAK Uir uul raw or JoioU ; uid 
toe w* Mvera) otbet (iuuiful moileH of ap|ii;ing 
llw libeu'iift ; but Uib muni ttiminim practice ii to 
riie tliir ti{» i>r ll'K finficn and tuv* u high ii» ilic 
fim jniiil, and iW wbuir oT ihr iuMilc of ihc tiaiid 
nd tli« M>le ul'lh* Toot * ; HdilJni;. i)iauf[h nut aln'ii}», 
Uk «tri)ic abuv«nipntJiHir<l nlurjg tli« inidillr Joint* 
nl ilw Ang;erH, and a vimiliir ttrigw n liille obovr the 
IM*. The hben'na is [ir<i«r«il for liiis u»r merely 
i) beii^ jMwdercd and mixed h lih a link' water, «o 
H 19 form u (iiWe, Suitii; uftliii (Kiiile bciiig: fiireai) 
blhe [Mtlm oi' llie hand, anil <iii oihvr jitiri* of il 
»tich iiic la Lk.- (i}ed, and tlie fiiLKf rs heiiiit: duubied, 
U(l their exlreniiti« innrnnxi inin Ihe [mwie in ilie 
(aim, tin- whdk- hoiid in li^Mly ixiuud witli linen, 
•ml rcnuin!! ihuK durinfc » whole tiiglit. In u aimibr 
MBiwr il Is apiilif<l lu the ftet. The colour does 
KtUlBappoArunlil iiTler miuiy din^: it Is geikenlly 
lenaweti &lter ubout u fbrtniglit ur Miree weekH. 
This custom prevails not auly in Egypt, Lut ia several 
Uher countries of the East, which ate supplied willi 
Uien'iia ttum the hanks ol the Nile. Tu the nails, 
the bhen'ua imparts a more bright, clear, and per^ 
BMienL eo1i>iir than to the skin. When this dye 
dDoe is applied to the uajls, or to a larger portion 
(iftli» fiugers and toes, it may, with aome reasgn, 
be legnrded us an embellishment ; for it mskes ihe 
general complexion ot the hund and ftwt appear more 
deKiute ; but many ladies siaiu their liaods in a 
VbK^r tatich less ugrecable 10 our tsste : by ap- 
pljing, im mediately alter the removul of the jmste 

* no atipUcaiiun of thin ilyi' to Ihc palms nf the huidt aud 
OfiWM of the feci is mid Id have im nKRcahk eAMt upon 
lb duu! paiticulbilv Iv ixeiaBt iti l»iug Ion teaiW and tea- 


f quick lime, 

, they coavert 

1 blackish 

[i with iheil 


of hhea'na, another 'paste CHmposed c 
common smoke-b!aef(, a»cl linseed-oil, 
the tiDt of the Jiheti'nn, to a black, or I 
olive hue. Ladies in Egypt are ollenst 
nails Btaiaed wilh this colour, or vrich their fingers of 
the same dark hne from the extremity to the flrst 
joint, red from the fitvt to the Becond joint, and of 
the former colour from the second to the third joint; 
with the palm also stained in a similar manner, hav- 
ing a broad, dark stripe across the middle, end the 
rest leiV red ; the thumb dark from the e 
to the first joint, and red from the first to the second 
joint. Some, after a more simple fashion, blackei 
the ends of the fini;ers and the whole of the inside 
of the hand. 

i ol' the lower orders, 
villages of Egypt, and amou^ 
the metropolis, but in a I^m 
Gtom somewhat similar lo tflnt 
I consists in making' indeS^e 
Teenish hue upon the faceaijd 
is(, upon the front nf (he chin, 
and upon tlie back of the rii;ln hand, and oflei ' 
upon the left hand, the riijht arm, or both arm* 
feet, the middle of the bosom, and the tbrehetd: 
the most common of these marks made upon iha 
thill and hands are liere represented. Tlie opera- 
tion is performed with several needles (geneii«M 
seven) tied together : with ihese the skin Id pricke^ 
in the desired pattern : some amoke-black {ot,]"p< 
or oil), mixed with milk from the breast of a worhanJ 
is then rultbed in; and abontaweek alter, before ;t)lH 
fkin has healed, a paste of the pounded Iresh 
of while beet or clover is applied, and ^ives 
or greenish colour to the marks, it is gencrallj 
perlornied at Oie age of about five or six years, . 
by gipty-wamen. The term applied to it is dwJc'ck. 

Among the females 

<, prevails 

inarka of a blue < 
other parts, n 


Most of the females of the tiiglier parts of Upp( 
Egypt, who are of a very dark complexion, tattd' 
their lips instead of the parts above-mentioned ; tht 
converting their natural eotnur to a dull, bluish hu4^ 
which, to the eye of a stranger, is extremely di* 

Another charaoteriatic of the Egyptian women that 
should be here mentioned, is their upright carriage 
and gait. This is most remarkable in the female 
peasantry, owing, doubtless, in a great measnre, to 
their habit af bearing a heavy earthen water-vessel, 
and other burthens, upon the head. 

The dress of the women of the middle and higher 
orders is handsome and elegant. Their shirt is very 
fidi, like thatof the men, but ruther shorter; reach- 
ing not quite to the knees : it is also, generally, of 
the same kind of material as the meti'H shirt, or 
coloured crape ; sometimes black. A pair of v 
wide trousers (called shintiya'n\ of a coloured, striped 
stuff of silk and cotton, or of printed, or worked, 
or plain white muslin, is tied round the hips, under 
the shirt, with a dik'keh : its lower estremitjea are 
drawn up and tied just below the knee with running 
strings ; but it is sufficiently long to hang down to 
the feet, or almost tu the ground, when attached 
in this manner. Over the shirt and 6hintija'n is 
worn a long vest (called ye/'ei), of the same material 
as the latter; it nearly resembles the ckoofia'n of J 
the men ; but is more tight to the body and arma : ] 

• The depilatory most commonly used by He Egyptisa 
waiuen ii a kiiid of lesin, called liba'n Bha'tiaee, applivd ia 
a melted Elate : liutthu.they iiretcnd, is notolwiLyii urceasary I 
by applying the blooJ of a bat to the skin of u. iietvly-bora 
female ipl'ant, gn Ihu patls wlietu tliey wiali do hair to groWj 
they aaaeri that they accomplish thia desire. A I'emnle upon 

whum this applicBtioQ hag bceu made is tcnned m ■* 

'ufak I froiB uulwn'r, a but. 

Ihe sCreveH alio art longer ; miii it in made to biilton 
<Iown tlie frant, Imm the Imnoni to • litilp btlow 
tb« giitll?, insteud of fujiping uver : it in iipon, like- 
mae, on cu;li ^iile, I'rum Uie lifi|[(il vi' the lii|i. 
duwnwnrds. In i^iieral, thi- yel'ek is cut iit sUL'h a 
manner as lo teiive half of the buMin uucuvcred, n- 
rapt by the shirt; hut mnoy liidiea have it imide 
mote antpk at Uiat port ; and, Bccnrdiiif; lo the moat 
approved rtuhinn, it aliottid be ot'a sufficient I^n^lll 
lo reach to th« ^QUnd, or should exceed that length 
bytwoor three itiche:-<, or more. Asliort vest(cDlletl 
'oM'/tr'ee). reaching only alltlk- below llie waiHt.aiid 
exactly reB«nibliii|f a yel'ek of whlcli the lower part 
has been cut nff, is suinetiines worn instead of tlie 
latter. A square shawl, or nn emhroidered kerchief, 
doubled diagunally, is put loosely round the waist ua 
t girdle ; Uk two cnruera thai are folded to^retlier 
hanging down behind. Over the yel'ek in worn a 
gib'beh of cl<Jlh, or velvet, orsilk, usually cnibruideretl 
Willi gold or with coloured silk : it diHers in I'urm 
frum the gib'beh of Ihe men cliii-fly in being: not 
so wide; particularly in the fore pari*. Instead of 
Ibis, a jacket (called sal'lah), generally of cloth or 
TeWet, and embroidered in the same manner a.i the 
gib'beh, is ofieti iToni. Tlie head-dress consists of 
a ta'ckee'yeh and turboo'sh, with a square kerchief 
(calletl far'oo'de^yeK) of printed or painted muslin, 
or one of crape, wound lightly round, composiajf 
what ia called a rub'tah. Two or more such ket^ 
•Aieh were commonly used, a short time sittue, and 
■re still soBietimes, to form the ladies' turban, but 
ilwayn wound in a high, flat shape, very dlBeient from 
that of tbe turban of the men. A kind of crown, 
callett eimr's, and other ornaments, are iitiuched lo 
tile ladies' head-dresa : descriplions and f ngravings 

» it ii of the lame leiiglh an the yuVek. 


I ofi 

I wil 

■ col 


of the«e &Dd other orosmentg of the women of Eg^pt 
will be found in the Appendix to this work. A looy 
t^ece of white muslin entbroiJered ul each end with 
coloured silks and gold, of of coloured crape orna- 
mented with gold thread, lEima, and spangles, rests 
upon the head, and hajigs down beliind, nearly or 
quite (o the ground : th i s is called taT'kkak — j t '« '^c _ 
head -veil r the face-veil i shall preBenlly describe. 
The liBir, exuepting o\'er the forehead and temples, 
is divided into numerous braids or plaits, generally 
from eleven to twenty-five in number, but always rf 
an uneven number : these Iiang down the back. To 
each braid of hair are usually added three black 
silk curds, with little ornaments of gold, &c., at- 
tached to them. For a description of these, which 
are colled lufa, I refer to the Appendix, Over the 
forehead, the hair is cut rather short; but two fuD 
locks (called mwk'u'sep's) han^ down on each side of 
the face: these are often curled in ringlets, andsome- 
times plaited*. Few of the ladies of Egypt wear 
stockings or socks, but many of them wear met* 
(or inner shoes), of yellow or red morocco, some- 
times embroidered with gold : over these, whenever 
they step off the matted or carpeted part of the floor, 
they put oil ba'boo'g (or slippers) of yellow morocco, 
with high, pointed toes ; or use high wooden clogs 
or pattens (called ckubcka'b, or, more commonly r 
ckoobcka'b), generally from foot to nine inches Id 
height, and usually ornamented wHh mother-of-pearl, ] 
or silver, &c. These are always used in the bath bj 1 
men and women ; but not by many ladies :\l home i I 
some ladies wear them merely lo keep their sktrti 1 
from trailing on the ground: others to make them- 1 

■ Egjpiian irorni>a swen bv the BiJe-lock Cm men da bf'l 
the baard), generally huldin:- 'it whta they litter ths oath 1 


, cU-i' 

,1 umi-t 

I,, 111, WiW 'J^ 

1 afford W P» ... ■.„ . mece •> „„A ,5 

^ 1 

"•AtHIMIiMMaiKlH il" 1 

m1i« app^r UU. Such in tbP cl 

r»M wbklt is woru 

btthe Kftjpliiw Mi" i» ll"> 1x1' 

cAlled A-i'y««A, 

The rkliiw nr wnltinK atlfre in 

Whei«-ver .. lL.tU li:.>.e- iIr- ij..u^ 

^llc wrnrft, in kdili* 

S^^rtTT,- : 

.<1. first aiifire, 

louse f 

'. the i.l«»w of 

wiMx '■., 

<L- »lh>l« kngth 

ofUw «.. 

v..r a pink, or 

■11 lh« !';ot'<I,«\ ' 


, ! iScriTviiid 



bMi, >>< 

' ' two i 


■ loiMid 

Ifec ll«Bd. Tlii- I'Ll 

hktA'ank,mitKU, tW » nuirn.-l 

i:>i]\. » fumiiinnl 

oflwQ breHdl)m,.rh'M^^). 

>ill., i-lirll fll-H-llli-, 

wid llinie Jlinfa Itfiijf: 11"M' nn 

Sf">'i( liim-lhcT ^ll 

to Hie iuisht ..1 

iliF p«MOll); ■!>« SMiTn tituuii^g 

liari/ontoJIft *i'^i 

respett to (bo manner iu »hidi 

t is wi.rn : n \»>c,.- 

ol" imrmw, bimck ribuinl is WHe 

A inside the tipprr 

part, about kU luchifi In^m ll» 

iiiHi-, U) lie round 

ti.e tiftd. TllU i-oi.iiu.- IS .i 

.us vtora io llie 

manner sbown bj th.- ^ucimiiuu 

in:; skclch. Tlie 

miimrried luJies wt-ar a lilinl/ii.-.. 

, o\- ^vhjle «ilk, i.r 1 

a shawl. Some leniaif, ul" ih-- 

iiiMle olasS<-F, uhn 

cannot afford U) purchase a lilial 

' of H an *««'r,- "bid, i. u pi 

CO of wliile culii-ij, 

of Ike aanie form »od size us 

hf loriuer. and ■= 

worn iu ihe svne mtiniier. Ou 

llie Itet ore wi:>ni 

sliort boots or socks (called kho 

r^//-), of yellow mo- 

nwcfs "»'< over Ihree, ihe I'l^hoo'g. jj 

1 ' This U Kimiinc iu rorm tii l1i<? tu'b 

or womtuuf the loimr fl 



the higher classes, who are seldom seen in public oi 
foot, is worn by many women nho cannot oflei 
aSovA BO Tar to imittite their siiperiorR as to hire 
■ES to carry them. It is extremely inconvenient 
a walking attire. Viewing it as a disguise for whi 
ever is atiractive or graceful in the person aodadori 
meiits of the wearer, we should not find fault 
it fur being itself deficient in grace; we muHtremarkj 
however, that, in one ^eap ect^_ it fai ls injir-finmnjish. 
ing its ma in p iiT CHBg . TOpia^i^y tB? eyes, which j 
aTmosntwsss.te^utit'ul ; maKing iher 
more so t)y conceaTIng tlie other features, which 
seldom ufequal beauty; and often causing the stranf 
to imagine a defective face perfectly charming. % 
veil is of very repiote antiquity*^ b ut. frQm I 
-Sciiljitiires and paintings of the a n ci en i"Eg y ,P " 833 
sEenns not to hnvc lieen worn by the fe males oftl 
nation. ~" " 

The dress of a large proportion of those worn 
of the lower orders who are not of the poorest cli 
consists of a pair of trousers or drawers (similar 
form to the shintiya'n of the ladies, but general); 
plain white cotton or linen), a blue linen or cott 
sliirl (not quite so fullasthut of themen), a boor'd 
of a kind of coarse black crape, und a dark bli 
lar'hhuh ofmualin or linen. Some w 
shirt, or instead of the latter, a linen to'b, of Ij 
same furm as that of tTie ladiesf. The sleeves 
this are oden turned up over the head ; either 
prevent Iheir being incommodiuus, or to supply 
plufe of a tar'hhflhi. In addition to these arti... 
of dress, many women who are nut of the very poj 

uiit laaiah, iii. 23. See sli^ Cc 

ID. and B 

• See Qen 
rintliiona, xi, 

f See the iiicura 10 tlie iJ'rt ii 

I See the figure to the right i 

ipvi^i^ii , 

DKKse. "n 

clisMB, wear, »,» * c<iv«ritiL!;, ii kind ofplnid, Minilar 
in fonu lo llie hlmb'uBh, com|>r>scii of Iwn pieces 
ofniUon, woven m smnll chequirs or liluc nnil white, 
roM) strifies. trith k mixture ol red al eckch end. 
It is called mita'yirk : ]ii Kcacrul ii is wdtd in lh« 
uine manniT nn the hfanl/unili ; bui somviimeB like 
(be tar'liliali '. TUe upper part of ihc bl»ck booKcko' 
is uflen ociiHiiieiiUd witli fulxc pearls, tiniall i^Id 
tOiUB, aixl olitev lilllc lliit odiuniciits of the suine 



melal (cajled burck) ; sometimes with a coral beat 
nod a g'uld coin beneath j aliia with small coins ( 
base silver^ and more commonly witha pairuf chaJ 
tassels, of brass or silver (called 'oyoo'n), attached t 
the corners. A square black silk kerchief (calle 
'oa'beK), with a border of red anil yellow, is h 
round the head, Uoubled diagonally, and tied n 
single kiiot behind ; or, instead of this, the turboo'a 
and far'oo'dee'yeh are worn, though by very fe' 
women of the lower classes. The best kind of shot 
worn by the females of ihe lower orders arc of rf 
inorocop, turned up, hul round, at the lues. Th 
boor'eka* and shoes are moBt common In Cairo, an< 


also worn by many of the women throughout Lower 
Esrypi; but in Upper Egypt the boor'cko' is very 
seldom seen, and shoes are scarcely less uneommtm. ' 
lo supply the place of the former, when necessary, 
a portion of ihe lar'iihah is drawn before the face, 
so as to conceal nearly all the countenance excepting J 
one eye. Many of the women of Ihe lower orders, { 
•WO in the metropolis, never conceal their face*. J 
Thwgghoul UjB greale ' Egypt the most con*- 1 

nibn drtss of tbe women merely consitls of ih« blii« 
ihirl or to'b and lar'hhah. In ihn wuthrrn puts 
of Upper Fgypi, olikfly abrnt Akhince'm, mo*l of 
Uie women envelop thcmsehri in a Inr^c pirce of 
dark brown woollen siulF ( a, hhaoiitlrr'yBh') ; 
wrapping it round Ihe liu'ly, anil utluching iIjp upp«r 
pans tngeiher over «ocli j-houhUr; nnd u pleoe of 
the Gune they UM as a lar'lihati, Tiiii dull dreai, 
though pic(ureBqn«, is nlmon m disguiMiij; 'in Ibe 
blue tinge which, as f hnvc before mentioned, ihe 
women in thest pnrla of Egypt impart to llurir lipi. 
Most of the women of the lower orders wear a variety 
of trumpery omnments. such us ear-rings, necklaces, 
bracelets, &d>, and somelimea a noEe-rlng-. Deecrlp- 
tioiis and engraringH of some of these ornamenla will 
be given fti the Aj>pendix. 

The women of Egypt deem it more incumbent upon 
tbem^ cover the upper nnd back pnrt of the head 
ftod more reipiiniie to conceal the face 
ir parts nl the person. I liave uAen 
country women but h»1f covered willi 
id, ticveiui times, females in ihe 
worounhood, nnd iiihcri in more advanced 
ige, with nnly a narrow strip ol' rag bound round 
tbe lupe. 

tk«V«ksvt -.'V ilttM^tM.'! i>r the Anbian Propbef.j 

A'm'iwli, tVl'mvli, /,tj'iifb).t'rnre ilistin^isbed ^ 
h iiaiite 111) i>lyii>K t lint ih»\ nr« " lirtoved,*' " hlessed.^ 
" LuiwIoLiii' Alv (MuhliUiu'br)), Mrbroolieh, Nefo ~ 
••ni Jt(%^. lie the UHiiiu of a fluw^r, <ir of some o 

'!')■« ilrt-M (if the chililKit ol'the middle and higha^ 

• U I^bUv. II Ix itM faahUia l» chnnge the flnt fivo famnll 
ltMM*VvM Hwuttiiuwl, HUll lliu Inat. intu KliiiddiHi'^tiih . 'Klf iio'^ 
«k«h, AwumuViJi. Futoiifmiih, Zunnuo'heh, ana NcfrVHi'iiuB fP 
mJImhM «fcM IMHIM •'• fhangeil lo the saniu inBimii* idfi 
tMMt whwt>HkBUuntiDl<^<'i).in tticBeuMMnperlocdi'gmfS 


taflar (o ibnl of ihc iwrenu, but pnfriTly 
; The children ofthe poor arr rilher eUd la 
tbi a callmi ukutl cap or u turtnio'iih. nr (u 
yih« enae in ihe *ills)rn>)Dreli!fii|u>k- r 
! agv of sU Of petrn years or murt, ii 
rap can be eiJiilj obtained to tme ihr 
I cnvenn^. Thww licUc gIfN wlio hme 
of mgST^'l til'iffnol Inrp pnonffh to c-nvfr 
d iultl boily, ijptwrBll) jirefrr wearing ii 
i, and MincLiine!! hnve Ihr cmgiietrjr in drtwl 
It before the face, lu & veil, white Ihi^ « ' " 
expMrH. Lilllf lailicti, four iir five jei 
sllywenrlhe white ra«-veil, like iheirmtit 
boy is Iwo rir lhr«v yeatBoUl, nruDfii «arli«|L 
t is shaved ; u tuft ol' hair only bein^ lefl 0fl 
m, and anolher over the fore h end" : the hearf 
Je iufants are seldom shaven. Tf 
I, of Tmlh sexes, are usually carried by thcl 
i and nurses, not in Ihe armn, bu 
t^ eetiled ustridef, and soiiielimes, for a sh<» 
^ on the hip. 
e treBlmeiit of llieir children, the women orthfl 
ir classes are remarkable for their excen'iiVir 
dee; and the poor, fur (!ie little aticn 
btyand Silppljing the absolute wanla of n 
n)e mother is prohibiled, by the Mohhanil 
liw, from weaninj her child before Ihe enpira^'J 

leiuMmBly iRnini^ tlie pcasantB lhraii§!hoiit a gredtj 
'•flj^t, on the lint occuiun ol ghnviDg a child's liinJJM 
victim, gVDeruUy a, gout, at the loml: of same saiot ittfl 
leii lillage, ami to make a fuaat nitli llie meat, |» 1 
eir (Hendi, uni any other potso ns vho jileaie. jiaK 1 
lus i% mo>l lummiiu in Llpjior Ejtjrjrt. »nd amon(f Ih*^^ 
tntf '*"')! B<tablish«d on the i«tikii ol' the Niln<V1 
gka aDcevtois in Arabia ub^CEn«Ii Itiia custom, aod 
g,ii^ aanLiDK to the puur, the »ei);l>l vf the h&ir in 
le.nctim wan callgd 'aeiti'aiiA. 
' \ liii. 22. , 



It was a custom very common iu EgypI, as in othw. 
Moos'lim countries, to consult (in astrologer nr^ 
viouslj to giving a name lo a child, and to l)e gM'^eff^ 
bv his choice ; but very few persons now confbBi}, 
with this old usage: the tntlier mnkes choice of^j^ 
name, and coniVrs it without any ceremony. Boyi 
Bre often named after the Prophet (Mohhara'iflMji 
Ahh'mad, or Moos'tuPa), or some of the memb«i3|| 
of his family ('Al'ee, Hhus'an, Hhusei'n, &c.)>^ 
"-■- — ■■ — ' — mpanious ('Om'ar, Ab'oo ^elfk^ 

•Oama'n, 'Amr, &c.). or some of die prophets nnf| 

Eatriarchs of eariy times (as Ibrahcc'in, I»-hha'l%« 
^ma'ee'J.Taacltoo^, Moos'a, Da'-oo'd, Sooleym^S 
&c.). or receive a name signifying " Servant of Obd^; 
"Servant of the Compassionate," "Servant of (be 
Powerful," &c. C'Abd Al'lah, 'Abd Er-Hahhma'lL 
'Abd El-Clta'dir). Girls are mostly named vfhfE, 
the wives or daughter of the Arabian Prophet, t^ 
after others of his family (as Khadee'geb, A'lshel^ 
A'm'neh, Fa't'meh, Zey'neh),orare distinguished ik 
anameimplyingthat theyare "beloved," " hlossed, 
" precious," &c. (Mahhboo'beh, Mebroo'keij, Nefoe'' 
seb, &c.). or the iiaroe of a flower, or of some othca 
pleusiug object". 

The dress of the children of the middle and higber 

* In Cairo, it is the fsEhion la chaage tlie Rrtl fite femaW' 
namisticiBiiKintiaaeil.BuiItlie Uat, into KhiidilooVuli.'Eiyixi'*'! 
eboh, Atamoo'iieh, Putoot'meh, Zuniiou'bch, and Ncflbo^eh f^ 

these; which measure impUte, in these caBrB.asiiperior depW' 


atittt in Gimilar la lliat or the parents, but ^ncrally 
^ranly. The children of the jMor are either eUH In 
1 drift Rtii) 11 cotton nkiiH'Cap or u tittboo'ali, or (n* 
ii moBtly tb« case in itw trilUf^) tire lefi i|Uile iinkeri 
until the a^ of six or Ee»en yenrs or more, iinleM 
bit or ng can be toaily olilniiied to nerie llirm o^ 
[artfd I covering. Thow little (pr'a wlio huTe only 
^Itce of rapgi-il Btuffnot Inrge enough to cover bnih 
the heail nnd bmly, genernll} prefer wearing It iipon 
thebead. and sometimes liiive the co<inDtry In draw « 
pJH of It before the fcce, »<■ a veil, while the whole 
Mdr ifl expos'.'fl. Little 1 adieu, four or five yearn of 
t^f, niosily wear the white fsce-veil, like their mothers. 
Wl)«ii a boy i« two of three veotnold. or often earlitr, 
WfiiaiA is shaved ; u liilV oi' hair oidy being left on 
t^e e^J^n, arid another over the forehead" : tiw henils 
of female infatits are seldom shaven. The yonnif 
c1t!|ilren, or both sexes, are u!(ua1ty carried by their 
nflthert and nurses, not in the arms, but on the 
shdilldi;!', seated aslridcf, and sumetimes. Torn short 
diHt:atibt, on Ihc hi|>. 

Ill itie ircatmeiiloftheirchildren.the women of the 
wi^RfKcr classes are remarkable for their evcessive 
indtUgence ; and the poor, ftir the little ultentirn they 
bes((nr, beyond supjiljing the absolute wants of ntt- 
ttml' Tlie mother is prohibited, by the Mohham- 
nijiiJBii law, from weaning her child before thcexpira- 

HalajB. victim, gBDrtiilly a. goil, Bt Ihs tumli of loniB saint ia 
Bin||i;ttniT villain, Hnif lo make a feast with the loeBt, pf 
*tiu!li~{neir fneitdi, nnd aoy athtr peisu ns who pltiiti:, psr- 
tat(|. ,,Tb»iB moit tuinmuu ia i;p(«r Bfcfjit, and (mon|;lh9 
ItiM-Bot Taiy lung ertoblubed do Ihe bcnka uE the Nile. 
H*tljr?a«W' ancasluii ia Aialiia ot^trved ihia cuitoni, and 
IBi^ltj n,7e, a-ialiDs to the jiuur, Ilia ut<i|;lit uf the h&ir ia 
""'Wfe j*he vi=<™ "»a caUed "galer'eia*. 
fAa balaU, xlix. 22. 


tion of two yea s T o n he e od of its birth, utileW 
with the consent (il her h band, which, I ftrntaU!^ 
is generally giv n a ter he ti t year or eighteen 
mwitha. In the houses the wealthy, Ihe dnlSi 
whether boy or girl.Tetnains almost coosLanll j con&iad 
in the hliaree'm (or the women's apartnrtnisX' of, 
at least, in the lioase : sometimes the boy coatimHH 
thus an effeininale prisoner until a master, hived ts 
instruct him daily, has taught him to read ant) writh. 
When the ladies go out to pay a visit, or to lake'Di 
airing, mounted on asses, the children generally ^ 
with them, each carried by a female slavtr or'scpvant 
or sealed between lier kuees upon the ibre (MTtq 
the saddle ; the lemale uttendanis, as well uB- ij w 
ladies, being usually borne by asiies, and it beitig-lbi 
custom of all the women lo sil astride. Bui it Is Mt 
dom that ihc children of the rich enjoy this 's(i|ght 
diversion ; their health sutlers from coii^nemeat SAi 
pampering, and tliey are often rendered capriciiMU 
proud, and selfish. The women oflhe middleclMise 
are scarcely less indulgent mothers. The eslinRttiog 
in which the wife is held by her hushund, andi a 
1^ her acquainiance, depends, in a j^reat d^^e, 
upon her rniittidnes?, and upon the preservation 'ol 
her children; for by men and women, rich and poM,' 
barrenness is siill considered, in the East, acursedtiiL 
Q reproach; and it is regarded as disgracfivrivi q 
man to divorce, wilhmit some cogent reason, antWfe 
who has hoTDB him a child, especially while heri child 
'is living. If, therefore, a woman desire her hdgband'W 
love, or Ihe respect of others, her giving birthlfli s 
child is a source of great joy to herself and him^'t^d 
het own interest alone is aaufhclent motive for lia ter- 
Itul tenderness. Very little expense is reifinra^U^iv 
Egypt, for the maintenance of a mmierons ullsprin^.> 


OlllLOni.N. U 

With lb« excepltoBofihrKoiiflha wrallliMr gIbmc*. 
IbeohUdrtD in C^pt, ili»ti)[h otyccts vf Mt mucli 
lolicitude, ure (^iienily very ilirly, nod itiakbily dud. 
HtB sirBng«r bcre is disgusted by ilie Mglii cf titew, 
and nt oi)c« coDilemnii tb« mudi^rii B^ixiumaiin 
-nty Bllliy people, wIDiuiit requiring »uy oiber reusoii 
far forntiii^ suchuauiiiuiouol* tlivm ; but il in ofMti 
the tase ihat ihuse children wl>» ure inusi petted nnd 
britn'cd arc itic dirlient atid worst dad. It is uat 
uncommon lt> ^e, in ilie cily in uliicti I Am writing, 
inlady sliiitRiiig uluug lu livramplv lu'buiid liliati'unih 
,<if ncwtunl ridi tuul glisteniiu; silks, uiid oro wbo 
iwents llie whok htieel wilti the odutir ul muiik or 
, civet as she posses aliuig, witb ull ihai nppeurti ol' 
^lier perciin itcriipuluusly cleuii and deliuDtu, lier ayes 
lUestly bordereil wilb kuhlil upptli'diti ibe mu^tcarclul 
J muitier. and the lip ul' u lin^vvr ur Iwii sbowJiig tbe 
I I'reih dye ul lite Uben'uii, utid by bur side ti little buy 
,.H girU her owti clilld, wilb u Ikve besmeared witli dirt, 
■ Mad wilb elutliea appeunng be thougli they bod been 
(iiWuralbr months nilhuul being; washed. Few tliiugs 
ii^Rttrpmed me su much us aig-hts of ihis kind tin my 
."fint'&rrival in this country. 1 natursUy inquired the 
l.cauac of what slmck mc us so slraQ^ and inconsls- 
lie^t, aad was infurmei) tliat the alletjtiuiiute inottiers 
I' tbiu neglected the spjiearance of their chililren, and 
I purposely left theni unwashed, and clothed tliBfli (lo 
shabbily, particularly wtten they had tii take thein out 
i'.iu publiL-, from fear of the evil eye. which is exots- 
- sively dreaded, uad especially in the ease of childran, 
I. since they ure generally esteemed tile greatest of 
I iblessiiiiips, and therefore most likely to be coveted. 
• . The children of the poor have a yet more neglected 
• ttfpearance : besides being very scantily clad, or quite 

1 tliuli chililrea at 


nftV«d, they are, in (general, excessively dirty ; Iheir 
eyes nre frequenily extremely filthy ; it is eommon to 
see hatr-B-dozeii ur more flies in eacli eye unheecled 
and nnmDieatod. Tlje parents consider it e^treinely 
iujuriouB lo wasli, or <»en touch, the eyes, when they 
disohargo ihat acfld humour which altnicls the flies : 
they even affirm that the loo of si^lit wotiM result 
from frequently touching or nashini; them when thus 
afTected ; though washing is really one of the bM( 
means of alleviating the coruplBint. 

At the ai;e of about Ave (ir six yearn, or someliifiM 
later, the boy is circumcised*. Previously lo the ■ptf' 
formance of this rile in the melrc^ulls and OtiMi 
towns of Egypt, the [rareuis of Ihc ]outh, ir not h 
i>idii(ent clreom stances, generally cqu<c lilm U> h 
paraded Ihrooiih several streets in the neighbonrllMi 
ar their dwelling. They iiuistly )i?ail ilieniselvffl' nf 
the occurrence uf a hridul procession to Icxseri Iha 
dpenH'S of the piiriide: atid, in this cast-, the ba 
ani his iiUendmils lead tltt; procession. lie genprafi 
HMn H red Kashineer lurkiii ; but, in other reaped 
iBilreiKed us a <!!rl, vrlth ayel'ek and xal'tab, cf 
with B ckoofi', siif B, umi other female omament*- 
Those anieleg of dress nre uf the fichest deserlpIioD 
that can b£ procured; they are usually borrowed Iroin - 
some luHy, and much too large to fit tiie boy. 
horse, handsomely caparisoned, is also borrowed to i 
convey him ; and in his hand is placed a folded em^C 
broidered handkerchief, which he constantly holdai 
before htR mouth in bis right hand. He is preceded! 
by a servant of the barber, who is the operator, tUHih 
by three or more musicians, whose instrunienis s 

* Among the peasants, nut unfreijiiEuUy ot the agu oftwelv^ 

tlnrli;*n. or foortFuQ years, ~ 

t Fuc a iloHcriptian ul'ilie nrnamentglieremcDtionecl sen the 

Appaaia : the ckoon and mfa are alw tepcewntcd in a ft*- 

tttbng engrayiug. on pai;e 63. 



and teams (o hale ilia Christians, and all oihef sects 
but. his own, B9 ihorougbly as does the Moos'lim in 
adyanred age. Maal or (he children of the hip;her 
nnil middle classes, and siime of those of the lower 
orders, are luughl by the schoolmaster to read, aod 
lorecilethe whole or certnin portions of the Ckoor-a'u 
by memory. They afterwards iearn the most com- 
mon rules of arithmetic. 

Sehoola are very numeriiiis, not only In the metro- 
polis, but in every large lowii ; and there is one, at 
least, in eVery considerable village. Almost every 
mosque, sehee'l (or public roimiain), and hho'd (or 
Hriidirngr-placc for eaitle) in Ihe metropirtis has a 
hnotta'h (ur school) attached to it, in which children 
are instructed for a very If iflinjr espenae ; Ihe sheykk 
ntj!ck'ee (the master of the school) receiving fronti 
Ihe psftm of each |inpil half a piastet (about flvy 
farthihfrs of our money), or something mrfte or lei^ 
et«y Thnrsdoy*. The master of a school attachOff 
lA & mosque or oihef public building in Cairo fllftd' 
generally receives yearly a lurboo'sh.a piece of whKft 
mUslin fiir a lurban, a fiiece iiT linen, and a pAn of 
stioeN ; and each boy receives, at Ihe same lime,'^ 
linen sUutl-cap, four or five uubits f of cotioii cIotHj 
and perhaps half a piece (len or twelve cubits) tX 
lltien, and a pair of shoes, and, in some cases, hfll^ 
ii piaster or a piaster. These presents are suppllM 
by funds bequeathed to the school, and are ghen 'il 
the month of Hum'ada'n. The boys alleiltl onlj 
dnrinif the hours if instruelion, and then rettirK h 
Iheir homes. The lessons are generally written n pot^ 
lahlvtH of wood, pHtnted white ; and, when one lesson 
19 learnl, the tablet is washed and another is writleii 

• Friday, biiag 
lo the icbool bLij-ii . 
+ The duliil 
Equalte twenty- 

Tiiey klw |irfKti«e writing upon the «atne lableL 
ThcKbonltnasleriuid his nuplls sil iipun the g^iiund, 
apd «a«h boy lias his Inblet in hi° linnda, or ft capy 
ifUia Ckoor-tt'ii, iir tif one af itK Ibirly sections, on a 
Mtis kind of ilenk of pulin-sl>cks. AM who are 
Iwriiiiig; tu renil recile Ilieir Ivssotis ntouil, ul the 
nnie Umc. rufUing Iheir livads and hodi.'s inces^nnlly 
ba^k words anil Frirwanla; which praciice ix observed 
W qlinost all (tersons in reodin^ (lie Cknur-a'n; 
bfipg thoiifflit 10 assist the memory. Tlie noise 
nuiy be iniutcined *. 

The boys first learn the letlers of the alphabet; 
HMl, (he vowel points nnd other orthographical 
marks; and then, the nimierienl vulne of each letter 
o|^ the alphabetf. Previously lo lliis third htage of 
tt|f) pupil's prngreHS, it is customary for the master 
to priwment the tablet with black and red ink, and 
(nan paint, and lo write upon it ihe letlen; of the 
■IfhalMt ill the order of iheir lespeclive numerical 

f TBe Arabic Iclters ate 


values, and convey it to the father, who returns tt, 
with a piasier or two placed upon it. The like A 
also done at several Bubsequem elar^es of the boy'^ 
progress, as when he begins to le^irn the Ckoor-a'q. 
and six or seven times as he proceeds in learning 
the sacred book; each lime ihe next lesson hemg 
written on the lablel. When he has become afe 
quainted with the numerical values of the letters, ^^^ 
master writes for him some simple words, aa Ihf 
names of men ; then the ninety-nine names oh 
epithets of God : nest the FaVhhah, or opening 
chapter of the Ckoor-a'n, is written upon his tablet,* 
and he reads it repeatedly until he has perfeeilj^ 
committed it to memory. He then proceeils to lesrn 
the other chapters of the Ckoor-a'n : after the fitraj 
chapter he learns che last; then the last but one: 
next the last but two, and so on, in inverted orde^ 
ending with the second; as the chapters in geaeiaf 
successively decrease in length froffl the second to 
the last inclusively. It is seldom that the mast« 
of a school leacbes writing; and few boys learn Iq 
write unless destined for some employment which, 
absolutely requires that they should do so ; in whifih 
latter case they ore generally taught Ihe art of writing 
and likewise arithmetic, by a ckabba'nee, who is a 
person employed to weigh goods iu a market 05 
ba'za'r, with the steelyard. Those who are to devote 
themselves to religion, or lo any of the learned profess 
sions, mostly pumue a regular course of study in |hf) 
great mosque El-Az'har. ' 

The achoolmaslers in Egypt are mostly persora 
of very little learning : few of them are acqudi^ 
with any writings except the Ckoor-a'n, and certein 
prayers, which, as well as the contents ofthe sacred 
volume, ihey are hireil to recite on particular pcca- 
aittas. I was lately told of a man who could neither 
read nor write succeeding to tUe uffivce at >n ^cboolr 


Hauler ffl my ne'irhhouf'li'iod. Bcinir abt* u> ncLla. 
lite wbolc of the CkooT-fi'n, irn mmld )uMr ll|c buy*. 
Kput their UssofM : (o wriif ilivni. hi- t>m|)!(i]red iLi 
'arvK/* (or hrnil boy io t)ie KtMiol). pfticodintt lluit 
lii> ejes Were v/emV. A few dsys ailer lie hud ukeii 
u|J»Ii liiin^pll* ihis office. & |iDor fcnmaii hrniighl k 
tuItCr for hirri tn rend In her from her son. wliu Iwd 
gone on pilgriui»gc. Tlie flcWeu preinuicil lu read 
il.tiil said iioiliiiig: and Ihe woman, iiiferriiiff from 
h!s silence tliat Ihe Inter Ciintnined had iiewo^. said 
toliim. '■ Shall 1 shricJc?'- He a.iiwered " Ves." 
"Shkll I le&r my clolhesF" alie paJieil ; tio replied 
'' Yes^" So the poor woman returiietl m li«r houie, 
^'d with (ter usuembled frieittis perliirnied ihe la- 
liientallon and other cerenionicB usuhI oiilhc ovcaBJou 
ofai death. Not many dayit nflep this her sod arrived, 
itid she asked him wliuthecould mean by causing 
ilettrr lo he written statini; Ihat he was dead. Ue 
^pluined the contents of the letter, and she went to 
riie BChuntmasler and bei;(^d him to iDlbi'm her why 
tit hud told her to shriek and tn tear ber clutbea, 
^ni» the letter vras lo tiiforin her that her sun wan 
^ejl. and he was now arriVL'd at home. Not at all 
at^saed, he said, '' God knows futurity ! Huw could 
[ kngw that your sou would arrive in safely ? It 
was [>etter ibat you should think him dead Ihau be 
led to expect to nee hint and perhaps be disuppointed.'* 
SMie persnnn who were sitting with him praised hia 
ftlidont, enclaiming, "Truly, oiir new fick'ee ia a 
roan of uuusual judgment !" oiid, for a little whjlt^ 
in fimiiA that he had raised Ills reputatiuu by lM> 

l^jSflihe parents employ a shcykh or fick'ee to tfach 
ffieiV 1>bys at home. The father iisually leachea his perform the woodno' and other ablutionsianiV 
IflLf ai KJs jjraj'er!', anrf irjstrucls him in othei Te\\(BLn\ia 
TiJ^^ii^/ d*(J*« to- the btBt of hia aWilfl., '^^ 



Ptophel directed his followers to order their cliildren" 
to sfty their prayerR when seven years of uge, and td^' 
b«Ht them if they did not do so when ten years old f 
and at the tatter age to make Ihem sleep in separata' 
beds ! in Egypt, lioweVer, very few persons pray' 
before ihey have Jiltained to manhaod. " 

The female children are very neldnm taiiglit to resif' 
or write ; and not many of them, even among- the' 
higher orders, learii to say their prayers. Sotaif 
of the ricii engage a ihey'khiih (iir learned nomad/ 
to visit the hharee'm daily, to teach their daugfaterv' 
and female slaves lo say their prayers, and to recite ^ 
Jew chaptetB of ihe Ckooi^a'ii, and sometimes ItT 
instruct them in reading and writing ; but these Br^' 
very rare acoomplifihtnenis for females even of thtf 
highest class in Egypt*. Tliere are many schoolit' 
in which girls are tnught plain needie-Work, etni? 
broidery, Ac. In families In easy circnmiilance!! i* 
m'o/'/im'eAt, or female teacher of such kinds (# 
work, is often engaged to attend the girls at theij' 

However much the son is caressed and fondled, in 
general he feels and manifests a most profound and 
praiseworthy respect for his parents, DisobedieiicA 
to parents is considered by the Moos'lims as one of 
the greatest of sins, and classed, in point of heinoits* 
iiesii, with sin other sinh, which are idolatry, murder^ 
ftisely accusing modest women of adullery, wasting 
the property of orphans, takini^ usury, and deserliofl 
in an expedition against infidels. An unduiiful chilli 
Is very seldom heard of among the Egyptians or tha 

Thvyaung daushtaraof perbuniuf tlm middle diusea >i 
-"■— iinstructtd Hitlithe buvsia '■;--'- i i ..■ .i 

y Vulleit, and buld nu Inter 

1 seen a well-dietispil girl t 

jirwwuacetl fur tm'at'lin/ 

•OiaBl Intel initructiid tvitUthe bjisiaiipiiblicBthuul; but thev 
■■utMUy Vulleit, and buld nu Intercuurse with the boya. I 
' - "in seen a. well-dressed girl tBadiu)- Iho CkDOr-«'B ifl 

EA1U.T M>UC4TI0h-. >l 

Arabs in g^iieraL Sons scarcely ev«r ait, w «U, or 
;muke, iu the presence of lh«' railier, uiilem bidden 
tu do SQi Slid ibcy otien even wait upna Ikiin tad 
ujNiii his guests nt mcnlts biuI on olbcr occaMbiu: 
tbcji do not ceusc to ucL (hua wlirii iliej' Iibtc become 
Dfii, I once breakfasteil withtui Rcyptinn mercliBnl, 
Wore tile door of his houM, in the mniitli ofKiimV 
iis'g.(aud therefore u lililcnfter aunsut) ; nml, (litiupch 
eiwj person who passed by, however poof, was invited 
'apenake of the meal, we w«re wailed upon by twi> 
vf my hosl'H sons ; the elder about I'orty ^e«n of 
>p. A» Ihcy had been fasting during the whole 
if Ifce doy, ftnd had as jet only taken x dnn^hl of 
vtUer. I be^grd th« father tn allow ihrtn to nit down 
»d nl with US : he iminediately told ihem that they 
raight do so ; but iliey declined. Tin.- inulher* ge- 
nmjly enjoy. In » grenler def>rae than the hther«, 
IktsSVction of their children; bnl do not receive 
(nni them the sam« oulwurd mark* of retpect. J 
Weotleii known servant* to hoard their wagei for 
Uxir muthors, though Mldom for their ralherf. 

As the most important branch of iheir edua^tioi 
and the main foundation of tbeii 
toms, tlie religion and laws id" the people yyho a 
- the Bubject of these pages mu^t be well uaderstof 
—not only in their general principles, but i 
mieor points — before we can proceed to consioi 
iheir socia.! condilioQ and habits in the stat^ i 

A diBerence of opinion among Moos'lims, respecl 
iug some points of religion and law, has g* 
to four sects, which consider each other 
as W fundamental matters. These sects B'rCi.gtmi _ 
Uhan'afeeSjSka'fe'ces, Ma'likees*,MiAHhqin'biellfef^^ 
— so called from the names of the respective doctm^ 
whose tenets they have adopted. The Turks are f$ 
the first sect, which is the most reasonable: ttf^ 
inhabitants of Cairo, a small proportion excepted 
(who are Hhan'afees), are either gha'fe'ecs ur Ma,'- 
Ukees) and it is generally said they are mottly ,of 
the former of these sects, as are also the iicopJCi qt' 
Arabia : those of the Shurckee'yeh, on the east of llic 
Delta, Sha'fe'ees; those of the Ghurbee'yeh; or 
Delta, Sha'fe'ees, with a few Ma'likees : those of tM 
Bohbey'reb, on the west of tlie Delta. Ma'likees: ijfg I 
inhabitants of the Sa'ee'd, or the valley of \}ppu I 
Egypt, are likewise, withfew eiiceptlons, Malikee " 
so also are the Nubians, and the Western Ari 

RBUO'lON. 93 

To the fourtti 8«ct very few persons in the preient 

liay beltiug. 

The Mohhamm&dnn religion isgeDermllycalluil by 
the Arabs, el-ltla'm. JSfma'n and Deen are the pui^ 
liculur terms applied, respectively, lo failli anil 
practictti religion. 

Tbe gmiid principles uf the faith nre exprewed 
in two nrtii^lcs; the first of which is this — 

'"'TSere ft no Jeiti/ but God." 

' God, who creflka all thinfi;5 in heaven and in 
Arth, who prescrvelh all ihins^, and decreeth all 
tMH**, wlio is without heginning, and without end, 
dAi^potCiil, omniscient, Qnd omnipresent, is one. 
Rh unity is thus declared in a <;hort chapter of the 
CtodNali ■ : •' Say, He is one (Jod ; God the Eter- 
nal; He neither begets;, nor is He begotten ; and 
^(ei^ hone e(|ual unto Him." He hath no partner, 
tfir any offspring, in the creed of the Moos'lim, 
'raniiffh Jesus Christ (whose name should not btr 
Anitititied Without adding — " on whom he peace") 
n believed to have been born of a pure virgin, by 
t!|e' miraculous operation of Godf, without any 
iistiifalfether,— lo be the Messiah, and " the Word 
jlfGod, which He imparted unto Mary, and a Spirit 
llrtteedrna: from Him" ( — yet he is not called the Son 
of ti^od ; and no higher titles ure given to him than 
flloiie uf u Prophet and Apostle : he i<i even consi- 
Kred as of inferior dignity to Mohlium'mad, tnaS- 

>>* Qb- 1 12. — la quoting puuu^iuii io Ihe Cbuor-a'D, I hi»a 
Mi^tinKg (bllowei) Sulu's IransLilLoB ; imli« fldeUty uf whicQ 
Ineed icarcel)' &d(l my lestimony. Wlicn necessirj-, I hire 
flninguUbed the vtma hy uiunberi. In lining thi« t lioit 
Wt^allf odoplDi) the divirioiu made fay Murocd, but Iimw 
~~ tnwlethe numtwR la agree with liiLise in tliii late ediiiiis 

:i^/AiaJuc tezlby Flungel. wbicli, Si< 
nr.islikelr tasupenedu the furiDrt vi 


s h«l(i to be superceded by u 
Wlitivcs that Seyjid'ii 
'Ee'aa* (ov " our Lord Jesub"), after he hud f 
filled the object of his inisBion, was taken up ui 
God froni the Jews, who sought to slay him ; aiid 
that another person, on whom God had statnped the 
likeneis ol* Christ, was crucified iu his i>t«(ul f. He 
also believes that Christ is to come ugeJu upon the 
earth, to establish the Mohbuninadan religioii, Kud 
ptrfect peace aad security, after having killed Auli- 
chriet, and to be a Hign of the approach ol'the Is^t 

The other ^raad article of the faith, which cannot 
be believed without the former, is this — 

" Mohham'mad is GoWs Apostle." 

Mohhain'mad is believed, by his followers, to have 
be«n the last and greatest of'Prophets and Apostlest- 
Six of these — namely, Adam,Noah, Abraham, MoseSi 
Jesus, and Mohham'mud— are believed each to h&ve 
received a revealed law, or system of religion atid 
morality. That, however, which was revealed to 
Adam was abrogated by the next ; aiid eaeh sn/e- 
Ceediii^ law, or code of laws, abrogated the preced- 
in{f; therefore, those who professed the Jewish re- 
Ugiou from the time of Moses to that of Jesus were 
true believers; aud those who professed the Chrisliw 
religion (uncorrupted, as the Moos'lima say, by the 
tenet that Christ was the son of God) until the 
time of Mohham'mad are held, in like manner, m 
have been true believers. But the copies of the 
Pentateuch, the Psalms of David (which the Idoofij'- 

» The Utla of Srjjic/'na (our Lord) is giveu by Iba H^- 
limi to pcupliDts and uthei venecati^d penuna. 

+ rki)or-a'D, eh. iv., V. 156. 

t Tbe MooB'lim leUum mentians the name of tlie P|Oi 
irithout adding, "lafJa-l'/e/Aot 'altt/hi tDt-teflem*' ' 

RULlaiON 91 

Midi alut hold Iti be of liivina origin), and lUe Otu- 
'ffth oaw irxidlin^, (h« MulihnnunndsEi* bfUev« tu 
'bile bcL-n nu mucli nltercd an lii crnntain wry lltllr 
(rf th» iniu word ui' Had. Tlio Ckix>r -a'li ihey 
"baUenre lu buve ■utfered nu nlturetiun whiiteter. 
' It h rurlher nccMtiHry tlial the Muusllm lihuuld 
blfcve in tta« oKiilouce oratiguls, aud of i lie devil, 
'kind likewise ^vHii (nii jritarinodiiilo nice of twhiEs 
iKtween angrdi uitil niuii).' ulxu, in tlic! immortality 
'nf the sniil, the ^diet's I murrecliun and jtid|;in«Iit. 
Jh future rewards H ltd ptiiiiHhinitdti) iu I'urudiscL* 
'■Bd FIdl t. >■! tbe balunue in wliluli good uud avil 
works slialt Ix- weighed, and iu ibe bridge Ai-4bVa'/ 
"(«hicb Pxleiids tivor ibc uiidiil of Hell, tiner limit 
n hair, und Mharjkvr llian ibe edge of a. sword), 
iivtrr which ull iniisl pass, nndfVnm whicli Ibe wlckeid 
'iltiill full into ilell. lie believes, nlun, llmt Ihey 
-wtiii h&ve Bulcnowli'.dg:iKl tbefaitb of Muhbbim'iiuid 
•mA yet ticled wickedly will nut reuiuiii in llel! for 
■VrU; bat [li;it all cif ullier rell^lunx mml: tbat 
' there «e. huwever.degreeHof |iuiiishmciils, aswellii'i 
'ifwwards, — Ilie lonner coiigistiiig in seven- torture 
by excessive h^tit und eold, and llie lutlir, in the 
)ndn)gence of Ihe upgielilcs by niuet delicious meals 
nit drinks, und, above nil, by ihe ci)ni|mny of the 
'gSris of Paradise, whose eyes will be very large and 
nttlrely blBi:k J, and whose s(uture will be propor- 
tkmed to that of tlie men, which will be the height 
"df A tall palm-tree, or about sixty feet. Such, the 
'UooB'Hms ^eDeraliy believe, wtks the height of our 
4rs( parents. It is tiaid that the souls of martyrs 
'fMi^, until the juderment, in the crops of green 
,binlB, which eat of llic fruits of Paradise. Women 
W' not to be excluded from Paradise according' 

O-lOat'Bib or tlie garden. f Uchn/.um. 



to the Mohhammadaa fajthj though it has bMfi 

asiierted, by mauy ChristiaDs, that the Moofi'limR 
believe women ti> have no ,eods. In Mveral pUces 
in ihe Ckuor-a'n, Paradne is promised to all trOe 
believers, whether mnies or females. It is the dpe- 
Iririe of tlie Ckoor-a'ti that no person will be ^d- J 
mitLed into Paradise by his own merits; bat Ihtf I 
admission will be granted to the believers merely H 1 
tUe mercy of God ; yet that the felicity of eacb per 
son will be proportiooed to his merits. The ven 
meiinest in Paradise is promised "eighty thoiuaiu 
serrants" (beautiful youths, called welee'ds, at 
viida'n), " seventy-two wives of the girls of Para- 
dise" (_kkoo'ree'ijehs,ot hhoo'r el-'oyoo'ti), " besides 
the wives he had in this world," if he desire to ha^^ 
the latter (and the good will doubtless desire IIm 

gnod), " and a. tent erected for him of pearly jf^ m 

cinths, and emeralds, of a very large extent;" ^._ 
will be wailed on by three hundred attendants wtl^ 
he eats, and served in dishes of gold, whereof thr^e 
hundred shall be set before him at once, each con- 
taining: a. different kind of foml, the last morsel of 
which will be as grateful as the first ;" wine also, 
" though forbidden in this lite, will yet be freely 
.allowed to be drunk in the next, and without danger, 
since the wine of Paradise will not inebriate*." ^e 
are further told, that all superfluities from the bodup 
of the inhabitants of Paradise will be carried offi^ 
{wrapiration, which will diffuse an odour like thaLi^ 
musk; and that they will be clothed in the ricned 
atlis, chiefly uf green. They are also promised 
jierpetnal youth, and children as many as they may 
desire. These pleasures, together with the stmy 
of the angel Isra'fee'l, iind many other gratificolioM 

ICIM^ wffi ctinnn even tht meikniwt inhnbit- 
ut oT ParB<IiM;. But nil these «nj«yinciiu will h* 
9{^ly esieeined by lliUBt mure Uessed jwrBons who 
■K lo b« nilinitteil lu the highest of all bottuiirs 
— Ihiat !i|ilrtliiul pleasure of beholding, moriiini; unrf 
tiCBing. Uic face of OoH*. The Mow'ljra must 
tbo believe in the exumination iif'the dend in the 
Kjialchre, by two angels, railed Moun'kirnnil Ne- 
tMVf', of terrible aspetrl, who will cause th» budy 
(lb which the snti) Khali, for the lime, be re-iinii«d) 
to tit u[>right in the irnivej, »nd will ijiiesrion th« 
ilHttEed rcs]>cctrng; bis fuitli. The wicked they will 
attttely torture: but the gcM)d they will nut hurt. 
ZiUlly, be should believe in (Jnd'H absolute decree 
ofevery event, both good mid evil 'ITiin doctrine 
UB given to ns much eontrmersy among the 
lAon^ms as among CliriKiiuns; bnt tlie former, 
tfiitierDlly, believe in [i redes tiimlioii as, in eume re- 
lets, conditional. 

' Hi religious pmctlce, the most imjiortnnt duties 
^iAprayer, alms-yiring, fasting, an^ jiUgrimitge. 
* ite (¥ligiouspnri^f(i(/i»«jt, which iireof two kinds. 
iflrs^ the ordinary Bblnlion preparalory lo prayer, 
\M' seeontlly, tlie wusbing dC the whole body, tcfre- 
■^jrrvllh the performance of the former ablutiun, 
^ of primary importance: for jimyer, which is a 
^bi^ aa important Ihnt it is citlled "the Key uf 
^tadlRC " will not be accepted Irom a person in a 
tttie'ortincleauuess. It is therefore also necessary 

* AUDactim of some lenniing proreBKil to ire that he eon> 
■Aiedlbe dcscriptiunR of Paradiw! given in the daMr-a'n 
?1M, in ■ great meuure, li(;iir^tiiej " like Ihcwe," Bud he, 
>tBJlMtMMk pf tfaeRevrlBliDnof Sl.JptiU!" and lie MlunJ 
DC tint iDaay Ivanied MoDi'lini)' irere uf the samtt npiniuli. 

J Vulgarly calUd Xi-iir nnd Nekre't. 

(^TIk corpse in >hir«f a depositEd in b vnult, aud luit pUcfd 
«•_ V... jncKiy niiipped ia windiog-KliBKtii ut e\uAiK». 


to avoid impurity by clipping the nuls, shnving the 
head, and other similnr praulites*. 

There are partial waiihtngs,or))iirJlictilions, which 
nil Moos'lims perform on certain occasions, even if 
they neglect their prayers, and wiiicli are considered 
as religious avis-\. The ablution culled el-woodoo\ 
which is preparatory to jirsyer, I sha]! now deacribat 
The purifications just before alluded lu are a part 
of the woodoo': the other washings are not, uro^' 
cessity, to be performed im mediately after, hut only 
when the person is about to say his prayers; and 
the^e are performed in the mosque or in the houM^ 
in public or iu private. There is in every mosquti 
a. tank (called mey' da- ah'), iiv a hkanafae'yeh, wliielt 
is a raised reservoir, wiih spouts round it, from 
which the waterfalls. In some mos(|uea there ar* 
both these. TheMoos'lims of the Hhaa'afee si 
(of which are the Turks) perform the ftblulion at 
the latter (which has received its name from tlai 
cause) ; for they must do it with running water, oi 
from a tank or pool ut least ten cuhite in breadl^ 
and the ^me iu depth; audi believe thai .ttiiW 
is only one ntey'da-ah in Cairo of that depd^ 
which is in the great mosque El-Az'har. A sm^' 
hhanafee'yeh of tiuned copper, placed on a 1^ 
shelf, and a large haaiu, or a small ewer and b"-'- 
of the same metal, are generally used i 
for the performance of Uke woodoo'. . .j^ 

The person, having tucked up his sleevea a Ut^f 
higher than his elbows, says, in a low voice, or ia^ 
audibly, " I purpose performing the woodoo'i oK' 
prayer]." He then washes bis hands three tim^ 

■ Alludeil ta in the fint chapter. 

\ Fui aa account of these [irwiite sblulions, uid Ibe 
sioiH which lequite thtic perfonaanet, the reader may C( 
JiEUnd. Dh R.^1. Moh. pp, SO— 63. ed. 1717. 

\ All persons do not use exactly the i 


" In tlw n 

Unfn^, in the same manner as bcfow, ' 
TfOod. tlie Compassionate, Ihe Mercirul '. Pralw 
%eto QoA, whu hath given water fur puriflantlait, 
iM made el-Islu'm to be a ligtit and • dirpclitm, 
ud a ^ii<ie lo thy gardens, ibe gariien* "T dflichl, 
'Wi to thy mansion, the mannion "f pw"-" Tlini 
lb rfnaes his month three times, throwiiijt the water 
teta it with his riRht hand ' j and i" doiiMC Ai» h« 
i**^*' O God, assift me in the reiidlii(r ot ihy hook, 
wi'd in comtnemoraliiigThce, and in tliankin^Thee, 
duriuBtheperformaQCeof 'hoWwUw'; taJa^ 
'tiH oo wnrds during ll.u petfo""*^-,. , 




and in the beauty of thy worship." Next, with hhf. 
righl band, he throws water up his nostrils (snuffing 
it tip nt [he same time), and then blows it out^ 
compressing his nostrils with the thumh and finger' 
of the iejl hand ; and this also is done three time^. 
While doin^ it, lie sajs, " O God, make me to smell 
the odours of Paradise, and bless me with its i^ 
hg'hts ; and make me not to smell the smell of tfie 
fires [of Hell].'" He then wa.shes bis face thi^ 
times, throwing up the water with both handji, 
and saying, " O God, whiten my face with thy light, 
on the day when Thou shalt whiten the faces of H&f 
favourites; and do not blacken my face, on tu 
day when Thou shalt blacken the faces of thine en^ 
mies." His right hand and arm, as high as ths 
elbow, he next washes three times, and as mat|| 
limes eaiises Ftome water to run along his arm, f---'^^ 
the palm of the hand to the elbow, saying, a 
does this, " O God, give me my book in my i _ 
hand* ; and reckon with me with a slight reckoA^ 
ing." Tn the same manner he washes the left hiitj& 
and arm, saying, " O God. do not give me my bodk 
in my left hand, nor behind my back; and da tiot 
reckon with me withadiiTicult reckoning; noridti&s 
me to be one of the people of the fire." He neit 
draws his wetted right hand over the upper part'if 
his head, raising his turban or cap with his hfi: 
this he does but once ; and accompanies the actlfiiL 
with this supplication, " O God, cover me trith 
thy mercy, aiirt pour down thy blessing upon me}, 
and shade me under the shadow of thy canopyiVJn 
the day when there shall be no shade but itsshi 

■ To enery man is appiDpriated a book, in whith aiUltia 
odioaiorhislife are wrillva. The jiiirt man, ilistaid.mll 
rcceivu hii book in hi) right hsadj but the wicked,in.liisitBf^ 
which irill be tied behind his back : bit right hand beiqg tied 
op la hia neck. 

,Jf hebuve Alxnrd, hs then Minl»it with the w«tled 
-fingem uf bi* h^lit liuml ; lii>kJiii|it hi* tiHiid Willi 
th* palm furiVHrdfi, ami passing tlie fuller* ihnxii^h 
IhU beard Inim llie ihrunt u[)war<l<i. lie then piiM 
(tu UpS of his fpre-fingers into hU cnni, ftiid twiitlt 
ftlicBi round, pasKini^ his thumbs al thr mm* time 
uund the back of tlie con, t'rum the btituim ii]i- 
.WUds; aiif) saying;, " () (iud, innke tnc in Ije of 
_lii(ne who hitnf what in said, and oIh-v wlmi Ih bent ;" 
ur, " O Uotl, inftkc ii)c U' liear noifd." N>xi he wipes 
iis rwck with the biick of the tiii^m of bulb hiindR, 
making the ends of bis fing:prii nipet bcliind bin n«ck. 
.ud then dniiviii)^ them fitrward ; iind in doinc so 
be. uys, " O Uod, free my npck from tlic lire ; and 
.keep me IVom the cbain.^ und the collars, niwl Dm 
.fetterH." Lastly, he washes his feat, iih high uk 
,llic silkies, and passea hi» fin^eru between Ihe to«H : 

i)e washes the right font first, mying, at the xame 
, piffle. " O (lod, make tirm my foot u|>oii the Hin'i, 
Ml tfaeda; when feel shallslip upon it:'' on wuHhinfr 
,\)n-, Ufl liwi, he cayti, "O Hud, make my walking (ipprnvrd, and my xin forgiven, uud my works 
,<(ccepled,jnerchaudise that shall ant pemb, by thy 
.ffnliHir O Mighty'. O Foi^iver ! by ihy mercy, 
,pDKBt Mercifulof those wliu show m<?rcy !" Aller 
^i)i»uig thus completed the ablution, hi- utys, look- 

iu lownrds heaven, " Thine absoliile i^lory, O Ood ! 

^sBscrt] with ihy pniise: I testify ih«t there is no 
,|d^ty but Thrc alone: Thau hast nu companion: 

l.uiiplBK *^y fnrgivetwM, ami turn t« Tliee wi(h 
iiKOBiitaiice." Then, looking; tuwarda (he earth, be 

«f^ " f icfllify that there is no deity but Ood : 

feM I testify that Mohham'mad in his servant and 

Jlia apostle.'' HavLug- uttered these wunls, he sliould 
'li, once, twice, or three times, tlie Sao'Tat el' 
Ktfr, ot 97th chapter of the Ckoor-a'n. 
'"l«wbo(J«)'/Vg-eneraI(j' performed in leas I'bp.TvVW* 

a a 


Rtinutes ; most persons hurryine^ througli the a<^ 
OB well as oinilting almost ii)l the pruyen, &at 
whicli should accompany ami follow the actiom,^ 
ll is not required before encti of the five dai^ 
prayers, when the person is conscious of tiavldi| 
avoided, every kind of impurity siiiee the last pen 
formance of this ablution. When water cannot )]. 
easily procured, or would be iiijiiriouii to the healjtf 
of the individual, he may perform ihe ablulioD wit) 
dust or sand, This ceremony is called teyem'mooi^ 
The person, ia this case, strikes the paJms oi' hi{ 
hande upon any dry dust or aaud (it will suffice tt 
du so upon his cloth robe, as it must coutaiu fiOHH 
dust), and, with both hands, wipes his face: 1 
having struck his hands again upon the dust. ,^ 
wipes his right hand aud arm as high as the etbotfil 
and then, the left hand and arm, in the f — ^^ 
manner. This completes the ceremony. The- n 
ing of the whole body is often performed mere)) 
fuT the Hake ofcieanliuetjs; but not as a religiaui 
act, excepting on particular occasions — as on th4 
raorning of Friday, and on the two grand festivftlaj 
&c.*, when it is called ghoos'l. .,( 

Cleanhuess is required not only in the worshipper^ 
butalso in the ground, mat, carpet, robe, or whatevei 
else it be, upon which he prays. Persons of Vlil 
lower orders often pray upon the bare ground, whibS 
is considered clean if Jt be dry; and they seldoQ 
wipe of immediately the dust which adheret ti 
nose and forehead in prostration, for it is regarded 
as ornamental to the believer's face; but when, a 
person has a cloak or any other garment that. h% 
cau take off without exposing his person in an unf 

■ H«re, ugaia, I must bt); to rufu'i the rcailer (if lieilE^pri 
Biich iuforiiiBtlun} tu Rvlaitil's oci-DMiit ur th» ghgotl, 
n ivhich. (uqiuie its ptrHirmiincs. — De 3(fil, '" 


raumoK. 1 03 

becflming manner, ho xpreKils it upon the f-ttmrnd 
to serve as n (irnyer-curpet. The rich lue ■ pnyrr- 
«tr|Mt (culled seijgaUifh) uIkiui ihc sire uf mir 
hearth-rugs, having a niclie HipTcwwteil uyva ii, tli« 
pohit of which id turned towardf Mek'ki'h*, li is 
redtoned sinful to pass iienr betbre a person on- 
wed in pmyer. 

ftoyer is CLtlled sal'ah. Fiv* times in the counc 
' rf vverj day is its perfurmaiice required of Ibe 
Moos'lim; but there are earn para lively few ))cr«an» 
ia Egypt who do not sometimes, or often, neglect 
ihiamity ; and many who scarcely ever pray. Car- 
lain portions of the ordinary pruycrsare t-alled fiirtJ, 
wWch are appointed by the Ckoor-ii'n ; and oihers, 
KOn'neh, which are appointed by the Prophet, with- 
out ftllegalion of a divine order. 

The first time of pr;iyer is the muijh'rih, or suti' 
6ett> or, rather, about ftinr minutes luter; the 
stoond, the 'esh'e, or when the evening has closed, 
and it is quite dark \; the third, is the toobhh, or 
_/nff ;»'. r., day-break $ ; the fourth, the lioohr, or 
noon, or, rather, a little later, when the sun has 
begun to decline ; the fifth, the 'asr. or atiemoon ; 
i.«., about mid-time between noon and nighltal) ||. 

, ace now lolil 


JTlie Mohiiaramadaa day cummBncing from miinfll- 
The 'aah'e of the ShsTe'twB, MuTikee*. nnd Hham hel eel 
illrtien Hid tei gleam (nk-tlm/'yei tl-tMi'mar} ifler ninMt 
liu diwppearedi ami that of the HtiaD'aTriei, whea botlithe 
MiJ ttodthe white gleam 1«,VB iii»oppea'B<l' - - . . 

i Generally on the first fiiuit appearancfl ot light la tl 
BMt. The flhan'afee* mostly perform the motning-prayer .. 
Httle later, when Ihu yelloir aleam (_^l-iifir<fr) Bpp«>r.: thh 

Ihg- deem the most i,ru[.er time, but they ■"ay prny earh 
, f The 'a.r, iiccotdi,.g to the Sha'fe'ecs, ^.Hikee^ 
Hh«m'bel'ee.,U whe.. tEe shade of an •>'<'K^^'^''t\ 'L^ - 
li «uJ to the length ot that ohierf, nrfded to the lernglh o( 
. tW Oude whkhpie Muna object casta at noon; anfl.uiMt&wft 




Tbe Prophet would noL bave bis folioners pn^^t 
BunriBE, nor exactly at noon or euDset, became, b* 
aaiii, inttdels worshippeil the sun e,t such times. 

Should the timK of prayer arrive when kbey .u( 
Fating-, orabout to cut, theji ar« not bo ri»« to pnirW 
till they have finished their meal. The pnyaw 
should be said as nearly as possible at the tifam 
above menlioned : tliey niay be said atler, but nD( 
before. The several times of prayer are aDOouiuWif 
by theTTuin ed'f'i'iof each masque. Having ascemlw^ 
to the galkry of tile nia'd'neh, or jnen'a're^. )\t 
dhants the ada'n, or call la prayer, which ia as fair 
lawn: "God is most Great 1" (this i* said feVf 
timea.) " 1 testify that there ia do deity but Qod h" 
(twice.) " I testify that Mohham'mad ift Gutt^ 
ApoBtle!" (twice.) "Come to prayer!" (twicfli) 
"Come to security'." (twice.)* "God is nn 
Great ! ' (twice.) " There is no deity but Gad 
— Most of the inoo-ed'dius of Cairo have hwa ., 
niouB and soimrous voices, which they straia Id tjljt 
iittnost pilch 1 yet there is a simple and solvMI 
melody in their chants which is very Btrikin^,.pa{|- 
licHlarly in the slillDess of nightt- 

Two other calls In prayer are made during tl)p 
nighl, to rouse those persons who desire to perforip 
supererogatory acts of devotiouj. A little afl^ 
midnight, the moo-ed'dins of tbe great royal mosqMV 
in Cairo (i.e., of each of the great mosques founded 
by a Soolta'n, which is called Gdms' Soalta'neeii 
and of some other Large mosques, ascend the nia'4'r 
■ ■f 

to thu Hhonalbca, alien thethadow is (Mjuftltutinre the len|0 
«f the abject added Id the lea);tli of its mid-day bha.' - 

" Here is «ddiid, io Ibn morning cidl, " Pfnyet 
than 8l«*p 1" (twice.) 

f A tnniman aii, tu which the ad^'n ia cbantcd 
iriii lie given in tbn chapter uu £^](jitian Uiuic. 
; - / Tbey an few ahv do fu. ■ ( 

nehs, and chttnt the following call j which, boin^ 
me of the two niglit-calls not at ihe rrfirular iwHudu 
of obligatory prayerH, is called the Oo'la, a Wrm 
signifying merely " llie Firet." Having cninmeuctd 
by chuntiiig t'le common uiln'n, with iIuikv woHh 
Khich are introduced in the cull In morniiip-prnyM 
("Proyer is belter than sleep"), lie aiUU, " There 
ia no deily but God" (three limes) '' done : He 
hftlh no companion: to Him belongeth the do- 
afnion; and to Him bolon^eth pruise. He friveth 
lire, and transeth deotli ; and He is living, nnd kWI 
ne»erdie. In His hand is ble^ing [or pood] ; itnd 
He is Almighty. — There is no deity but God!'' 
(three limes) "and we will not worship niiy beside 
Him, 'serving Him with sinterily of religion",* 
•though the infidels be aversef [ihenlo], Tliere 
is no deity but God ! Mohham'inad is Ihe most 
noble of the creation in the sight oi' Goil. Moh- 
btun'mad is the best prophet und apostle and lord 
by whom liis companions have been governed ; 
cmnely; liberal of gifts; perfect; pteusant to the 
taste ; sweet; soil lo the throat [or to be dnink]. 
Pardon, O Lord, Ihy servant and thy poor depend- 
Ult, the endower of this place, and him wbu walchcs 
It with goodness and Iwneficence, and its neigh- 
bours, and those who irequent it at the times nf 
prsyers and good acts, O thon Bountiful! — O 
Lord ! I" (three times.) " Thou art He who cesseih 
■otto be distinguished by mercy : Then art liberal 
uT thy clemency towards the rebellious; and pro- 
lectest him; and covere^t the base; and art the 
iMlwrofeverjthing that is good; and thou beetuweet 
Ihy beneficence upon the servant, am] relievest him. 

t Sune, efa. ii. v. 33, and eh. bii, r. 8, 


fUhBuBtmiitifiil'— OLfifd!" (thre* ttme<(,) "Mjf 
Mks, when I ihink upon them, [I nee to be] mdnyj 
but the mercy of my Lonl is more abundant : % 
■m not so)tT:ttou« on nccount or good that I hvm 
done; but for the mercv of God I am raoat aoliciloufc 
Extwllwl he the Everlasting! He hath no oOfjt 
mttioii in his ^eiit dominion. His absolute glorf 
[I asserti : exalted be his name: [I assert] tf^ 
absohite glory of God." 

A built nn hour before i! ay break, the moo-ed'dlm 

of most mosques chunt the second call, named tte 

EVcd (which signifies " llie Eternal"), and bo called 

from Ihftt word occurring near the commencement 

This call is as follows : " [I assert] the absol^U 

Sriory of God, the Eternal One, the Eternal " (tlir* 

times) : " the abst)lute glory of God, the Desire 

the Kxisting, the Single, the Supre 

hilB glory of God, (he One, the Sole : the absolu^ 

f Hfm who takclb lo himself, ii 

u, iieUhtr female companion, 

uoc ttiiy like unto Him, nor any th^|6 

leot. nor titiy deputy, nor any equal, nor ftij" 

pring. Hisabsotute glory [I assert]: exalted L 

\n» iiumu \ He is a Deity nho knew what balh ben 

l<uibte it was, and called into existence what h^tq 

httdi : '.ind He is now existing as He was [at tlM 

IcMj- His Bbsolute glory [I assert] : exalted .M 

hi* ii&iiK- ' He is u I^ity unio whtim there is noiJl 

'■W cMMiu^. 't'h«re is none like unIo God, tU 

'luui.iiiui, '.(.hiiiiti- There Is none like untoGoA 

..' Tiiere is none like unto Q(i>Q 

I :nre is no deity but Thee,10 

.< :>ped and to be pralMd srA 

. ! .' Ei'lnrified. [I ussert] th«l' 

.-^r,. crealed all creaWreS? 

■listribiited their sust^ 

Utaiaiw. 107 

Wr Ijonl. llic JloutiUtul, ibu CUineiil, UicGrcat, 
fd^ttetli mil oii« uf lIicJii. [I imwrt] ihe atwulute 
glut^ t>f llini who, oriiis^jowcruiiJttreaIiii.*sii,cauaecJ 
tbe pure wutcr lo flow frimi lUt^ m>Ui1 t'luiiv, the nuukk 
oiTrocl;: ihc ub^luteKliryolHim wliuitpuke wiUl 
Our lord Moo'sa [ur Muses] upon tlic mouutuit*^ 
WlifFreiipoti Die uiiniutniii wns reduced lo duslt. 
IbfOUgh dread of God, wliuse uume be viulttid. ihe 
Oue. the Sole. There is no deity tut God. He m 
sjuftt Judge. [I aesprl] the abwiule glory of (he 
ipint- Bleseing uriil peuce he on iliee, U comely 
iif countenance ! O Apo.itlt! of God 1 BleiBJiig: nnd 
feace be on tliee, lir»>t ol' (he creiilures of Gu<l I 
B^Aseal orUie apoiilleE ot'Gud ! Blesfiini- and [leace 
M an Ihee, thou Prophet! on Ibec and oii ihy 
P^ily, and itU thy Conipanions. God is must 
Great! God is most Great V &c., lo the end of the 
call to uiorning-prayer. " O God. favour and 
myserve and bless the blessed Propliet, our lord 
■obham'mail ! May God, wlxise name be blessed 
iuid exatled, be well plea.'^ed with Lbee, our lord 
Bl-Hhaa'an, and »iih lliee. O our lord El-Hliose/n, 
it)d with thee, O Ab'oo Farra'gJ. O Sbeykb of the 
Arabs, and with all the favourites [the viel^ces] of God. 

' ,The prayers which are performed daily at the five 
DtfiodB before mentioned are said to be of so many 
«fr"aA«, or inclinations of the head}. 

i.*TliMBwoiJ«, "The olaulule glory of Him who Bpake,'' 
te. ((mCM^ho mn. ktritma, Ac), aie pronounced ia a veijr 
U(lt Bad loud loae. 
VSe? CVor-fl'n, ch. vii. v.l 39. 

ijj -M ^h'uD yarta'g" is a surnanie of a famous kud(, tlw 
•rtriAAhhlniKl Kl-Bed'awee, hnntd at Tuota, in tha Deltas 
U tpi^lin thut he uhlains relier to tbosu who viiit his lanib> 

■Qji py lw 




The worsliipper, standing with his face towords 
the Ckib'leh (ihat is, towaiJs Mektieh), Burl his feet 
not qaile cluse tn^iher, says, iouudibly, that he hna 
purposed U) recite ttie prayers of so many rek"ahi 
(»oon'neh orfurd)i theioorning-pmyerB (or [tie noon, 
4c.}of the present day (or ni^ht) ; °"d then, raising 
hiB open hands on each side of his ftce, ati'l loucli- 
iag the lobes of his ears with the end:* of liis lituinbs, 
he Says, "God is most Great'.' (Aila'lioo Ah'bar.) 
This ejaculstioii is culled the tekbee'r. He then 
proceeds to recite the prayers of the prescribed num- 
ber of rek"Bhs*. 

Still stundin^, and placing; his hands befort; him. a 
little below his jrirdle, the left within the riffhl, he 
recites (with eyes directed towards the spot jrherfl 
his head will touch the ground in proGlraikm} the 
Fa't'hhiili, or opening chapter of tlie CluKir-a'nf, auAi 
after it three or more other verses, or one of the 
short chnplers, of the Ckoor-n'n; verycommonly iIm 
ll2th chapterj but without repeating the bisinil'liill 

the evening, three fard aaci tvu soun'nuli; bikI the niifhl' 
prayiMS(or'Bsli'a), four aoDn'ueh and four fiinl, and two xmb^- 
urh again. After these aie yet lu be ]ietl\)imL'd thiee tck"ali« 
wilri i.e. single or separate prajera: theas may beperfoniMi 
imnieitiataly after the 'eMS prayers, or at nuy time in ttiit 
night ( bat are more meritorious if /ulf in the night. 

» There are some little difierenees in the nltitiidct of t^ . 
four great sects duiing prayer. I dcsctibu those ofllie HhipV 

f Some penons prefioualy uttvt eertain supeierogatDiT ^^ 
CulaiionS] exptesaive of the praino and glaiy of Oud ; ana atft- 
" t seek rel'ugu with Gud IVom Satiia the accutaed ;" wbi^ 

StitioD is often offered up Lefore lecitiog any part of tltf 
luoMi'n on other oeeaaions, aa eomtnauijed hy the dkntf- 
afn itMlf (eh. ivi. V, 100). Tlie Ckoor-a'a is usually recitB*. 
in thu furd prayiTS, in a voice slightly audibU, txtepAog M 
BODS nnd the 'tuit, when it is recited iuaudibly. Ity lma'm( 
when praj-ing at llie head of others, anil stimetiaiea hypenom' 
praying alone, it is etiantcd. Id the looa'neli piayeilili( 

i-^ilawiot r«yer. (Poll.) 

(In the name or God, &c.) before the second recita- 
ti^fi. He iheii suys, "God is moat Great!" and 
fWU, at tbe same lime, an inclinalion of his head 
Mil-bady, plscini^ liia hands upon his knees, and 
wt^tje»(^ap his finders a little. In this posture he 
Wftf'.''.t^ assert] the absoluie glory of my Lord, 
ft^.jOteal!" (three times); ailding^, "May God 
Wt U™ who praieeth Him. Onr Lord, praifte be 
■Mn Thee f Then, raising his head and body, lie 
lljfAls, "God is most Great!" He nexl Ato\« 




gently upon his knees, and, sajing og^in. " Cud is< 
mnsi Great '." placts his bunds upon the groiindji 
a litile before liis knees, aint puta hi» nose 
Ibreheiid also to tlie gTouiul ((he fiiritier firs;), be-v 

wfcn his two handH. Durinir this prostratinn 1 
novf, " [I assert] the absolute glory of mv Lfird, tbilfl 
MiiBl High!" (tliree times). He raises his h«nl 
mnii body (but his knees remain upon ihe grnund), 
e/alta backwards upon his heels, and places his liands 


apAn hiH thighs, ufing, at the mme time," C)»d 14 
moat Great!" nml tbii Iw repeats as he bend> hia 
heail a second lime to Ibe grounJ. I>iinn{{ tilia 
KCDiid prostruliiin lie repeals ihu «aine wordq hh in 
the first, aiiil in TMsing tiie head «g&in, he utters the 
lekbee'r as before. Thiw are uompleted Ihe pmyew 
nTniie rek"ali. In M Iba chatigea of poiture, Ihe 
liws of tite right foot must tnil be nioirec! frum the 
tpot wbere they were first placed, and the leit foot 
should b« tnoved as lliile tui pnasible. 

Uuvjng finisheil the prayers of nne rck"uli, the 
forshipper ri^es upon Ins feet (Irnt wilhimt inuving 
liis toes from the spot where iliey were, iiartlculurly 
ttuise nf the right foiit), and repeuta the same ; tm\y 
he atiould recite some other chapter, or partiiin, niter 
tlic F&'l'hbah, than that wliich lie repented beCurt, 
ih, for instaiiee, the lOSlh chapter*. 

After every tKond LYii"iih (and after tlie tait, 
lliough tliere be an odd number, as in the evening 
fnid), he dues not immediately raise his knees fniin 
the ground, hut bends liis left foot under tiim, and 
^l« upon it, and places his hands upon his thighs, 
"ilh the fingers a Htllc apart. In this poature, lie 
says, " Praises are lo Ood, and prayers, and good 
wirkK. Peace be on thee, O Prophet, and the mercy 
ofQod, and his blessings ! F^ace be on ub, and on 
Ml] the right worshippers of God !" Then raisin^f 
uw first finger of the right handf (but nut the hand 

■ In the Ibiid snil fouith luid rck^'alis, the rccilatiuu of a. 

miri pnrlion ot ihe Ckuui-a'a aiWc the Fa't'lihah tliould be 
mitled ; and before furd prayBri of fiiui rek'ahi, the icia'innl 
[*bicfa coauitt of the works ofthe adu'ii, villi the addition of 
"Ihntuiie of prayer is come,'' pronouuced twic?eafier--conuIa 
mimfttty khonld be tepeated ; but most persons aeglact doiug 
lU)t.Bod many do not ohKetve the former rule, 

tXhe dottort of Kl-Iila'm differ renpecling the proper pO»t- 
tioo*r Ihe fi"Beta "f the right hmul oD tbi* oetasioo; loice 
)uU ibil nil tbe Antcets but Ihe firit are tu be doutAaA, u 

" rfJJ.ofiheskBlehofthepusluteiQtivniei. 

II 2 



itself), he aiMs, " I testify that there is no deily bul 
God; and 1 teslify that Muhham'mad is his servant 
Biid his apoBtle," ' 

After the liul rek"ah of eacli of the prayers (Ihill 
is, after ttie sonn'iieh prayers and the furd ahke^, 
after saying:, " Praises ore to God," &.C., the worship- 
per, looking upon his rig-lit shoulder, says, " Peacfe 
be on yoti, and tlie mercy of God!" then, Inokiiij^ 
upon the left, he repeats the same. These sahitn- 
tions are cousidered by some as addressed only K»i 
the giiardian angels wjio watch over the lielieve^, 
and note all liis aiilionB;* but others say that ih^' 
are addiessed botli to angels and men (i. e, believen^ 
only), who may be present; no person, howevet 
returns them. Before the salutations in the latt 
prayer, the worshipper may uHer up any sliort pet^ 
tinn (in Si:riptural language rather than his own) j 
while he does so looking at the paiins of bin two. 
hands, which he holds like an open book before biin, 
and then draws over his face, from the foreheao 

Having finished both the soon'nch and furd prayer^, 
the worshipper, if be would acquit himself coiA* 
pletely, or rather, perform supererogatory acts, rt« 
mains silting (but may then sit more at his eas^Y 
and reciles the ^'yei e/-K)or'see, or Throne-Verte 
whith is the 256th of thaSd chapter of theCkoor^a'nfl 
and adds, " O High ! O Great ! Thine abaoluleglon 
[r asserl.] lie tiien repeats, "Theabsoliileglorv'tt 
Oud !" (ihirty-three limes.) "The absolute ploM 
oi" God, the Great, with his praise fur ever !" (once.l 
■' Praise be to God !" (ibirty-three times.) " ExIolfM 
be his dignity ! There is no deity but Him,'' (bnc<£,] 

i Bvgiuuingwittilliu worda "Godl Ihvte is no 4eilu,|!ltl 
tJW'" ""' Kuding, with, •', P" " Ufc* B,%h,t|\e,C^sfl^.j, 

" p9^ is most Grcnt !" (ihirty-iliree limeg.) " God 
koiastGrent in prcnlness, niiH praise be Hi God jn 
Rbuiidsiice!" Conte.) He courts tlii-»e rcp^litions 
^rllhi a string (it'beaila ctiWe A seb'hhah (more properly 
ttoi/hh^h). Tiie betuh are niiiely-iiinc, nml Imvu u 
park belweun euch thirly-ihrtfc. Tliey artofiiloes. 
Df oth«r orto rife rolls IT precioii* uoixl, or (if cornl, or 
of certain fmii-sirnies, nr seeJs, 4c. 

Any wsnderiiig vS the eyes, ur (if (he tniiiH, a 
nugtiini;. Of ihe like, answering a tiiicslioii, or (iiiy 
'ii;lian u<'t prescribed lo be perfaruied, tniist be 
Strictly avoided (ualcf^s it be between the soiiii'neh 
^BT^rs and ihe lurd, or be difHuttli to avoid, for it is 
^IVE^d allowable to make ihree slight irre giikr mutiotis 
cjr deviaii"i>s from correct deporlmcTii); 
Qle wur&hippcr must begin aguiii, m.d repeat liia 
Pfvyere with due reverence. It i» considered ex- 
tjemeiy sinful lo interrupt a man when eiigiiji;ed i)i 
|bn devotions. The lime usually occi.pied in re- 
peating the prayers of four Tek"ahs, witlnmt the 
supererogatory additions, is less than four, or even 
''^ree minutes. The Moos'Um says tt.e five daily 
jrayers in his house or shop or in the mosnue, ac- 
fbrding as may be most convsnient lo liim : it is 
'selilom that a person goes Ironi his house lo Ihe 
'b'osiiue to pray, excepting to join the congregation 
Ipn'Friday. Men of the lower orders ofttner pray 
ni) |he tnosques than those who have a comforliible 
Jtonie, and a mat or carpet iipim which to pray. 
J ^he same prayers are said by the conitregation 
Jin llit, mosque nu the noon of Friday, but there, afe 
.additional riles performed by the Ima'm aiid vlli^r 
fiiiiis'ters on ihis (iccaaion. The chief reasooa for 
;J^iflg upi>u Friday, as the Mohljammadau Sabbalh, 
were, it is saiiJ, beunnse Adam was createil on that 
'-fltj; «mt( tlied on ilie same day of Uie vieelfi, ^.nA 
• ' - iheseoeral refiurrectlon was pro^iwwftiVi 

new \ 

happen on thai day ; whEiice, parlicularly, Friday 
named the day iif Et-Goom"ah ("or Ihe aHsemblyJ. 
The Mooa'lim iloea not abstain from worltily bus " 
ou Friday excepting ilurinc; llie time al' praye 
cunliilp; \o itie precept of the Ckour-u'ii, eh, ikii., yv. 
9 and 10. 

To tbrm a proper conception of llie ceremonial^ 
of the Pridsy- prayers, it is necessary to have soittii 
idea of ilie interior of u mosque. A inoitqae in 
which acoHfrregation aseembles toperrorni the Fridajf 
prayers is CQlled ga'm'e'. The niosqnes of Cairo atk 
GO numerons, that none of them is inconTenientl- 
crowded on the Friday ; and some of Uiem 
large as to occupy spaces three or tour hundred let 
square. They are moiilly huih of stone, the alti 
nate courses of whiuh are g^eneraliy coloured 
nally red and while. Most commonly a large mosql 
consists of porlicoes surrounding a square opi 
court, in the centre of which is a tank or a fuuntai 
for Hblutiim. One side of the building facn 
direction of Mek'keh, and the portico on this nidt^ 
being; ihe principal place of prayer, is more spacinU^ 
than those on the three other sides of the court} 
it generally lias two or more rows of columns, ftiri 
ing so many aisles, parallel with the exterior waltj 
In some cases, Ibis portico, like the oiher three, 
open to the court ; in other cases, it is separal 
from the court by partitions of wood, connecting tl 
front row of columns. In the centre of its CKieiil 
wall is Ihe mehhra'b (or niche) which marks tt 
direction of Mek'keh ; and to llie right of this ia tl 
tnim'bar (or pulpit). Opposite the niehhra'b, iil tl 
tore part of the portico, or in its central parl.tfai 
is generally a platforni (ciitled dik'keh), 
by u. parapel, and supported hv small eoli 
by it, or before it, are one or two seals, having 
bind of desk to bear a volume of Ihe Ckour-ft'l 

• ■' /^ lil'l it 
!;-.. ■..:r 

1 . , » 

, . * 

.■ ' ■ ■" ' 




. . 1 


r 1 


■ 1 1 


- :' 


-." S 

# I-, 


.■ ■ 


■ ■ V, 


. ■ < 





: ) 

. ■ : /■. 

■■■<,! /; 

■ Min,'j 

• •;• : 1» 

; ii'iurxr 


ffom which n chapter is read lo the cimjre^lioii. 
The mbIIs arc genernlly quite pluiii, beiMg iiimpty 
Dhile- washed ; hut in cume niuBtjiivi the lower pirt 
of the wull uf the pluce nf prajier is lined wKh 
culoured marlilea, and the oilier part nniameiiii-ii wlih 
various devices executed in slucm, but miwlly with 
lexis ut' the Ckoor-a'ii (which furni Uing frieses, 
hBTing a jileasing etfc.'C<)> &>iil never wilh ihe rrprc- 
MntAtion of anything thai has Ufe, The pHvemeiit 
is cohered whh nmithig, and the rich and poor pray 
side by side : ihe man of rank or wealth enJDyin|; 
no peculiar disiiiiction or comlWt, unlesi (which is 
wmetimes ibc case) he have a praycr-enrpel brought 
by his servant, and spread lor him*. 

The Prophet did not forbid iroiTirii Ui attend public 
prayers in a ninsque, but pronounced It belter for 
them to pray in private; but In Cairo neither (emalea 
nor young boys are allowed lo pray wilh the con- 
grefEStion in the mosque, nor even lo be present In 
the inoBqne at any time of prayer: Inrmerly woineu 
were permiiled (and perhaps are still iu some conn- 
tries), but were uhli^^ed lo place theinsetvcH Hpurt 
Iroin the men, and behind the latter; heiause, as 
Sale has remarked, the Moos'limti are of opinioa 
that Ihe presence of females inspires a dilferent liind 
of devotion from thai wbicli is rci|uisi1e in ii place 
dedicated lo Uie worship of God. Very few wi>mcn 
in Egypt even pray at home. 

Over each of the musques of Cairo presides a 
Ni^zir (or warden), who is Ihe trustee of the fimds 
which arise Irom kncls, houses, S(c. bequeathed to 
ttie mosque by ihe founder and others, and who ap- 
points the religious ministers and the interior ser- 
mite. I'wo Ima'TTuare employed toofficiate in each 
irflhe lai^er mosques; one of them, called the Kka- 

[111! ari.' s^vural liifrimr, in eich of 



le'eb, pfeaches and prays before the conj^regation 
the Friday : tlie other is an Ima'm Ra'tib, or onllnBif 
ima'm, who retites the five praj'ers oi' every day ■■ 
tlie mosque, at the head of those jKrsons who may fat 
there at the exact times of those prayers ; but in 
of the smaller mosqueB both these offiL-es are pen- 
formed by one Ima'm. There are also to eadi 
mosque one or more titoo-cd'dins (to ehant the cd| 
to prayer), and bowwa'bs (or dooT-keepers), accords 
ing as thereare one or inore ma'd'nehs (ormena 
and eDlrauces; and several other servanla are 
ployed to sweep the mosque, spread the mats, light' 
the lamps, and attend to the sa'ckiyeb (or waiepi 
wheel), by which the tank or fountain, and otbtt 
receptacles for water, necessary to the perform anois of 
ablutions, are supplied. The Ima'nis, and thoM 
persons who perform the lower offices, are all paU 
Irom the funds of the mosque, and not by any c(m^ 
tributioiis exacted from the people. 

The condition of the Ima'ms is very different. Is 
most respects, from that of Christian priests. Th^ 
have no authority above otber persons, and do udt 
enjoy any respect but what their reputed piety Ot 
learnini'' may obtain them ; nor are they a distinbt 
order of men set apart for religious oflices, like otst 
clergy, and composing an indissoluble fraternity; ttM 
a man who has acted as the Ima'm of a mosque nurt" 
be displaced by the warden of that masque, and, tvilk 
Ills employment and salary, lories the title of Ima'iri, 
and has no better chance of being' again chosen fdt 
a religious minister than any other person competetit 
to perform the office. The Ima'ms obtain iheil' 
livelihood chiefly by other means than the sei 
of the mosque, as their salaries are very small ; that 
of a KhateeT) being a;enerally about a piaster (3f A 
of our money) pet month, and that oi" an ordinalj 
Jaiii'm about five piasters. Some o( tVicm cngaet 


■ Bade; se^uinl nl tbeni are 'alla'n (.rt drugf[iili8 
BOil perl'unien), aitd tuaiiy of Uwm are Hchwilmw- 
IH»: ibane wtio hav« no i«gular ovcupHtioiiti ol' UieM 
kinda often recite ihe Ckwir-a'n few liirc in private 
ItOUMfl. I'hey an: niOBtly cIuMcn i'runi amcinif Ibe 
poor Btudeula of (lie great muMguc tit-Atc'tiat. 

The large mostiueti art <.i|)en i'ruin ilaj-bieak till n 
liUje ttfler tlic eeli'S, or lilt iirarly iwe tiuuia aliei 
minseL Ttie others are closnl between the hours uT 
nonuiii; and iioou prayera ; iind moat ino«<|uM an! 
tIsocloMd in rajuy wealher (exceptitifc nt the titun 
of pr»ycr), te«t persons who have tici nlun-s should 
nWr and dirt the pavement and mallinfj;. Such pas 
tons always enter by Ihe door iiean-nt thr tank or 
fountaiu. (if there be more than uiie door,) that they 
■Bay wuah belbre tliey \tas« into ttie ^[nve of ]irnyMi 
sod ^Derally this duor ulune is left ojien in dirty wea- 
ther. Tlie gr«ai inosqite El Av,'liar reiiiaiii.« a|x'u ull 
night, with tlie eicepliun of llie priiiuipal plecu ol 
fnytr, whieh ia called lUe muck.'oo'raft. briii)^ pui^ 
titianed off I'i'om the rest of tbc building. In many 
kf the larger mosques, particularly in liie aflerruiou, 
fMnons are seen lounging, tliatting together, eating. 
ilMpiog, and sometimes spinning or sewing, or cn- 
pged in some other sitnple c-rall; but. nolwithstand- 
ilg sitch practices, the Muos'lims very highly respect 
(bar Dioe(|ue8. There are several mostgues in Cairo 
(u t^ Ax'har, Hbasaiiey'n, &c.) ^e/iirf which no 
Fnnki nor any other ChrisLiati, nor a Jew, were 
•Uowfld to pass, till of late years, since the Ficncb 

I. On Lbe Friday, half an hour before the dofi/ir (or 
Uwn), the moo-ed'dins ol the mosques osceml to Uie 
^Ueriea of the mu'd'nehs, and chant the Sela'm, 
jvUeh ia a salutation to the Prophet, not alwuys ex* 
fcesaed in the same words, but g;enerally in words la 
J^^^waig ^ffevt i-r-" Bleaalng and \uiac«i^ oaUuAt 

\ Oth( 

li FGTPT1.\N8. 

O thou of great liigiiily! O Appslle (if God! Bles- 

BJng mid peace be on thee, to whom llie 'IViUli Said, 1 
am God '. Blessing and peucc be on thee, thoii tiret 
of the creatures of God, and bcilI of the Apostles nf 
God '. From me be i>eace uii thee, niid on tbip 
Family and allthy CompEuiions!" Persons then begirt 
to assemble in the mosques. 

The utmost solemnity and decorum are observed 
in the public worship of the Mooslims, Their looks 
and behaviour iit the moai^iic are not those of en- 
Ihusiastic deyotion, but of calm and modest pietr. 
Never are they guilty of a designedly inegutar woitI 
or BcUon during their prayers. The piirie and fana- 
ticiem which they exhibit in common life, in inter- 
course with persons of thsir own or of ii dilfercnt 
faith, seem to be dropped on their entering fli* 
moBCjue, and they appear wholly abnorbed in the 
adoration of their Creator; humblf and downcast, 
yet without aHected humility, or n forced expression 
The Mooslim takes otf his nhoes " 

the door of the mosque, carries them in his left hroctt 
sole to sole, and puis his ri^ht foot first over 'll# 
threshold. If he have not previouslyperfonned 
preparatory ablution, he repairs at once to the t 
or fountain to acquit himself of that duty. BeAirt 
he commences his prayers he places his shoes {uM 
his sword and pistols, if he have such arms,) ap&n 
the malting:, a little before the spot where his herf 
will touch the £^uud in prostration : his shoes art 
put one upon the other, sole to sole, ' 

The people who assemble to perform the nooni 
prayers of Friday arrange ihemaelves in rows patuilel 
to that side of the mosque in which is the niche, arii^ 
facing that side. Many do not go until the nda'n of 
noon, or just before. When a person goes iit,orf 
little after, the Sela'm, as soon as lie has taken bis 
pJace ia one of the ranks, he perfonns 'wo rek' ulis. 

«ait;Ui«<t TCin.iins kitliiur, nn hi> Vittn or cnrw 
leglQtd,. wbMc n rvatl^r. tt'iviiifr seuUd liimnrlt' on t)ic 
[M(liujt-«hairiiiiiuecIiiUciy aiur (lie SvIk'ri, ix ocoipivcl 
iu rtvitin^ (usiiull) witluiiil book) the Sooralel-kHlil' 
(Ibr iSfh I'liupter uf llw Ck(ior<u'n),or opnrt of U: 
E>r, gtnrruU}, lie ba.* ciol linishetl il bct'orc ihc aiin'n 
crTnooa, wlieu lie "■tops. All ibe eoiisTe)(«ii<m, hssihw 
Ulheybear Uie mian (which if> (li« Baont: as on oltwr 
d^ii), eit on their knees and Teet. When the uAafu 
» finished, they tiiaad up and peTfonii, curb fc- 
pemel):, two • rek'ahs, soon'nel el-gnam'ah (or the 
wpn'neb onUnance for I'riday), which th«y i-undude, 
iike tlw ordiniuy prayers, with the two msJuiALions. A 
wmnt oi* the mosque, cuilnl n miioruck'rkrc, th«ii 
tpimtliE I'olilin^-doors at the foot ufllie pulpii>stiui», 
likes irom behind them a.stmi£rht, wooden snord, and, 
it<u><lins ulittle to the right of the door-way, with his 
right side towards the ckib'leh, holdti (his sword in 
hiq n^t hand, resting ihe point on the grounil : in 
A)»|)OMtion he says, " Verily God (uvoureth, waA his 
mgeh bless, the Prophet. O ye who believe, blete 
uin, and greet him with a t^ahitation !" Then, one or 
Mfre persons, called Muobal'Iighs, stationed on the 
dik'kco, chant the following, or similar words t- " 
Cffdli favour and preserve anil bless Uie most noble 
Bt.the Arabs und 'Ag'am [or foreigners], the Ima'm 
Sf.JAek'keh and El-Medee'neh and the Temple, U> 
^fbetu the spider showed favour, and uove its web in 
the cave; and whom the dubbj saluteil, and before 
wbom the moon was cloven in twain, our lord Moh- 
Iwinfinad, and his Family and Companions !" 1 he 

tflCamb^lou^i but it' fif Ihat uf the KhtLD'A^an, /ovriM- 


.HJe/oJi of Imanl, the /onrr/a Jjij/r 



Moontck'chee then recites tfaeada'u (which lite Moo- 
ed'dins have already chanted) : after every few words 
bl^ pauses, and the iMuobal'ligiha, on the dik'keh, repent 
the same wards in a. sonorous chaiil *. Before the 
ada'n is liaished, the Khutee'h, or Ima'm, comes 
to the fool of the pulpit, takes the wooden Eword fttjm, 
the Moonick'ckee's hand, ascends tlje pulpit, and sila 
oil the top step or piaiform. The pulpit of a latge 
mosque, on Liiis day. is decorated with two fl&gk, 
with the profession of the laith, or the names of God 
and Mohhain'mad, worked upon them : these ftre 
fixed at the top of the stairs, slanting forward. Tlie 
Mooruck'ckee and Moobal'lighs havinir finished the 
ada'n, the ftirmer repeals a tradition of the Fro|^et, 
saying. " The Prophet, upon trhom be blessing; aud 
peace, hatli said, ' If thou bast said unto thy eoinpH'- 
qiou while the Ima'ni is preaching on Friday, Be tbiM 
silent, ihoii hQ£t spoken iitshly.' Be ye silent: VQ 
shall be rewarded: God shall recompense you." Ht 
then sits ilowu. The KhateeTj now rises, axak, 
boLding the wooden sword -j- in the same manner as 
the Moornek'ckee did, delivers an exhortation. caB 
k/ioai'bet eltoaas. As the reader may he curious 
see a translation of aMobhammadanscrmon, 1 insert 
one. The following is a sermon preached on tlw 
first Friday of the Arab year|. The original, as 
usual, is in rhyming prose. 

+ To commnmiiate the arquiaitmn nf Egypt by the sw 
JDuiing-myfirit vigil lo Egypt, I went til the^atml . _ 
Kl-Ai'har, to witncts Ihw purromiaiiM of tho Fiidiy-pnyflCi 
)>y the liugeal concrtKation in Cairo. J was piL'nied with thtt. 
invBching of the Khatce'b cf the nia»que, Ga'd GI-Ho»'la, 
ouil aflerwardi ptoeunjLi hi« serroon-boofc (rfmpa'w ihml'ai)i, 
«iintiiiniii(( senDDDB for every Friday in the yesr, aBil fu " 
two 'trill! »>' gToai fcBtivuli. t tnuulate the Scat teimon 

. " Pniae be to God, llie naeoitr of ^enr*, uid tti« 
,JiuiIli(ilier of favours, ami th« creulor ot niontlw milil 
idaft. acconliiig: to the iikjsi (nHvci wmlom aiiH uiuol 
.•dmiriiblc jiidgmeot; wtiu luult ilignilhnl \\w months 
iif llic Ambfi ubuve all niiuitliM, aiiil iirnnnutiirH Uint 
, UDong ihe iDort? eKccIliiit of ttwiii is Kl-Mnfabar'rnm 
,ttie Sacred, and uoinmancpd with ii the ycor, an he 
Ji»th c\oeitd ii ffiih ZiK»-l-)lhe(c'^('h. ilow pro- 

fieus ia ihc beginuincc, utui hiiw giHiil J!i rhe rml ! 
MseertJ his absoluce ^lury, «x«ni)itlti){ llini rmni 
ibe nssodttiioii vl' uny oilier deitj) wiili Him. He 
JittU vretl (»u»ider«d whtit He hath tbrtiied, and e»l%- 

J)liflli«d wbal He hath contrived, Mid Ur alollp tioth 
tbe power to (create ami lo aiinihllale, 1 praise Him, 
ifwtfling Ilia absolute glory, aud rxaltiii); his immc, 
lot the kuowled^ and inspiration whit^li He tiatli 
.glbciausly vouchsafed ; ami I tfMlily that Iherf Ih iiu 
uritf bul (iod alone ; He hath uo conipanion ; He 
» liw moat lioly King ; the [God ufj p«ace r and i 
tettity tbftt our lord and our Propliet aiid our frienil 
MohWn'mad in his servEiit, and his apostle, nnd hia 
elect, and hii^ intiuiBte, the guide of the way, and tin.* 
bu^ of the dark. O Uod I favour and preserve and 
lllns this noble Prophet, and chief und encellent 
apostle, the merciful-hearted, our lord Mohhuin'mad, 
.uid his &imily, and his companions, nnd his wives 
and his posterity, and (he people of hia house, the 
noble persons ! and preserve theni amply ! ser- 
HBuls of tiod '. your lives have been gradually ratr- 
tailed, and year after year bus pussecl away, and >e 
are sleeping on the bed uf indolence and on the 
.I^Hpn of siubbornness. Ye puss by the lumbs of 
jour predecessors, and fear not the ussault of des- 
tiny Bud destruction, as if ottiers departed from the 
WOrW and ye most of necessiLy remain in it. Ye re- 
\tSce at the arrival of new years, as if they brouglit 
an Increase to ibe term of life, and svi'iia va '<!a.t ^avs. 


of desires, aaA enlarge your hopes, and iu every -wttyA 
exceed other people [in presuniptiiin], and j'e 
siuggiKh in doing- ^ood. O how ijjeal a calainil 
this ! God teachelh by on allegory. Know ye 
that in the curlailment of lime by iiidoleute auAj 
sleep there is very g;reat trouble ? Know ye not Itutfl 
in the cuttinjf short of lives by the termination ofs 
years is a very great warning? Know ye not thatt 
ibe ni(^ht and day divide the lives of namirons sottK ? 
Know ye not that health and capacity are two blessio! 
ings coveted by many men? But the truth bath bvtl 
come manifeatlo thosewbo have eyes. Ye are ncnr; 
between tw i years: one year bath pai^sed awny, aurt- 
come to an end, with its evils; and ye have enterad' 
upon another year, in which, if it please God, mantr. 
kind shall be rcheved. Is any of you determining 
upon diligence [in doing good] in the year to coin«lS 
or repenting of his failings in the times that avtp 
passed ? Tiie happy is he who makes nmends fi>«> 
the lime passed iu the time to come ; and the niisefHl 
able is he whose days pass away and he is cnrdlcsa 
or his time. This new year hath arrived, and.-tho*, 
sucred month of God halh come with blessini^i 
you,— the ftrst of the months of the year, and of 
four sacred months, as hath been said, and the a 
worthy of preference and honour and reverence ! 
fast is the most excellent of fusts after that which 
innimbent", and the doinr; of j^ood in it is amoi 
the most excellent of the objects of desire. V" 
ever desires to reap ndvonlage from it, let hi 
the ninth and tenth days, looking lor aid. Abst 
not from this fiist through indolence, and esteemili 
it a hardship ; but comply wilb it in the best n 
oer, and honour it with the best of honoorB, 
improve your time by the worship of God, momiaj 
and evening, Turn unto God with repen(an(»i 
* That uf the month ol Kum'aAa,'iv. 

Alnen I] U Liniof aD craaUfnT — IV K^ImV 

InmlBtMm t : — 

*^nawe be to God, abimduit ptatw, as He lulh 
(nDmanded ; 1 taSj tfaM tbcne » do deiiv but Ood 
■bne; Ue tuth im compaeion : aSinuiug hts su- 
lOfrasCT. aiul conJrginiiijt bim wbo drniclh and di»- 
bdneli) : uid 1 Lesti^ thai our IcnL nnil mv J'tuphei 
UaUwBi'DlBd is bia sensnt and liis apostle, the lord 
of BMikind, the intercesMir, the accepted intenxsrar, 
onllie d»y uf asseoibliiic : Hod tt\mit him and bis 
ftnuly m long as the eye aecth and Itio ear bcaraitit 
() peofde ! reverence i.iod by doing- nbiit ll« bull . 
comuuided, and ab^taiu tram that which He luiUii 
brbiddan and prohibited. The liappy is he wlu», 
efaeyeth, and the miserable is he whu opposelb ouil . 

■" ThB Khatee'li ol.iaj™ closes his txhottu'wa mith WWlfi 
H»ilndilwnf ■>( tlip Fn>Fhet. ' ' i.t; .ii.tijinl 




of de-tires, and enlarge your hopea, and in evef y wayii 
exoeed olher people [in presumption], and yt' aj» . 
sIli^Nh in doing •j;oad. how ^eat a calainily is 
ihtR ! God teachelli by un allegory. Kitow ye not i 
ihat in the curtailment of lime by indolence niht) 
sleep there is very great trunble? Knuw ye not thatii 
in the cutting short of lives by the terminutioLi ofi 
yeant is a very great warning? Know ye not thai/ 
the night and day divide the lives of numerous bouIb ? 
Know ye not that health and capacity are two bles8»^ 
ings coveted by many men? But the troth hath be^t 
comemanifestto thosevfhohave eyes. Ye ore now^ 
betweiMi tw > yea'^ : one year hath passed awny, Mtd: 
come to an end, with its evils; and ye have enteredit 
upon another year, in which, if it please God, m 
kind shall be relieved. Is any of you determikliD^l 
upon diligence [in doing good] in the year to comegl'i 
or repenting of his failings in the times that awe 
passed? The happy is he who makes amends Imp 
the time passed in the lime to come ; and the mise^tl 
able is he whose days pass away and he is card1«U 
of his lime. This new year huth arrived, ami Ihoa < 
sacred month of Gnd liath come with blessings' 1^' 
you, — the first of the months of the year, antl of thi 
four sacred months, as hath been said, and the miKl 
worthy of preference and honour and reverence ! -itltt 
fast is the most excellent of fasts at\er that which ih' 
incumbent", and the doing of good in it is among^i 
the mo«t excellent of the objects of desire. Whoswi* 
ever desires to reap advantage from it, let him fti^ 
the ninth and tenth days, looking for aid. AbstnitP 
iiot from this fast through indolence, and csleemiiMA 
it a hardships but comply with it in the best inftl^ 
iier, and honour it with the best of honours, and 
improve your time by the worship of God, morning 
and evening. Turn unto God wilh repentance^ be 

• That of Ibu month of Kum-Bja'ii. 


forvthr usnuh «i' de>lh: He iit tb« Gml who six 
ceptelh repeiitwicc at' hit Mtvuiilft, and (BfilMieib 
stKSi—The Tradiltan ' . — The Apotile of 4io(l (tiod' 
fimmr auri prcssenc him 1) hsih saiil, 'Thu mi»t cx- 
cdlent prayer, ai\er llie ijrcscribcd h. is lliv jjniycr 
tiuktissaid in<|:tit.i iiiid ilit) iiicmt «v:l-1Wi liutt, 
alter Hum'adit'ii, is thiit ut' ihu moatli of UiiJ^ Kir 
MoUiar'rum.' " 

Xhe Khatee'b, haviai; concluded liis cxlinrtiUion, 
m^'to 'ttie cinigreiruuuii, " iiuppllaite Uud." Uc 
tfaoa 9ta <!umi, and pmjs priviitely ; and vul'Ii ineiu- 
Dwof the congregation al the same time iili'en up 
staw private pelitioo, as ailcr the orilinary proycm, 
holding his hunds before him (looking nt the puJm«}, 
and Uien drawing thein down his liu.'c. Tlii.-i tlotm, 
tta.MoobalHghaBav"A'iTie.-'n: A''n ! iAm*iil 
Amcnl] U L»nlol' all urrut<ii'C3!"— Tlie KhvtM'h. 
DWi rises again, und recites luiuther khool'beh, 
ctlfed ithoot'bel en-naat, oi' M't.-jdi tlic fiiUciiving is n 
[nuwlation X : — 

.•>,iPnuse be to Gud, abundant pntiNe, ns He liutli 
' commanded I 1 testify that ttiere h no ileity but tiod 
aknie; He haXh no conipanion : afliritimg hia su- 
I^Hinacy, and coudemiiing liim wlio denieth and die- 
hdieTeth i aiid I testify that our lord and our J'rophet 
Uohham'mad is his servant iind liis nposile, the toid 
of nankind, the intercessor, the accepted intercessor, i 
i^lbe day of assembling: God favour him and>JlHa, 
fiatSj OS long OS the eye seeth and iho ear hearsih.! . 
Q people ! reverent* Uiid by doing: whut He halli 
GoinmBftcled, nod abstaiLi from timi which He hatbi 
forbidden and prohibited. The li&ppy is he wW 
obeyethi and the miserable is he who opposeth nud 
'■• The KhnliNj'b aUnys dosss hla eihurti-ioti wilil ytiM W 
two itisilitiuiu of thr Pnipliet. ''i>tri,||l 

,t Tbo£ni iJiiily prajeis otilaUieil bylliU'CkoKjf/ii,,,^ -jL,,, 
I Ihis ii always Itie »anie,or nearlj; 8u. ^^, |. . 



of desires, anit enlur^e jour hopes, and in evefy :wcy<i 
encued other people [in presumption], and ye ace 
slugf^sh in doing ir(}od. O how greiit a calatnity is- 
ihis ! God lea(^heth by mi al)e;rory. Know ye iioti 
that in the curtailment of lime by inddence anih 
sl«!ep there is very great trouble? Know ye not thatti 
in the cutting short of lives by the lermiaatitiii ata 
years is a. very great wnming? Know jv not AM 
the night and day divide the lives of uumeroii» soalb ? 
Know ye not that health aud capacity are two bless-' 
ings coveteil by mniiy men? But the truth halh be-'i 
come manifest to thosewho have eyes. Ye are now- 
between tw ) years: one year hath passed uwny, bbA^ 
tome to an end, with its evils; and ye have entered' 
upon another year, in which, if it please God, niBii*« 
kind shall b*; relieved. Is any of you delermiilini^i 
upon diligence [in doing good] in the year to con " 
or repenting of his failings in the times that 
passed ? The happy is he who makes amends fata 
the lime passed in the time to come ; and the mt$ei»' 
able is he whose days pass awuy tmd he is careless 
of his time. This new year hath arrived, and th«9 
sacred month of God hath come with blessings 
you, — the first of the months of the yeur, and of thlf^ 
four suered months, as hath been said, and the mo^ 
worthy of preference and lionour and reverence : Ulfi. 
fast is the most excellent of fusts after that which flw 
incumbent •, and the doing of good in it is nmtfng^ 
the most excellent of (he objects of desire. WhOe^ 
ever desires to reap advantage from it, let him fli^ 
the ninth and tenth days, looking lor aid. Abstuttf) 
inH from this fast through indolence, and esteeminw^ 
it ft hardship ; but comply with it in the best m^tiw 
Her, and honour it with the l^st of honours, . and 
improve your time by the worship of God, monrin|fl 
and evening. Turn unto God with repentance; pe 

* Thalgf thu month of Rum'ada.'ii. 


141 [ 

forvlhfr as:Hauh of dntltii Ue is Ibo tiwl wtio ac* 
tepteth rrpeiilutcc at bin servaitUt, »iiil ponlAneib 
shi&— 77ie TrJiiuion ".— Thi- Apufciie ol" Uo<l (Uud 
favour aud pnfierve him !) tuih Kaid, 'Thi- luoil ux- 
ctUent prayiT, ntiet tlie presciibed f, is lh« pmjter 
lllaliis8»irl in llie nigltit; unil Uie must Chccllciil tuxi. 
«Aen Hum'ada'ii, it Itml ul the mouth ut' Uixl, jil> 

■ The Kbateel), having concluded his oxiiortntidu, 
aajmXA lb« ctMigretraiioii, " ij>upplic:ale God." ile 
thul tita ildwn, auil prnjs privntely ; aiid euch niem- 
MTof ihe coiigregutiuu ut Ihc bmiic time tiH'ers up 
ame privme petition, ok al^er the unlinury pru,vcr8, 
bokling his bunds before liirn (luokint^ &t tliu imliiu), 
' then dmwiu 

his t»ix. '1 Iki^ daut, 

ee'n! [Amwil 

The KhutM'ti 

K uiiother KhuM'beh, 

'Lidi tlic t'ol'o^vin^ la a 

tlieiUoobkl'tighs say " A'r 
Amtn !] ' O J^rd of all c 
naw :riMS again, and tt 
etikd Ahoot'bet en-naai-, c 
liuulatioa J : — 

'"Pmise be to God, tibundniil prnine, aa Uc hutli 
cammanded! I testify that there l» nil deity but Ood 
akme: He hath na companion : affirming his su- 

Cimacy. aod randemiiinir him wiio [leiilelli and di»- 
ieretb : and 1 testify that our lord and our I'rophet 
MohhBBi'mad is hi.1 servant and hia upoetle, the lord, 
of Mankind, the intetcejiSDr, the accepted intercessor, i 
t^.the day uf assembling; God favour him und.lH»> 
fiuiily as long as the eye seclh and thv ear lieareth, I , 
O people ! reverence God by doini^ what He huji.. 
commanded, and abstain from that which He halJt, 
fwbidden and prohibited. The happy is hewluin 
cwjeth, and the miserahle is he who oppoaetb.nntL, 
• Tha lOiBtni'li Blwayii tlems IiU rshotta-ian willi UtiBW 
tvo ittBtlitiunii ot the Ptuphii. ■■■■ wii iiiii 

J Tbo£»(i.ijBil/ prBysTiiutclBi.HriI bylhuCioMrtfik.,,., (j.^ 
I ThisiB oliKBjalliBflunni.oriieiirljiu. ,. . * 



of desires, and enlarge your hopes, and in «■ 
exceed other people [in presumption], and ye ai 
sltiggifih in douig ifdod, O how greul a calaliiity 
this ! God teaclielii by ud allff^ory. Ktiow ye ■ n 
that in the curtailment of lime by indolence aitaVi 
sleep there is very great trouble ? Know ye net thttXU 
in the cutting short of lives by the temiinatiAn oft: 
years is a very great wnming? Know ye not (bat^ 
ibe night and day divide the lives of numerous soulb? 
Know ye not that health and capacity are two blesgr.- 
ings coveted by many men ? Bnt the truth hath be- ' 
come manifest lo thosewho have ej'es. Ye are now 
between tw i years ; one year bath passed awny, and 
cunie to an end, with its evils; and ye have entered 
upon anollier year, in which, if it please God, maiiM 
kind shall be relieved. Is any of you determinlni^i 
npon diligence [in doing good] in the year lo come'F 
or repenting of his failings in the times that a«ft 
passed ? The happy is he who makes amends (ar> 
the time passed in the time to come ; and the ml«er^J 
able is he whose days pass away and he is cnrtie^ 
of his time. This new yenr hath arrived, tind 'tha'< 
sacred month of God liath come with blessinsfs tda 
yon,— the first of tlie months of the year, and of tbei 
lour sacred months, as hath been said, and the moBtl 
worthy of preference and honour and reverence ; itltf 
fast is the most encellent of fasts after that vrhicli Up 
incumbent*, and the doing of good in it is amongn 
the most encellent of (he objects of desire. WhiM^' 
ever desires to reap advantuge from it, let hini'tb^ 
the ninth and tenth days, looking tor aid. AbstoliV 
ikM from this fast through indolence, and esleemiiii^ 
i(n hardship; but comply with it in the best mM^'' 
ner, and honour it with the best of honours, and 
improve your time by the worship of God, morning 
and evening. Turn unto God with repentanc^; (w 
• That of IhB month of Riim'ailii'ii. 

forft-tkrnssnuh of fkalh: Ue m Ilia tiod wba oc* < 
leptetb rrpciitincc of hit servanta, ftnd jnnlMielh 
SHIS. — TAn TmdUion '. — Ttu^ AiNwtlo of tiod (God 
fuvMir tind prtferve bim !) huh said, 'The mwt ax- 
Mlleiit pmyer, nllcr ilie prrscribod t, i» lUe prnycr 
ilutissnid iti the.nlgtiti Htiil the niuni eMelWiil tiut, 
aher Hiua'ada'ii, i> tliut of llie mouth of Uud, Kl' 

The Khttlre'b, hnvint; coiK^hided hii oxbort'itioDt 
vii/eto the coiigrcipiii'iit, " Supjiliailc Uoil. ' ile 
thtn ats down, un<l pmjM privutely ; luid vuch metu> 
bwaf llie coii^r«giilioiL ill the suiiie lime uti'en up 
iAMe private (wUtiuD, es utier the onlimtvy prayierM, 
hbUing his hundu botlire bim (liK>kiiig at the iwliii«), 
xcA Iben drawiuq: {hem <\avin his lace, 'lliib duue, 
HfrJIoobollifrhs say " A'tiicc'iil A'niee'ii ! [Aiiku! 
Amonlj Ol^irdof all crealurea I" — The KhHloe'b 
I rises af^in, and recilrn unotlier Kbaol'beli, 
called khoat'liel fn-naat, at' whicti tlic lultcwinp; ia a 
UwnslBtion X '■ — 

"Preise be to God, ubunitanl pruiBe, as if c hutli 
commanded ! 1 testify thut liiure i^ iiu deity but (iud 
nkme: Jle hath no com pa i) ion : affirming his su- 
pnmacy. und cuudeminng him whi> denieth utid dia- 
bdieveth : and 1 testify that otir lord and our I'ruphet. 
Mohhaio'inad is his servant and his upoGile, tlic luid. 
of Utuikind, the intereessor, the accepted intercessor, i 
(Oi the day of assembling: Ood fsvnur him and U« 
fanuly ns long as the eye secth and the ear hcareth.!i, 
'pet^e ! reverence Uud by doina; what He, hatii., 
commanded, and abstaiu from thtic which He balJi, 
fsiibidden and prohibited. The happy ie he wlw 
weyetb, and the miserable is be whit ppposeth nwl 

• The Ktlalee'b aUnys closes hia eihurtstion •!* Mib^i 
tya toacliliDns ol the Pruphel. 



of desires, nnd enlarge your Iiopea, and iu evwy: 
exceed other people [in presumption], and ye 
sltwrgisli in doing itood. how greut a calainily 
tiiis! GotI teaehelli by an allegory. Know ye n 
that in the curtailment of lime by indolence aaA> 
steep there is very great trouble? Know ye noC tbotfi 
in the cutting short of lives by the termination: i^i 
years is a very great warning? Know ye 
the night and day divide the lives of numerous sotiWi 
Know ye not that health and capacity ere two bli 
ingB coveted by many men? But the truth hath 
come manifest to thosewho have eyes. Ye are 
between tw-i years : one year hath passed away, 
cume to an end, with its evils; and ye have entei 
upon another year, in which, if it please God, ma 
kind shall bo relieved. Is any of yon determihlngtl 
npnn diligence [in doing good] in the year to corned 
or repenting of his failings in the times that b«P 
passed ? The happy is he who makes itmends f«r> 
the time passed iu the time to come ; and the mfsepiJ 
able ts he whose days pass away and he is car^le^ 
of his time. This new year huth arrived, nnd 'tiio" 
sacred month of God liath come with blessings 
you, — the first of the months of the year, ami of thtV 
four sacred months, as hath been said, and the moSlt 
worthy of preference and honour and reverence i ithS 
fast is the most excellent of fasts after that which ii* 
incumbent *, and the doing of good in it is amongv 
the most escellenl of the objects of desire. Who9»it 
ever desires to reap advantage from it, let him flisy 
the ninth and tenth days, looking for aid. AbstaJwi 
itot from this fast through indolence, and esteemiii*^ 
it tL hardship ; but comply with it in the best m&l^ 
ner, and honour it with the best of honours, and 
improve your time by the worship of GckI, inorwinyi 
and evening. Turn nnto God with repentance, fee 

* Tbut of thii uiQuth uf Rum'aila'ii. 


rar»-th»-M3iult at' (ietuh: He is llie Uuii hmu oo 
1 rrpsiituicc ot tus Mrvunls, And inntftiietb 
■■Tlut TTtiiitlton '. — Tlw" ApoRtlc of (iixl (Liod 
fimwrand prMi-rve him !) twth soiil, 'Thu bum cm- 
cdlenl praver, aiier Ihe prti^ctibeil t. is llic pr>iycr 
dutiasBid in thenigtit; uml tbe inosl exccllt'iii Iku, 
r RuWada'ii, is iliut of tho mouth of Uwl, El- 
Uflfabor'min.' ' 
' The Khaleeli, hnving mncludsd Itis uxhurttitiiio, 
sfe M tfaa cung^regnik)!!, " Supplimlt! tiixl." U« 
Und Bita lionn, and pnijs i>rivitrl]i ; uiid tsicli iiieiu- 
ow of the c6tigre^(iuii ut Ihe same time titftvs up 
iMW {iriviile iielition, oh ufler the oitlinary praytis 
InUinghis liunda before him (linking nl Uic puJiaM}, 
wd lb«a drawing Ihem 'luwti liis luce. TIuh duiie, 
ti»>M«oballigbs.ay"A'wcf'.i: A'niee'n ! [Auku! 
ABwdI] O i>or<l of all cnalurt^ !"~Tbe KliKtw'b 
IE s^uiti, and recites iiuottier Kbuul'beiu 
eHkd kkool'het ea-naat, oi ivl:icli tbc tulbwing is & 
tiuelatian t . — 

"Praise be lu Gud, ubundatit prni^ie, bs llclmlh 
commaitded 1 I Wstify Ibat Ibere is nil deity but (jud 
aknie: He hatli no compnniDii : ailinnins his su- 
Itremscy, and (.Miidemtiing: him wlio detdeth and diir- 
htUeveih : and i testify that otir lord and uur J'nipliet 
Mohhajn'mad is his servant and his u^ioslle, the Icrd., 
of loantund, the interceswr, the accepted intercessor, > 
uathe day of assembling: Clod favour him uiid lu«. 
fiunilf us long as Uie eye secih and Lliv eur liearetiLl. 
people! reverence OikI by doing whut Hu. halij. 
cominanded, and ab:^tain from that which He UaUHi 
fMbidden and prohibited. Tbe happy is he wbui 
c«ejeth, and the miserable is he who opgfoseth RoA- 

• The Khalee'h Blwayii closts bin nxhotti^ton with'ihiB'lW' 
hroitiailitioiui oE the Pcuiihul. ■ >>ti>'[i)|i 

J Thofive 4ajlj'pt»yn»unlfti4ieil by4ho;Cl"nKT»f(w,,,, f 

'^ ' MB always llie anTOGj or Jiear!y jki» 


sinneth. Know that ihe present world is a transitOTT' 
[bode, and that the world lo come Js a lasting abudetj 
Make provisiuu, therefore, in your iransitory stats 
for yoar lasting state, and prepare for your reckont 
ing and standiii,; before your Lord : tor know that jt 
shall to-morrow b« j^aeed before God, and reckotui 
with accordiu^ to yom- deeds; and before the Licwd 
of Might ye shall be jiresent, 'and those wUii baiH- 
arted uiijuslW shall know with what an overthrowal 
tiiey shall be overthrown *.' Know that God, whoa 
absolute glory J assert, a-id whose name be uxslUdf 
liath said (and ceaseth not to say wisely, auditt 
command judiciously, warning you, and teaol(ting| 
and honourinf the di^iity of your Prophet, extoUiH^ 
and magnifying' him), * Verily, God tavoureth^ any 
his angels bles^ the Prophet: O ye who believqi 
bl(»3 him, and greet him with a salutaliont !" O 
Qod ! favour Mohham'mad and the family of Mn 
hhom'mad, as Thou favouredst lbrahee'm| aud 1' 
&mily of Ibrahee'm ; and bless Mohham'mad. s 
the family of Mohham'mad, an Thou blesEeiU' 
Ibrahee'm and the family of Ibraliee'm, amuB^ m 
w«Btures — ibr Thou art praiseworthy and glorknu 
O God ! do Thou also be well pleased with tbe foi , 
Kfaalee'fehs, the orthodox lords, of high di<i;uity and 
illiiBtrious honour, Ab'oo Bekr ]t^s-Siddee'ok, 
'Om'ar, and 'Osma'n, and'AI'ee; ami be Thou 
pleased, O God ! with the »ix who remained of U* 
ten noble and just penwns who swore allegifuice>it4; 
thy Prophet Mohham'mad (Gotl favour and picsen* 
himi) under the tree; (for Thou art the Lord of 
piety, and the LonI of pardon,} those persons of 
Cellence and demency, and rectitude and proBperiCy^ 
Tal'hhah, and Ez-Zoobey'r, and Saad, and Sa'e«'dl 
and 'Abd Er-Rahbma'n Ib'ii 'Owf, and Ab'o« 

• Cko(it-a.'n, chnp. xxvi . laat »L*n*. 
f Idem., chap. xxiiEi,, yet. 56, \ The jateiiaiJv AJiHIum^ 


iAejMA 'A'inir Ibn El-Garrn'hh ; nnd witli all 
IbrCmopuuons af tbc Apo^tlo »f (iod ! (God iaroar 
■ml preserve bitii I) ; and be Tbtm well {ilenacd, 
QGod'. w'th ilie tiro rourtyrvd (len:«ticlanis, tlw two 
bri^t moons, ' l\w iwo lonlii nf the youLh* of ihe 
|0^)le nf Pttr&djse in Pnntilisc,' the two swwt-tinell- 
ia^ flowers nf the Pnipliot ul' this nuiiun, Ah'm Mo- 
bhHn'tnait El-Hbas'&n, ami Al/ou 'Abil AKIuli Bl- 
Hhowy'ii : aiitl be Tliou well plrawtl, O Qod ! with 
Mr mother, the daughter of the ApostJi: iil <lod 
(Qod favour unil pr»Frvn him !), h'u'tiinch Ke- 
Knh'rB, and witli tlieir grumlmollwr Klmdee'ffeh El- 
Koob'tst and with 'A'itheh, Ihe niulhor ul' Ihe Iblh- 
iA, and with the rest of the pun- wiv»H, and with ihc 
inieratioli which aticceeded the C-nnipaiiiona, ntid Llio 
natnttion wliicb succeeded thut with IwiivficeDce to 
ite day of judgment! UOod! purrlon llie lielieviii)|^ 
1Mb Bud (he beiievingwomen.aiid die Muo^'lim men 
«Mt the Moofi'Uin women, those whi) ure tiviii);, and 
the dead ; fur Thou art a hearer iieiir, un Biiswvrvr of 
|»j€rB, O Lord of all creatuivn ! <) Ciml aid Kl- 
bla'm, and strengthen its pillars, and make inftdeiity 
lo tremble and destroy its power, by Ihe preuervution 
«f thy sert-Biit, and the son (if thy servajit, ilie aub- 
missive to the might of thy majesty nnd glory, whom 
Qod hath aided, hy the i:are of the Adored K ing, our 
moiter the Soaltan, sod of the Soolla'n, the Sooltu'n 
U&hhmoo'd Kha'n : may God assiiit him, and pro- 
lang [his reign] ! O God '. asftiat him, and assiHt his 
wmieB! O thou Lord of the religioD, and of the 
Wiirld present, and the world to come ! O Lord of 
»11 ereaHirea ! O God! assist the forces of the 
Mous'limg and ttie armies of ttie Unitarians 1 O 
God ! frustj^te the infideU ait^ polytheisis, thine 
enemies, the enemies of (lie religion ! O God! in 
vert iheir banners, and ruin their habilaljons, and 
, giifi.lh£m and their v'ealUi as booty 14 the Mot*'- 


BrilB^! O {loJ! unloose Oie CBjilivKyuf tlw ctia^ 
tiVes, anil annul the ilebis of the ilybiors; and maM 
this lownlo ,l)e safe uuil secure, and blesse{l witij 
Webllh and plenty, and all the (owns of the M9os*|2 
lims, O Lord of all creatures ! and decree safely atK 
health to us and to all travellers, and pilgrims, ^nf 
warriore, and wanderers, upon thy earth, and ii^f 
thy sea, such a^ are Mocs'linis, Lord of all erei 
lures ! ' O Lord ! we have acted unjustly towofi 
oiir own bduIs, and if Thou forgive us not and ^ 
mercifiit unto us, we shall surely be of those w(^(^ 
perish f.' I beg of God, the Great, that He piajj 
forgive me and you, and a'l the people of Mohliain'- 
mad, the servants of God. ' Verily God coifjj 
mandeth justice, and the doing of goorl, and givijig 
[what is due] to kindred; and forbiddeth wicVe^ 
ness, and iniquity, and opprsssioii : he admoniabetb 

Sii that ye may remember .'J Hemember God; 
e wil! remember you: and thank Him; He wifl 
increase to you [your blessings]. Praise be to pod, 
the Lord of all creatures ','' 

During the rise of the Nile, a good inundatjbji jg 
also prayed for in this Khoot'beh. The Kliatee'b^^of 
Ima'm, having ended it, descends from the p^UiiU 
and the Moobal'lighs thaiit the icha'viek (described 
in page 90) : the Ima'm, siatiimed before the niQfif!| 
then recites the _/u.7-(i prayers of Friday, which coipj* 
^st of two rek"ahs, and are similar to the orditiarg 
prayers. The people do the same, but silently, ana 
heeping time exactly with the Ima'm in tlie varipi^ 

• This Bcnteoep. beginning " O God, fraatrale," irU ilb^ ] 
iaseUiil in um copy i^r Ihia pcsyrr, which 1 obtaiued ftoWf 
an liua'cn. Atiothei Ima'ui, at whoie dictation 1 urot* " 
niny hen) trBoslated, told me that this ienlenca and; f 
uthcii irere oflou umitted. 

i Ck»Of all, chap. >ii., t. W. 


buEtures. Those who arc of ibe Mutikee iM tlirn 
tnw tlie mosque; and so uho do lauty pcnuM of 
ihe olher setts: but sumc of llic ShoTi^'ets kud 
Uhftnlnl'ces (there urc scurcely bb) llhain'lid'cni 
iu Oiuro) remain, und reciie the ordinary furd 
praj-ers of ttoon; forming a uuiulwr of M-iuralu 
^'ri)u|W, ill each i>f whicli one acte an Imu'ni. The 
rich, o|i going out of llie tnosque, ofWn give ulnia 
W the poor outside the door. 

I have s[KikeH thus fully of Mohhiimuuuluu vtur- 
stiip, because niv countrymen in general hare ver) 
iiDperfect and erroneous noijuiiti uu this sulyect; 
qany gf Ihem even im^uriniiig ihul Ihe Mouslims 
ardin&rily pray to their Prophet ns well as tu (iod. 
Itt^-ocatliins to (he Prophet, for hi'4 interccision, ure, 
indttd, frequently made, particularly at his totub, 
i^Ve pious visiters generally say, "' We ask tlij iu- 
lerces^ou, O Apostle of God!" The Moou'liins, 
idfa^ ^vi:a implore the interccsHiuii uf their uuiiierous 

''llie duty next in im|H>riance to prayer is that uf 
l^ng alms. Certain alms arc (irescrihed i>y law, 
an3 lire called zek'aJi: others, called stid'ackah, are 
tolotifary, 'Ihe former, or ohligstory alms, were, 
iu (he earlier ages of El-UIa'm, collet-ted by ollicers 
^niointed by the eovereign, fur pious uses, such aa 
building mosques, &c.; but now it is left to the 
Mooslim's conscience to give them, and •" "Pplj 
(Bern In what manner he itunks fit ; that is, to be- 
«tbw Iheiu upon whatever needy persona he may 
tktiOSe, They are to be given once in every year, of 
cattle and sheep, generally in the proportion of one 
Ui forty, two iu a hundred and twenty; ot camefe, 
firt- every five, a ewe; or for tvrenty-five. a pregnant 
WWeh and hkewise of money, and, among the 
Hhan'uiees, of mcrchaiidiM, St. He who haa 
money to the amount of two hundred dir hems (or 



d»ms) of ^er, ortwenly niitckals (i. e. thirty dranii 
of gold (or, among the Hhan'afees, the Talue of tl 
above in gold or silver ovnainenls, utensils, &;,£ 
must annually give the fortieth part (^roohS. el-'oskr^ 
ur the value of that part. 

Failing is the next duly. The Mooslim i: 
mended to fast during the whole month of Rui 
adfl'n* every day, from the flrat appearance of dia 
break, or rather from the hour when there is s 
cient light for a persou to distinguish pitunly a 
thread from a black thread f (about two hours I 
fore sunrise in Egypt), until sunset. He mus( a 
Btain from eating, drinking, smoking, smelling p 
fumes, and every unnecessary indulgence or plnsi 
of a worldly niiture ; even from intentionally swaitir 
ing his spittle. When Rum'ada'n falls in summ 
the fast is very severe ; the abstinence from drinl 
being moat painfhlly felt. Persons who are sick,jj 
on a journey, and soldiers in time of war, ; 
obliged to observe the fast during Rum'aJa' 
if they do not keep it in this month they should fi 
an equal number of days at a future tnne. 
is also lo be dispensed with in the cases, of 
and pregnant woman. The Prophet even disap- 
proved of any person's keeping the fast of Ruin'- 
ada'n if not perfectly able; and desired iio man to 
test no much as to injure his health, or disquallAr 
himself for necessary labour. The modern Moosli— '^ 
seem to regard the Ikst of Rum'ada'n as of 

importance than any other religious act, for i ^ 

of thorn keep this fast who neglect their AaH 
prayers; and even those who break the fast, ^ 

* Because the Pr»nhet received the first [uvcktiDD in 

+ Ckoot-a'n, eliai>, il., v. 183. 

{ The ymr bein^ lunar, each month tettogiadeB thiDu^i 
■It Uie Kiiuina in the coiuse of about lbiny-thre« yam ai ' 

, r esceptuuia, i»n;leiiJ la ktrp It. Muiiy 

ttslinu of tbv weittdi;^ daaitM tu uml iIijuIl iii 
nrt daring Runi'uil.i'i ; Imt the );r«iiter iiiiiiilicr 
ilidlj keep »lie fa«, whitli w falol lo imiiii,'ruiiB jwi-- 
i in a vreak ntiilc nf hciilth. Th«rc luu luin* 
irdnyKon \*bich U is uinsiHcreil im'ritiiri«uji to 
a, but nol absolutely iiect'ssiiry. On llic two gnin>) 
'nl», niunely, tlut fuUowiiig Rutii'iulDti, ami that succeeds th« pilgrimage, it 1h uiilau-jut ii> Ami, 
l^ng cKpressly foroitlden by the l*n)jihol, 
ibe last tif the fmir mimt imiwrlHiit <Uiti('s, tliut 
tfUgritnaije, remtutia Ui be notii^. It i« iiicunt- 
Solou every Mwislitn lo perriirm, hiiim: in his lile, 
li^griinage bi Mekltt^h mid Muuul 'Aruru'l. mi- 
ll powtty or ill heulth preveiil him ; ur, il'u llhuu- 
* t, be miiy send a deputy, whose «\peinea lu> itiiut 
It*.. Mtiiiy, however, neglrrt the duty of pil- 
Umtge who cannot plead a IawFuI excuse ; nor an 
ej reoniached I'or su doiii^;. Ii is um by the visit 
l.l(t)rk«h, miii the perform nnt^ uf the cereinooleB 
Ttiittitting the Ku'uheh seven times and kiHshig the 
tbck stone" in each round, und other rites in the 
lily City. Ihiit the Moos'lim acquires the title of 
Wft'Sfft ('"' 'he pilgrim) ; the final object ol' the 
flirin^Bge is Mount 'Arafu't, six hours' journey dis- 
^^^ ttaia Mek'keh. During his pert'orniance of the 
i cereinouiea in Melc'keh, and ulso during bia 
^—ir-J^y t<* 'Aral'a't, and until bis completion of the 
ntmage, the Aioos'liin wears a peculiur dress, 
ifAel^ta'm (vulgarly hhera'm), generally tonsiBt- 
['of two simple pieces of cotton, or linen, or woollen 
iji, without sewH or ocQament, one of which is 

e if 


wrapped round the loins, and the other thrown e 
Ihe shoulders : the inslep and heel of each fobtr«ii4 
the head, must he hare ; hut umbrelliis we now ns~*^^ 

by many oj' the pilgriinK. It h necessary tbat.l 

'pilgrim be preseiit on the occusioii of a Khoflrtiei 
which is recited on Mount 'Arafit't in the dteriioc 
of the9thof themonthof Zoo-I-Hheg'geli. In^ 
ensuing ei-eniuif, after sunset, the pilgrims cotntgwi 
their return to Mek'keh, Halting tbe followit^|(i , 
in the yaltey of Min'u (or, as it is more qpm^miljl 
called, Mooii'a), they complete the tereinonies R^he 
pilgrimage by a sacrifice (of one ur more male a\li^p, 
he-goulB, tows, or she-camels, part of the fiesh. 08 
which they eat, and pait give to the poor), aptfhp 
sIiBviog the head and clipping the nulls. B?erj^^ 



afler ihis, resumes his usual dress, or puts nn a uw 
one, if provided with such. The sacrifice is ^cimed 
eljid'a (or the ransom), as it is performed 
memotation of the ransom of Isnm'ee'l (or Itiiin^))| 
by the sacrifice of the ram, when he was b^s^ 
about to have been ofieretl up by his father : iv jt ■* 
the general opinion uf the Moob'lims that k wwinis 
son, not laaac, who was to have becu sMnGixiJif 
his father. 

There are other ordinances, more or less C0UD«(^e4 
with those which have been already explained. 

Tlie two festivals, called el-Eed i^s-Sooghe^jfo't 
or the Lesser Festival, and el'Ei-d el-Kebee'r, QUhe 
Great Festival, the occasions of which haye ^igtft 
mentioned above, aie observed with public praj "* 

«ueral rejoicing- Each of these la-sta thre< 
le festivities with which they are celebrated 
Ot'seribed in a subsequent chapter. On the first day 
«t' the latter festival (bein<^ that on which Xhi pif- 
~- pMform their sacrifice), every other MoOT'Uia 

y«BT prapvily. Saglire'r. Tliii ie what nuny 
(•HKwnslljt wiled "llie Great Fcativul.''' 


!• puTciww one. 
. ihrcp or two 
altr [xirtiim of 
r ntay be per' 

t ^in;( waF»^n«l iii5i1ebifl«troii|;ty 
<irit«il 111 the CVom-a'ix ; niit! he who 
CIO n^iiiiii;^ i'» tlie (Icri'nct or nrnpngalion iif Kl- 
l^'m is promised lUc wwanl" of u niurtvr. A^ Hip 
Itwswere ordered to eMerinliiuit hmlbi-ti nutiutiH, 
^ Ibe MiKis'tinis are comR)aii<k-d (<i pul lu iIchIIi 
swry idolaliT who refuncs lo embnuxr the Moliham- 
mtulnii fijt'i, mid to exuct ou imnuul trit)ul« from 
Jews and t'liri^linns wlio rfiow lite like tvsulutiiiii. 
The Moos'lims are even forbidden lo cuiilrocL friend- 
Aip with aiLV unbelievers. 

There are cerlain prohibitory laws in the (.'koor-a'ii 
"vhtcll niclHl be meutioiied here, ns remarkably alfbct- 
Idff the DKiral and social comlition of iti disciples. 

Wina'^iDd all inebriating liquors ore forbidden, oa 
being the fau?* of " more evil tlian profit"." Many 

' tij'the Mooslims, however, in the present d:iy. drink 
*hw, bratidj-, &c., in secret ; and mme, thinking it 
no sin to indulge thus in moderation, scruple not lu 
'4ti'tti Openly; biit among the Egyptians there are few 
,«ho tr&na^rcss in this flagrant manner. Boo'xeh, 
y/ioAi is an intoxicating liqaor made witli bariey- 
'brCad, crumbled, mixed with water, strained, and 

, Wl to ferment, is commonly tlrunk by the boatmen 
■rf ihe Nik'.and by nther penons of the lower orders t- 

'Ihnnn, and other drugs which produce a similar 
'wwt, are considered unlawfiil, though not menliwied 

L" i Ctaor-a'a. (La,., u., v. 216. 

Ktivi'tiJiiE. (Hnoiliitui, 
•ad IWrnll'lci in the 

io, W lea. < 

m4 modern eqtptjans, 

in &e Choor-a'n ; and persons who are addicitcd M' 
taking these drugs are rt^rded as immoral charad' 
ttrs; biit, in Egypt, such persons arc not very nn-' 
merous. Swne sectarians have pronounced tobacciv 
and even coffee, to be unlawful. ' 

The eating of swine's flesh is strictly forbiddeit' 
The unwholesome effecls of that meat in a hotcIiiDAl^ 
ivould be a auificieiit reason for the prohibition ; 1 " 
the pit; is held in abhorrence by the Moos'lim chiri 
on account of its extremely fliLhy habits*. Moat aiu-^— 
mala proiiibited for food by the Mosaic law are aliu 
forbidden to tbe Moos'lim ; the eamel is an exceptloW 
The Moos'lim is " forbidden [to eat] that whiel 
dielh of itself, and blood, and swine's flesh, aiid ttu( 
on which the name of any beside God bath been tftJ' 
voked ; and that which hath been strangled, op billed' 
by a blow, or by a fall, ov by the horns [of another 
beast] i and that which hath been eaten by a wtM 
beast, except what he sliall [himself] kill; and thai 
which hath been sacrificed unto idolst- ' An animal^ 
that is killed ibr tbe food of man must be slaughtered 
in a particular manner: tlie person who is about 
perform the operation must say, " In the name 
God ! God is most great '." and then cut its thnialj' 
talcing care to divide the windpipe, gullet, and carafid' 
arteries. It is forbidden to employ, in tbiacase, "' " 
phrase which is «o ofien made use of on other 
sions, " In tbe name of God, the Compaagjoaate, tl 
Merciful !"' because the mention of the most ' 
volent epithets of the Deity on such an oct 
would seem like a mockery of the suiTerings whi(di 
the animal is about to endure. Some persons iS 
Egypt, but mostly women, when about to kill a^ 
animal for food, say, " In the name of Cod ! God '*■ 

* The stvine was universally deumeil impuru \iy the aiieic 
Ej-yplmnB. (Heiodolua.lib, ij., hit. 47.) ^;, 

\ Ckoor-n'n, eh. v., V, 4, 

UWm. . W 

mMcnai: (iod ^ivn tln-c intirnr* to endm iha 
a9tic6u!i whlcli be b-uh j::,ii[i-.i u.ii'*:' if tb« nta- 
timeul wlikh first iticialwl i.'rn |iL.i;.pr nrr* always 
fell, il wouM prestiil :t biMiiiiful li»il hi tho cii*- 
ncter of the {«upl« wbu use il. lu aan ol" i)«cvit- 
tUy, wtwn in daiun^r uC tuunini;, lUe Mumltni is 
lUomid to eat tuiy food whieh is probiUted under 
oilwT drvuin»l&iice«. The tnodr of KUugliirr oiMve 
described is, ot* course, only rei|uireil lo bo prnctiwil 
ia the ewes «r tbimeiUc luiiinnl^ Most kinds oC 
liRh ue IawIuI tixxlt; fio kIsu are muii}' btidi, the 
turne kinds oi' which inuHt be killed iu ibe saoie luaa- 
qfr u cattle t but the wiM tntty be «hot. Tho hurv, 
nhliit, gatelle, &c., are lawful, and niay eilber be 
4lM or killed by a dog, (iravideii the noitie uf God 
SUA uitored at the time of iili|>i)iiig the dag, and he 
liAVC ItQt eaten any |>iirt uf tlie |irey. Tliis animal, 
towtver, is cmisidered very uiic-leun : the fihu'fe'ees 
bold themselves to be ijoIUiIihI by Uie loui!li of its 
now if it be \vet, anil if «iiy \tatl ul' tlteir clothes be 
HI touched, they must wanh that pari with seven 
traters, and oiiee with cleun eorth : some iilhejs are 
only Dureriil not to lei the animal lick, or defile in a 
mrec inanner, their i)erHnnR or their dret^H, &c. 

GttinUiui; and uiury are also ]ii'ohibited, und all 
guBea uf chance; and likewise the mukingof'imn|^ 
ecptetures of imylhin^ Ihut has lifet. The Fro- 
'phlt dtclimtd that every representation of this kind 

•^W Araliic words nf this ptiiypr, " God give then 
jUSlioeit," Si-!.,an! Jf/fihgoonh'dirai'iilatn^be/a'i. 

:f En some reipects, the Mooa^ni code ilmi not appMr to 
ifto ttdetly I'uiiDded ujiod okigenciei of a luiatocy ouluie 
Mills HiMBic. See Lenlii-us, Ki., 9-12. In Kgy|<t, Sth 
mnlch bave not scales am gttiuiiiiUy fuund In be uiiwlioleianie 
fwdl ' ■ 

,J Many cf the Moos'liuM liolil ihnt onlj acvdplures which 
cWl i sh'udow, represeobng living treaturKa. ate unlawful : 
bullliB Pn^.hetci— '-■ ^- — ■ ■ 


would tie placed before its author on tlie day oT 
}iwl(rm«iit, ami thnl lie would be commaiKled to put 
life into il ; which not being able lo do, he would be 
onsl, (or ». time, into Hell. 

The principui chil laws of the Ckoot-a'tt and tiu^ 
Traditions. &c, remain to be atnted. These 1 
iwe partly founded upon the tustonia of the I 
ArabR, but mostly upon the Jewish Scriptures an^ 
traditions. . i 

The dvil Iaws ore chiefly derived from the Ckooi^ 
a'n's but, in many important cases, this higbesV 
authority afiurds no precept. In most of these (mta 
the 'iWlititins of the Piophet direct the decisiooBMl 
Iho judget. There are, however, some importu4 
caws, luid many of an itifeiior kind, respecting wbidll 
both the Ckoor-a'n and the Traditions are slleBt.t 
These are detiided on the authority of one of the ibaC 
l^reet Imu'ms, or founders of the four orthodox, sects, 
uf Bl-Isln'mi on the authority of the Imsi'm oftbtt. 
Bcct to which the ruling power belongs, which sectv 
in £gypt, and throughout the Turkish empire, Jot 
that of the Hhan'afees ; or, if none of the decisjonrf 
of the Inm'm relate to a case iu dispute (which i 
uiifrcquenily happens), judgment is given, in U 
case, on Ihc authority of )H)ine other eminent dootont 
In general, only the principal laws, as laid dowailU 
the Ckoor-a.'n, will be here btuled. , J 

It seems to be well ascertained that palygatn^M 
as unfitvourable to population as it is injurioue^U 
dotaesUc happioess, to niurulity, and lo the exu^iaai 
and iin|in)vement o!" the nobler powers of the mind.J 
aadL in jiisiite lo the legislator of the Moos'liAU 
w« should remurk, that, instead of introduGingiOif 
cnomiTMiiua;, he limited this licence : il is true tha^ 
bt assuniM to himself the privilege of havingi:Elr 

' A l«w giren in (lie Clioor.«'Q ia eal]fd/«fd. 
\ KWw drtlitd fn>m thu Tradititftis ia called n 

pestfr naiiiber o[ m«cx Uimi Ue ttUowed tn cithciw, 
Wb in imng m, be nruy b»w Itemi oetuiiusl bv th« 
TrloXif male ulliiprln^ mlhvr Ihnn inip«l)»l by wnliifw 
(iiousiiees. The law respecting ritarriaifa nnA e*it- 
nttinut/f, thoacrli eipresii tu (u Uw tinntber of wivwi 
irluKn the Mnos'lim iniv hftiv ut ilw s^une ilmr, 
HatJy .^4>w', "w noi romiilpi^ In ihe lew Mrici iw 
jkHVolly «i]ilic3i tvilli ri'i^nni tn the numlwr of toi*- 
mUnes lie maj keep. It is written, " Tiike hi mnr- 
rtBge, of the women wliu pleMe you, two, three, or 
f^; tnit If ye fear that ye minot acl ei|uitnbly {tn 
» mnny, tohe] one ; or [take] those whom your ri^rhi 
bud&have ncquired*,' tliat is, xluies. MHiiy «f Ifae 
*H]lh$ Moos/liins, intrrpreling itiis lt%t nci-imling 
Id Ulelr riesirea, marry two, tlirce, or I'nuT wliv«i, und 
iMtp, t>«!ii(Ies, several ooiicubine «1uvfs. When a 
Innkle slflve bet-nmes n mother by Iter tnasttr, tlia 
cbiM whicti she bear'i tii liim is free ; aiitl fihe hendl' 
anmot nDerwanls be sukl by her iriotiter (tlifiuph she 
IDIt«l continue to serve liiin tatd !>(■ hin i-oncubine)^ 
ud isciililleil to eiuaiici potion ut his denth. Met 
Wuing a cUitd to hitn ie ciiiled tlie cause of her 
Mauieipatioii or liberty, but ilites not obli^ Iiim lo 
onuiolputc her as lone; dm be lives, though it is cnm- 
imndBblv if be do so, and make her his wife, (jto* 
vUwt be have not already tour wives, or if he marTy' 
W to anotlier iiiaii, should It be her wish. It is held 
hWiil for a Moos'liin tn marry ii Chritilian, or a 
Jswirii wiMiiaii, if indueetl to dii so by ewiewive love 
of bet, or if he tnnnol obtain a wife irf his own tWtll. 
lu uJb ci»se tlie offtprinff most Ibllow the fatheKd 
feitfc, a«ri' the wife does not iiilierit when tlic hu». 
fend dies. A Mohhammadun wmciiiil cannol, how. 
«er, under any circiitnBiiHice" hut by fnrce, marry », 
Baft Of another faitli. The deBref« ol relationship 



jn<vrhk>h .martioge is prohibited are' Htatied in 
Satb and 2Tth verges of tlut- 4Lk ifhaptec oC< tlie 
Ckoor-a'd, where it i» »uil, " Marry not new 
. mhoin jont fathers have had to wife." " ¥c are 
bidden to marry your mottiers, and yiuir daughter?, 
Bod. your sistem, and your aunts both oil the father's 
itiid on the mother's side, and yuur brulher's daui^' 
ters, and your Bister's daue^liters, and your (hstor- 
mothers, and your foster-sisters, and your wives' 
mothers, and your step- daughters which are under 
your tuition, born of your wives," " and the 'wive* lof 
jQUr sons;" "and ye are forbidden to take t&.ybu 
two sisters, as your wives." it is lawful for the 
Moos'jim to B«e the faces of these women whomihe 
K fwljidtlen to marry, but of uo others, exeepting 
his own wives and lemale slaves. The marriage of a 
Uisa and woman, or of it man and a girl wba has 
arrived at puberty, is lawlully eflectcd by theiriie- 
daring (which the latter generally does by avrekm'l, 
HI ileputy) their consent to murry each other, in -the 
presence of two witnesses (if witnesses can ibe pro- 
cured), and by the payment, or par [-payment, iS- a 
dowry. But the consent of a girl under a^ ia.hol 
reiiuired ; her father, or maternal grandialheTiiet hef 
. motlier, uncle, or auy other person appointed by will) 
or by the Cka'dee, acting for her as he pleosos*. 
The giving a dowry is indispensable, aud theleist 
fium that is allowed by law is ten dit'hems {of drann 
of silver), which is equal to about five shilrlingsitrfnur 
, money. A man may legally marry a womani^i}lf 
,t«utineiiliioning a dowry; but alter the ctmBuitiiim' 
;,tipa ol' the mavriage, she can, in this easeyeoBi^ 
iii'm lo pay the sum of ten dir'hems+, . ..iiji*" 

'" ''" Alioyway hBlhuamonioil.bulheiniiyflfiiordelllB'iJifc 

+ WhalevLT ppiptrly Ihu wife tccfiics f™m hei hmbiin^ 

pircnU. or any oiher [ittiiin, i« entirely a< h« Hivu.i4i>t>n«Blj 

ind not iubjtetto any tlaiw of Ji«r tui.bandw I'W (!)«4lu 

A nianmu^ tiivorf& hisirifp iwiM. nnd enetlllrhi- 
lake her back. wMioat aiiy cere ii mil y, txceptinjT in a 
taw to be Dientioiied b«low; but If he (tivorcu Uft 
At ihml lime, or put her »wiiy by u tripli- (tlvWc 
nuiTcyed in one sentence, he ciinnnt reieive her 
agnin until she hus been iiiftrried anri ilivorced by 
uuither himband, who muM hnvo c<m«unitiiMe<l his 
oMiriage with her*. Wlien a innn rtivorew his wife 
(Rbich he does by merely «nyiii»;, " Thwt Art 
dhoreed,' ' or " I divorce thee"), he p«i> s her n por- 
tion of licr dowry (genorally une-tbjrd), wliicli he 
had kept back from the first, to b« pnid on this oarn- 
t(un, uT at his death; and she tnkes nway with her 
Oaf fUrnitiire, Ac., which she bi-ntiEcht iit her mar- 
Tj*^, He niHy ihu=i pnt her away I'rom mere dis- 
like t, Kitd without asBig^in^ any renson, but u 
itnmui cunnfit s^rarale lierself from her hiisbulid 
a^nst hfswill, unless it be lor some consjdenible 
£ult on his part, m cruel treatment, or neglect ; and 
wen then, application lo the Ckn'dee's court is (rene- 
Tsll^'neoesaary to compel the man to divorce her, aiid 
I 4w. forfeits the above-mentioned remnnnt of the 

Ibe 6nt and second divorce, irmude without any 
litmitual agreement for a corapcnsntion IVom the 
woman, «r a pecuniary Baciifice on her part, is 
termed tala'ck reg"«e (a divnrce which admits wf're- 
tnmj'j because the husband may take back bis wife, 
without her consent, during the penwl of her 'ed'dth 
(whiuh nil! lie presently explaiued), but not 8l\br, 
< unless with her consent, and by a new contract. 'If 
■to divorce her the liret or second time for a eumpeii- 
Mtion, she perhaps requesting, " Divorce m« fur 
what thou owest me," or " — hasL of mine," (that 

iU'T*toer-ii'n>tti,a.,-»er. 229, 230. '"i| 

^ '""f-'taliv 'Kdmi law Alio an<,wa. Spc V>eut,iniw:\-;-'» 


i^of Ihc dffwry, funiilure, <Su.), oc IW «» wkli^ 
tioual flum, be cannot Lalie her agaiu but by ber.awHt 
UUi^iLt, untl by a dcw i:ouLnict, Tbis is a laJn'r^H 
Min (fit separating divorce), and is termed ." lif^t 
laser separalion," lo tiistlugiUEb it t'lom the tlur^j 
divorce, wliicb is called " itie grealei separaJJwWV 
Thq 'ed'deh ia the period durii^g which a d>yon)^ 
woman, ur u widow, must wail before niurryiHg agaiili 
— in either cttse, it' pregnant, until d«Uvery ,; oUte^ 
wise, tlie former must wait three lunar periods, «jy 
three months; and the latter, four moDtb) aodla^] 
duy«. A woman who is divorced when in ttstat».ofi 
pregnancy, though slie may make a new contract p{^ 
marriage immediately after tier delivery, must Tf^fi^, 
flirty days longer belbre she can complete her ia»'i-i.t 
riage by receiving her huisbond. The man whu dirf(i 
vureeA his wile must maintain her in his uwu housa,{ 
or in that of her parents, or elsewhere, duriug Vi^[ 
period of her 'ed'deh; but must cease to live n^ittf^ 
iier as her husband from the commencement i£ tlta(g 
[icriod. A divoruid woman who has u son tinder ,(fiv 
yaars of age may retain him until he has attained, tbaC^. 
age, and may be compelled to do so by the la^,^j 
tbe. Sha'fe'ees ; and, by the law of the Ma'UkBej|,,i|i)ti)[ 
he. has arrived at puberty ; but the Uhat^'tifee ^Vy 
limits ihe period dtiriug which the boy should retni^^, 
under her care to seven years: her daughlej; .S^g, 
should retain until nine years of age, or the period va 
pulwrty. If a man divoi'ce hie wife before the oon- 
summation of marriage, he must )]ay her half theeent* 
which he has promised to give her as a doviry ;,'.ot, 
if he have promised no dowry, he must pay her [^j 
half of the smallest dowry allowed by law, wliich b))«rt 
been above mentioned ; and she may marry acain 
in.mediately. '' ' '"''■ 

I, When a wife refuses to obey the lawful cpmi^a'iii^^ 
of her huahand, he may, and generally dae«„MiVe;lwrtd 

LAira. HI 

It Wo wMjieBses' nga.inst hw, to the Ckn'dtfe^ coiitt, 
to prefer a eompWot us^iiuat her i anil, if llie case 
he pmve(l,acmilkateiB written declaring the numan 
Wt^'s^A, or rebellioua ui^rnnt her hiMband. This 
liroews is tprmftd " writinif ■ woman na'shizch.'' It 
cimtpts her liusbBiid troni the obligation tu Inl^, 
iMhe, luiA maintain her. He is not obliEired to 
(Skw» ber: and, by reftL§iiig lo do this, he mny 
pRWni her marrying another man as loni^ as he lives ; 
bn», tf §he proniL"* lo be obedjeiil nfterwords, he must 
take ' her buck, and maintain her, or (Uvort-e her. Ii 
k more eomtnon, however, for d wife whose hnsbnml 
rirfliMs to divorce her, if she have parents or nttwr 
ttiMions able and willing to aupport her comfoMuWy, 
t^mske a compUiint at the Cka'dee's court, stiitini; 
ter husband's uonduct lo be of such a nature Inwards 
licrthat she will not tiw with him, and thus cause 
liCrself lo be registered " na'shizeh," and separated 
fiimi him. In this case, tlie husband crencrally per- 
sists, from mere spite, in retiisini; to divorce her. 

Tb establish a chai^ of infidelity against a wife, 
ftfii' eye-witnesses of her crime ore necessary +. If 
conviMed thu!", she is to be put to death by stoning [. 
It need scarcely be said that eases of this kind have 
vfttyBeldom occurred, from the dilficui^ of obtaining 
laeh testimony §. Further laws on this subject, and 
6tHl more favourable to the women, are ^iven in the 

• Tha witu«»e» muirt alwBti lie Maoi'li"is in accmnlioiu 
•niut a [-rerHDi "f the same fuil li. 

f.Um»i-a'o,ch.ip. i..,v. 13, 

i 'phn U a Bor/mA law, or founde.l un Irnditinn. The law 

ii'&b feanie in ihu caie of liie adullBrei, if matritd ; but It ii 

MMt enPiteed. See Lnvitieiu, xx., lU. iid<I JdIiu. viii,, 4. jj 

I i^.iiis WDtttiy of remaplt, ihat tliH .■irC"nit'»nK wliioh ofcii. 

liTOedlhK promiiljjati '"-" ' " ' — "■ 


:v prefertiid aKninst tho Pr"|ihrls ravuiuile 

„„, Alihdi. - - - 

liti repiilMion IT as chnred by additionel '■ revckiAwiM,'' 



I tbos 


Ckttor-Wn*, in llie t'oUowing norits :— "^ But [aa to] 
those who accuse women of repuUltion [of l'urni(»tion' 
or arliilUry], and produce uol four wiltiesses [of the 
feet], scourge them with eig'hty Btripes, aiid receive 
uol their tt;stimaay for ever ; fur suvh. are infamouB 
pievariuuiorH ; excepting thoBe who shall afterined* 
repent ; for God la gracious and inercifuL Tbef 
who shall accuse their wiveE [of ndultery], and AM 
have no witnefises [thereof] besides themselves, the 
testimony [which shall he required] of one of ihenr 
[shall be], that he swear four limes by God thatlw 
speaketh the truth, anrl the fifth [time that he iiM 
precate] the curse of God ou him if he be a lida 
and it shall avert the punishment [of the wife] if i ' 
Bweur four times by God that he is a liar, und if 
fifdi [time she imprecate] the vrrath of God <a he 
he siieak the truth." The commentatorB and Inn) 
have agreed that, under these circumstances, then 
riage must be dittsolved. In the chapter ftxnn wfa 
the above quotation is made (v, 2), it is ordamOrl d^ 
unmarried persons convicted of fornicalion shall Ij 
punished by scourging, with a hundred stripes ; 
ftSoou'ueh law renders them obno^imin to the fivtUi 
punishment of banishnient for a M'b[iic yeart. 
the punishment of women convicted of inconUiMBf 
in Cairo, J shall speak in the next chnpter, as it !»■■ 
arbitrary act of the govemment, not fountled on ^ 
lawfi of the Ckoor-a'n or Traditions J. No distinct!) 
* ChDp.xxir.,vT.<l~9. > 

t All unniarrieii peraon, convi<:ti.>d ul' adultery, ra alMf 
■ioii»Uk only Id Uiis punishment. The twu luws menlioue.d 
Lsvitidis, XT., 13 and IB, haVe been introduced into I 
Mahhsmmadan code ; but, in the jirciient day, they 

I In the TillaRei of Egypt, a. woman fwmd, i 
to have been guilty of this crime, if nhe lie noi _ . 

ptoilitiito, uftea eiperiencea a ditlbttnt ftto, wliiilh will bfa * 
•aibed in tho Bccounl of the domestic lifc Bud ci ' " 

Jmrur orderM, 

' BAWsJiMi'""* MS 

amade bUwecn th« chiMivti of wlwn nnt] Uww of 
aneabine ela\«« : they inlicrii Miunlly. 
The moat rvmnrknblc g«neral |irin(»|>|p« uf ih« 
r> of iiiA(Ti(ancB biw tlw rimi«l tit' miy privili^a 
tojnlmogeniture*, anc) iitvardin^ in n t«mnli- n fhnrt< 
•fMl to hnlf that nf a ninle of the niiiiip depvc oT 
i^ODship to the ik<cesftpi]. A man mny l>«(|iieMli 
to Hiy persons, tir tbr any iturpnw, niic-tliiril nt' hhi 
praperty, Init not a lurper portinn, 'Itio cliililr[.'n nf 
II tleceaseil iabrrit his whoir pri>{>t>rty, or sll rif' it 
thai lie has not oth«rwifie hwfhlly i)ls|KMed of, or 
afakt ninsins stler paying hi* lawliil le^cka und 
dtbtB, if neither ut' bis pareittN be living, nor wiy 
rifc( and tite piirtioii uf n niulf i.t <lniibk> Ihat (^ 
afbnftle. If lliey be females only, and i\m or more 
■ iKUober, they rcMife, by ibe law of lli« Ckour-a'n, 
Hn-dtitds ; or it tliere be but one chiltl, rtkI llinl » 
IsDulo, she recL-ivcfl, by the same law, holt' the pn>- 
ptfi but the remaining third or hnlf is aW (;lv»ii 
Ipk) the said daughters or daughter, by a latr of iho 
Stoftlieb, if there be no other re^bitiono to whom it 
Uf be nwanled. If the [uirenl^ of the de«Mi!4«l be 
M^ti U>cy b»\o each ono-sixlh of tbe properly if 
1b leave children % i Qod, if there b« no children §, 
hnfttiter reL-eives two-thirds, aud his mother llw re- 
ining third; or, if there be brothers of the ile- 
wd, tlie naoCber has only one-xiKtli, and the said 
brulhera ha^e one-siith. 11* there be brothers and 
Hers of the dei^eased, but no parents, nor ^lidren, 
X wKee, tlie property is divided among thein ; the 
BbAre of a male being double that of a female. If 

*' ia thi* tbe Moos'lim Uw di«er» frnm the MosBJo, which 
•fCMfOittM a lUi'.iUe pDition ti> tlie flrat-bucn. See thtit. 

,1 Oi tka )$taadfaihor ni f[tiiiidiiiot)wr. 
,i C|( grand chilli I L'ii, 
i Ilk™. 


ouiy one sistter of the deceii~e^ be livinr, and tlWi* 
be ucither parents, nor brothers, nor childlvn, ttOb 
wuos, she eujoys the name right as the femAle otiljf 
child of a man who leaves neither parent nor wifo;i 
«r,' it' there be twn nr more sisters, in such case tMiP 
right is the same as that of twu or more dau^hten tif 
■ Atnoa who leaves neither son, nor parent, nor wthi; 
Oiie-eighth only k the shore of the wile, or wivet^ it 
there Le issue ; and one-fourth if there be uo iMOt^j 
A mnn iiiherils half bis wfe's properly if she hi** 
left no issue, nnd one-fnurtb if nhe ha\'e left iiMtaf 
In 1)11 cases, the debts and Ic^cien (if there be in^) 
of the deceased must be first paid f. Tlie liiws't«< 
specting coses in which no near' relations of dl# 
dirceased exist are found in the Tradtlioiis of 
Prophet, and the decisions of llie Imu'iAs]. hi 
Egypt, the property of the deceased is noaihnlly 
divided into checra'U, or twenty-fourtli parts; lOW 
the share of each son or other heir is said 1o h« W 
many ckeera'ts. 

The law is remarkably lenient towards di^ton. 
" If there be any [debtor]", soys the Ckoor-a'n (, 
"under a dijticnlty [of paying his debt], let [Ms 
creditorj wait till it be easy [for him to do it); but H" 
ye remit it as alms, it will be better lor you, if ye 
kiww it." Ttie Moos'lim is commanded (in the 
chapter from which the aiiave extract is ttOten), when 
he contracts a debt, to cause a statement of it to Ek 
written, and attested by two men, or a man and two 
women, of his own faith. The debtor is imprisoned 

■ This i» inicliuive of what may remain due lo lier of hit 
iluvi; J of which one-thinl is uBiially hAd in resane bf tl* 
liiiiLiuid, lit be t'siil tu het if lu divorci! Iier. or when he di«&< 

+ CLijor-B'n, chii[^.iv., vv, 12—14, mid 175. 

t A bastanl inheiila from hii mulhur, bat ngt ften hi* 

i U)ati. ii., V. 280. 

I'M; but,.if baMUblithhis 
,«isii|v. 1.. He m«y be cumpelted 

,^ wvi'l> ' I lii-'i debt, il'alik. 

uiii'.'^ I'l. .'. e hIbUI be puniKbeti with 

^llfutb^wi , UiLd xiw ptipuiiutur ehuU pay, to tlic bms 
^f4il^ persou wiiuin hr bus kill«>d, a fine, uhkh ii Hi 
■Milium iileiluccon ling to tUe liiws of inhtTilaiuv ; und 
^iVls upliuiiBl wilb the nuid beini to decree wheUwr 
•IJml -JDUrderer t>huU l*e f"" *" denlli or the AneBC' 
^fgiyledt- By Ihe lltuui'ut'ee (![>de, the free mny be 
jjlU ti> death liir the murder of u slave ; but not the 
(ItKreul fur the ol&|i[iilg. In Ihe present dsy, hnw- 
^Vlv.uiiudti' is generally punished witli death; the 
.igfivfunineiit sekliioi allciwiiig; a eompnuition in money 
,||B ba wade- The Bed'nweea have made tile law af 
jpe nvjBt^ng nl blood terribly wvere and unjast, 
SlOWTgrf'"''"'^ ^^ hmitj assii^ied by the Ckoor-n'n : 
Uf, wjtb Iheni, any single person deucendetl fnim the 
jtowwidct DC from the homtuide's father, gTandtBlher, 
pent-grandfather, or i^at-p-andliither's fattier, may 
j^liiiled by any of such relations of the pereon mur- 
Mf^fU killed in light; but, aman^i; most tribes, the 
3jne iiLgenerally aeoepled instead uf the blixxl. Cases 
.{4^^^ino[l-reveng« are very eommon araontr the pea- 
iWy i>i C?>'ptt w)>u> )u> 1 have before remarked, 
tnaaycuBtomH of their Bed'aweeani^estors, The 
of a person whu has been killed, in an 
\illijge, generally retaliate with tiieir own 
iFalber ll^u apply to the government, and often 
_:with disgusting emeky, and even man^ and 
UButt tlie curpse of their victim. The relations of 
4^^if)DU(;kle usually fly trom their own to another 
«tliiige,-for proleetinn. Even when retaliation has 
bwA l&Sde, animosity frequently continues between 
^ Jwp ^mrtic» for mauy years ; and ojlen ft' case 

' Cko«t-a'n, chap, ii., v. 173. 



or Ui»d-reveDge involves the inhabitants of two o . 
more villages in hostilities, which are renewed, ali 
intervals, during the period of several general ionsj 
A woman, convicted of a capital crime, is geaerallj) 
put to death by drowning iu the Nile. 

Theft, uccording to the Ckoor-a'n *, is to b« 
punished by cutting off the offender's right hand foi^ 
the fir«t offence ; but a Soon'neh law ordains that, 
this punishment shall not be inflicted if the value a 
the stolen property be less tlian a qiiarter of 1 
deenaVt; and it is also held necessary, to rendof 
the thief obnoxious to this punishment, that the pro 
perty stolen should have been deposited in a place b 
which he had not ordinary or easy access: whence i| 
follows, that a man who steals in the house of a sea 
relation is not subject to thi9 punishment; nor is i 
slave who robs the house of his master. For tbf 
second offence, the letl foot is to be cut off; lor tttfl 
third, the lell hand ; for the fourth, the right footji 
and, for further offences of the same kind, the culprill 
is to be flogged or beaten. A man may steal a fr 
born infant without offending against the law, I 
cause it is not property ; but not a slave : and ttd 
hand is not to be cut off for stealing any article at 
food that is (|uickly perishable ; because it may have 
been taken to supply the immediate demands Oj 
hunger. There are also some other cases in whi ~ 
the thief is exempt Irom the punishments above me 
tioned. In Egypt, of late years, these punishniBi 
have not been inflicted. Beating and hard labodfl 
have been substituted for the first, second, or third' 
offence, and frequently death fur the fourth. Mos|* 

• Chap, v., V. 42, u 

f The ieensTt it a. mitcka'l (or nearly 72 English ^raintl 

of KQlil. Sale, copyiug a Catse ttanslation by AlLrrscoi, BOdi 

nei^lsctine tu cxsmine the Arubic text quottd by the latlo^i 

bag nMed the sum in (juestioatu be litui deeas'ti. i -ii 



pMty offfinct* nrr uniatty punt»lwij by bntliiur •rlth 
ihe tiwrha'(f (n Ihnn^ at nhip of hippopotnmiin' htils, 
liMimtred itil'i u rminil form), [ir witfa u >Ui'k. t^ne* 
r^ly on llic Miles of ilie f«M '. 
' Drunkenness wu^ (iuniiilke<l, b; i)ie Praf>liFt, b; 
I flC^ltl^: lUtd is still in Calm, Ihoofch nnl orwn : llw 
I ih^di^orniunberof etri)ics,for thi( oBciKV.Uri^lity. 
ApostMy from the Mohluuitmiuliu] fuilh i> cnn- 
sdered a. most bettiouH hiu, antl muiil be piuiuilied 
irilh death, uukss th« Hjinstiit^ will rteain (in bcjnK 
itirice vramed. I oiice anir it woman paraded throu^b 
the streets ur Cuiro, nnO aBerwurdt laken down lo 
Ibe Nile lo be drowned, for hxiiin niKMioliitod rrom 
ihc fnitb of Mohhain'niiul, ami havia|r mamed a 
Chrj«l)an. Unfortuniilely, she bail lattuaed a bliie 
cnMH on her arm, which let! to ber deleclion iff one 
or her farmer frieDda in « bub. Sbe ■*■ moiutieA 
upon B tu'|rh-saddled aaa, Mdi am hdM in Egyp* 
iwwily rtile, nod very napKtMUj dit wiJ. uttmAai 
bytt^erSiBTHl sommnrM bjtkimUik. wb(s ii ' ' 
of eommiseniiinir, ntMRxi loud ImpRcatioH t 
Iw. The Cku'dee. »*btt fmtm^ i " 
ithorted tvr, in lain, to retora to 

1 bmt into the midst of the liter, -nipped neariy 
mkrd, Wrangled, and then tfvnwn into the atiMDi t. 
The Europeans residing ia Cako re)freiied Ihal the 
' *-" s then at Aleuadri*, an Ihry Tji^tn hai« 

_ , d upon him to patdMi W. Dr.- - >-• .re they 

I'taieiwded with him for ^iwibb ^u, Lvi ;. 

* The feet are cimlSaed ty »*,((, ^. -;-,. _,-..-brd rf 
Aeadloaslaff", w" " -' ' 



demned (at &postacy. The Da'slia ordereil that she 
should be brought before hiin : he exhorted her (0 
recant ; but, ftiiding her resolute, reproved her for heV 
folljf, uiid seul her hoint;, commandiug; that no injnr^ 
should he done to her. 

A lew words may here be added respecting the 
sect of the Wali'ka'hees, whicli was louiided, less than 
a century ago, by Mohham'mad Ibn 'Abd El-Walj'- 
ha'b, a< pious and learned sheykh of the province of 
Nejd, ill teutral Arabia. About the middle of tbe 
last century, he had the Ecood fortune to convert lo 
his creed a powerful chief of Ed-Dir'ee'yeh, ihe capital 
of the Nejd. This chief, Mohham'mad Ib'n So'oo'd, 
became the sovereign of the new sect — their relipOUS 
and political head — and under him and his suC(;essors 
the Wah'ha'bee doctrines were spread througlimit the. 
greater part of Arabia. He was first succeeded by 
his son, 'Abd El-'Azee'z ; iieKt, by So'oo'd, the saq> 
of the latter, and the greatest of the Wah'ha'bee- 
leaders; and, lastly, by 'Abd AVIah, the son of 
So'oo'd, who, after an arduous warfare with the armieB, 
of Mohham'mad 'Ai'ee, surrendered himself lo 
victorious enemies, was sent to I^gypt, thence tn 
Constantinople, and there beheaded. "The wars whicll' 
Mohham'mad 'Al'ee curried on against the Wah'-< 
halsees had for their chief object the destruction of 
the political power of the new sect : their religious 
tenets are still professed by many of the Arabs, and 
allowed to be orthodox by the most learned of 
'Ool'ama of Egypt. The Wah'ha'bees are merel> .„; 
formers, who believe all tlie fundamental points of 
El-Isla'm, and all the accessory doctrines of the 
Ckoor-a'n and the Tradiliuna of llie Prophet : il 
short, their tenets are those of the primitive Moos' 
lims. They disapprove of gorg-eous sepulchres, and 
domes erected over tombs : such they invariably de- 
stroy when in Iheir power. They also condemn, ai 

itere, those wBo pay peculiar Tenerstion lo de- 
ceased saints; and even d^kre all tHiier Mixn'- 
lims to be heretics, for Ihe extmvaEant rcsjwci which 
they pay to the PropheL lliey formtl the wearing of 
(iik, and g^old ornameiiU. aiid all costly apparel ; and 
jk^o the practice of smoking tiibaeco. For the want 
of ^lis laet luxury, they console themselves in (Hiine 
degree by an immoderate use of ciitfec*. Tliere 
are many learned men amoiiH' them, and ihcy linve 
(»llected many valuable books (chiefly historical) From 
various parts of Arabia, and from E^'pt. 

■ ■ AnoDu;; maay Other eitoneoui 
hg of cofiec. 

, smeali mppctinstha 

iu«orleil that tbcy piobibit the diudu 


Eqtpt hasi of late years, experienced great politicd 
changes, and nearly ceased to be a proviuce of tha 
Turkish Empire. lis present Ba'shii (Mohhain'mad' 
'Al'ee), having exterminulfd the Ghiinzz, or Mem^i 
luo'ks, who shared the government with his predM 
cessors, has rendered himself an almost inilependen^ 
prince. He, however, professes allegiance to thd' 
Sodla'n, and remits the tribute, HCcording to forDMfC 
custom, to Consttuitinople ; he is, moreover, unden 
an obligation to respect the fundamental laws of the* 
CkooF-a'n and the Traditions; but he exercises a 
dominloQ otherwise unlimited. He may cause any 
one of his sutijects to be put to death without the ioiv 
mality of a trial, or without assigning any cause : 
simple horizontal motion of his hand is sufficient 
imply the sentence of decapitation. But I ij 
be nnderatood to insbuate that he is prone 
blood without any reason : severity is a character! stic'i 
of this prince, rather than wanton cruelty; and 
boundless ambition has prompted him lo almost 
t:Mry action by which he has attrecled either praise 
or wnsure*. ' 

• The gou'iunieal of Egypt, froin the periud uf the con- 
IMMAiit t hi* Calititt; by the Acubg, hui biHin ucaily llie sune 
M M nmul> in it< influence upon the tnonnera and cuBtumi 
«nl di*ii«t«I at th« iahut>itanlE ; and I tlii'mforu ilo nut deem 
Ml 'MMonai RtnMpect necuBsary to the illuitintiuu ul lliii , 
qMh> It iliinH. miwever, be mentioned, that the people 91^, 





In the Citodc) of the Metro|xilis is a court ofjudl- 
euan, called Denva'n r^l-Kkideit'v>m\ whefe, in Ihe 
Ba'iiba's oWnce, (ircsiHeK liis Kikf/ya *, or d«puly, 
Htutbec'b EfetiMee. In cnsea vrhioli Ai> itot fall wilhin 
Ihe province of the Cko'dee, or which are Buflicie ntly 
dvar to bi< declileil withiml referring them tn the 
court of that nlHcer, or to anutlier council, the jireai- 
ital of Ihe Decwft'n el-Khidw'wee piii^cs jud^ 
menL NunieniusBriianWiouseB have been eclablished 
fttougbout the nielropcilbt at each of whieh is sta- 
tidncd A body of hiEa'm, or regular troops. The 
gDanl is called Ckoot'tnoi-h t, or, mure commonly, at 
liRMDt, Chai''a-ckoflX. Persons arcused of thefU, 
•Mn^bi, 8lC: in Cairo, are given in uhnrge to a soldier 
tif tbe guard, who takes them to the chief ptard- 
iiDUse, h) the McKi'skee, a street In that part of the 
town hi whitli niost of the Franks reside. The 
charges being here stated, iind committed to writing, 
beconducts litem lo llie Za'bil, or chief magistrate 
of Ihe police of the metropolis. The Za'blt, having 
betfd the case, sends Ihe accused fur trial to the 
Deewa'n el-Khidee'wee §. When a person denies 
ihe oHence with which he is charsfed, and there b not 
sufficient evidence to convicl him, but some ground 

Bgypt are not now olloved to iii(lul|{e in that axccaaife faua- 
ll^ ruileaeaB with which they formeily treated iinbeliaven. 
Infiuat mky, at tint, iacresw, but will ivohably, in llw 
MBRe of bme, matenally d latin iih, the feeling of faaatioU 

* XluiB pranaiiDced in Egypt, but taoia properly Ki/JUu/a 
M Ktl'kllo-'Pa. 

t From th« Turkish Cks-Zt-hwA. 

I Vulgailj, Karaii/n. 

'\ A very BibitTary power ii oFten exereiBcd in thii and 
timilar eoarls. sad Ihe proceedincii are eondiKlcd with little 
dacdrum. MaayTuikish uSimrs, even uf the higbeat rimk, 
Boike me of lunguage tar tcia dbgusting fgr ma tu mention 
toViidipeniDnsbioughtbefore them for judgment, and tuwuds, 
■"" 'to ttmnfcs joetiMi S^t 


of Euspicion, he is generally bastJDiuloed, ii) orderto 
itaduee him to conress , and llien, if not IteCufe, yvlien 
the crime is not of a nature ttiat renders hifiLp^- 
noxious to a \ery heavy punishnieiit, he, if gUfltyi 
admits it. A thief, after lliis discipline, gene^y 
confesses, " The devil seduced me, and I tfwk iL" 
The punishment of the tonvicls is regulated .W-a 
system of orbitrary, but lenient and wise, pplii;y_Vjit 
usually consisia in their being compelled to liiW^r 
for a scanty sustenance, in some of the public: uxivkf, 
such as the removal of rubbish, digging canals, ^ ; 
melimes the army is recruited with able-po^Ui^ 

young mpn convicted of petty offences, in eq^pltty- 
ing malefactors in labours for the iniprovpraeat urtBA 
country, Mohham'mad 'Al'ee merits tlie praises,)^ 
slowed upon Sabacon, the Ethiojiiau coiiquerotr ajl4 
king of Egypt, who is said to have iiitrcfduct^ this 
policy, The Ba'sha is, howevei', very sevei;e, ■ ^n 
punishing thetls, &c., committed i^ainst himse^^r' 
death is the usual penal^ in such cases. , . .^ 

There are several inferior councils for conductlMI: 
the aSaiis of different departments of the adi^w*- 
tratton. The principal of these are the follotn'tlffi 
1. The Meg'tis el-Mesh'wa/ah (the Council ofjj^ 
liberation); also called Me^lis el-Mf:ih'\oa.T'»l^el* 
MePeke^yeh (the Council of Deliberation ou,,' 
affairs of the State), to distins^uish il rrpm,.,Ot 
Cpitiicib. The members of this and of t^e ,($i,,.- 
Eimilar councils are chosen by the Ba'sha, fqr^haic 
; talents or other (jualiiications ; and conseqtl^ptif )iif9 
niU and interest sway them in all their d^SJA^f* 
They are his instruments, und compose a coinnuf^ 
for pre^ding over the general govcrninent .c^ ,tli|a 
tonntry, and the commercial and ngricuKiu^l affJHp 
of the Ba'sha. Petitions, &c., addressee ' ' 
Bs'sha, or to his Deewa'n, relating; to private 
M du aff^B of the goxernment, are geiu^^Jjjpj 

novER^ME^'T. 153 

mitled to their considcratinn anil Judgmnit, tinlegs 
''they more properly come under llie coKiiitancc of 
Mher councils hfreuftcr lo be ineiitioned. 2, The 
MtfiflU el-Gih'a'de^ph (the Cooucil of the Arm)) ; 
-abo called Meg'Ha el-Meili'Kar'ah el-'Askarei^yth 
(ibe Counrit of Deliberation on Military Aflkiiv}. 
' The province of this iKnirt is aunicieiilly shown by 
its Diune. 3. The Council of llie TuTskhn'neht or 
NftW. 4. Tlie t)e,-vM'n el-Toogga'r (or Court of 
Ute Merctmnts). This court, the members of which 
: ltd ni^rchaiiLs of vurioua countries and religions, pre- 
"rf&d over by the Sfta'h-hcn'dar (or chief of the mer* 
^nl8 of Cairo), was instituted in eoiiscqueiicc of (he 
'iivi of the CkooT'a'n and the Soou'neh beiiiy; foui)d 
.riot suSlcienlly explicit in tiome coses arising out of 
^iMem commercial tniosactions. 
' 'Tlie Cba'dee (or chief judge) of Cairo presides in 
''Etfypt only a year, at the expiration of which term, 
'anew Cka'dee having nrrived front Constantinople, 
the former retunia. it was customary for this officer 
4il' IjjriK^ed from Cairo, with the great caravan of 

fimsi'to MekTich, perform the ceremonies of the 
Image, nnri remain one year as Cka'Uee of ttie 
city, and one year at El-Medee'neh *. He pur- 
~^uises his place privately of the government, which 
*inyB no particular regard to his qunlificatiotls ; 
'tfeOogh he must he a man of some knowledge, an 
"Osma'nlec (that is, a Turk), and of the sect of llie 
"^Siftn'afees. His tribunal is called the Mahk'ke7n!efi, 
''A ]tTace of Judgment. Few Cka'dees are very w(;ll 
ttJN^fnted with ihe Arabic language ; nor is il necM- 
"ISti^ftr ihcm to have such knowledm. In Cairp, 
*fiie Cka'dee has little or nothing to do but to conlirm 
*ih^'*etiteoceof hisiVa'tft (or deputy), who hearanjid 

• Hamed toaiiivEin CnlrointtiB beginiiinBnf Eum^ail 

Vak (tie brgtnniBg oF the first month, Ualihtii'tun, W^.^^ 

Aedvpaa inatecd at the formei pnlol. 

1m modern EGYPTIANS. 

decides tlie more ordinary cases, and whom hf 
chouses from among the 'Ool'ama nl' Istumboc/I, ai 
ihe dei^ision of the Maiflec (or chief doctor of thg 
law) of his own sect, who couslantly resides in Cain^' 
uml gives Judgment ia all ca-tes of difficult}'; butii 
general the Na'ib is, at the best, but little conversanj 
with the popular dialect of Egypt; llierefore, i^ 
Cairo, where the chief proportion of the litigants af 
the Mahh'kem'eh are Arabs, the jud^re must plwjl 
the utmost confidence in the Ba'M Toorgooma'n (a 
Chief InUrpi-ttki'), whose place is permanent, aaq 
who is con sequel Lily well acquainted with all the cus? 
loms of tlie coint, particularly with the systen 
bribery ; and this knowledge he is generally i 
ready to communicate to euery new Cka'dee t 
Na'ib. A man may be grossly ignorant of the lafn 
and yet hold the office of Cka'dee of Cairo : severgj 
instances of this kind have occurred : but the NalS 
must be a lawyer of learning and experience. 

When a person has a suit lo prefer at the Mahl 
kem'eh against another indiyidual or party, he go 
thither, and applies to the Ba'sh Roos'ool (or chief d 
the sergeants who execute arrests) for a Rasoo'l U 
arrest the accused. The Rasoo'l r ' 
or two", and generally gives half of this fee privateij 
to his chief. The plaintiff and defendant then pw* 
sent themselves in the great hall of the M ahh'hem'^|| 
which is a large saloon, facing a spacious court, onv 
having an open front, formed by a row of colutiud^ 
and arches. Here are sealed several officers caUel 
Sha'hids, whose business is to write the slutementsd 
the cases to be submitted to Judgment, and who Ufl 
tmder the authority of the Ba'sh Ka'titi (or Chio) 
Secretary). The plaintiff, addressing any one of tlfi- 
Sha'hids whom he finds unoccupied, stales his caa§ 

* The Egyptian piakler is naw equivaltiDt lu file fifth pn^ ' 
or&HtuUiiig,na}<I. ^ 


' -nd the Sha'hitI cntnmits it U) writing, nnd rrccivee 
a r«e of n piaster or miirn ; nftvr whiclT, if thu <'*se 
beor a tiiHiu^ nuture, and the (leTeiiilunt ntkiiowlcilgc 
tbe juslici: 4tf the »uil, lu> (Uie Shulii'l) pusHen M-n- 
teooe; hut otherwise ho roiidiiclH the two pariien 
before (lie Nn'ib, who holds hio court in an inner 
tpartmeut. Tlic Na'ih, hnring hcanl the rust, desires 
1^ IlluntiBTtn procuru a/el'im (iir judidiil (Iccislnti) 
from the Mm>r'tec of ihc sect of llie fllian'ofcm, 
vbo receives a fve, wldum less than ten piaslcra, unti 
enen mare thnn a litindred, or tno hundred, tills 
is tbe course pursued in all cases but those of a very 
triRin^ nature, which are settled with less tmiible, 
sod those nr ^real importance or intricacy. A case 
of the latter kind is trieil in the private apartmetit of 
(heCktt'dee, before the Cka'dee himself, the Na'ih, 

1 the Moof tee of the Hhan'afees, who is 9Um- 
iBttued lo hear it, and to give bin decision ; and 
sometimes, in cases of very great difficulty or moment, 
sveral of the 'Ool'ania of Cairo are, in like manner, 
nunmoned. The Moof'tee hears the cose, and writes 
tUBsentence ; andtheCka'deeeonfirmshisJadgment, 
and stamps the paper with his seal, which is all that 
^ has (o do in any case. The accused may clear 
himself l^y his oath, when the plaintilf has not wit- 
ttCBMS lu produce : placing his right hand on a copy 
of the Ckoor-a'n, which is held out to him, he says 
"By God, the Great ! *' three times ; adding " By 
^bxl is contained in this of the word of God !" 
The witnesses must be men of [;ood repute, or 
yserled to be such, and not interested in the cause; 
tn every case, at least two witnesses are requisite • 
(or Boe mail and two women) ; and each of these 
QMiat be attested to he a person of probity by two 
others. Au infidel cannot bear witness against a 

■ This law is hotroweii from the Jews. See Deal, lii., 

maa maj tefujw to pre hti teatimony. 



Htx/sHin in a case involving capitnl or other heatjf 
punishment, and evidence in ^vciur of a son M 
grandson, or of a. futher or grandfalher, i« not rati 
ceived; nor is the testimony of slaves ; neither ' 
a mnsler testily in favour of his slave. 

The fees, until lately, used to be paid by the i 
cessful party ; "but now they are paid by the other 
party. The Cka'dec's lees for decisions in casei 
apecting' the sale of property are two per cent, or 
amount of the property ; in cases of legacies, fenA 
per cent., excepting when the heir is nn orphan iitA 
of age, who pays only two per cent. : for decisioaB 
respeeting property in houses or land, when thb tost 
of the property in question is known, hia fees uf 
two per cent. ; but, when the cost is not known, oae 
year's rent. These are the legitimate fees ; but mdA. 
than the due amount is often exacted. Jn cases whic^. 
do not concern property, the Cku'dee's Na'ib fixes thil 
amount of the fees. There are also other (eea tbul 
those of the Cka'dee to be paid after the decisioa of 
the case : for instance, if the Ckn'dee's fees be.iw*. 
or three hundred piasters, a fee of about two piastetn 
must be paid lo the Ba'sli Toorgtioma'n ; about 
same to the Ba'sh Roos'ool; and one piaster to 
Ra.'ioo'l, or to each Rasoo'l employed. , , 

The rank of a plaintilF or defendant, or a ImUk' 
from either, alien influences the decision of Ae 
judge. In general the Na'ib and Moof'tee taifi 
bri^s, and the Cka'dee receives from his Na'ib, 
On some occasions, particularly in long titigatiomi 
"bribes are given by each party, and the dedsloiL^ 
awarded in favour of him who pays highest, "mji 
ftequently happens in difficult lawsuits ; and, even in 
cases respecting which the law is perJectly oleaf, 
strict justice is not always administered ; bribes and 
Wse testimony being employed by one of the partie;. 
The shocking extent to which the practices of bii- 

60VBBNMENT. 157, 

ben ttnd sabomiag Talw witnesses are carried ift 
UuCHlim ci-Turta of law, nnd nmoit^; ihriii in ihu tri- 
baud of ilie Cka'dw; of Cairo, may be icuncly crc- 
dilpd on tlic bore asscrtiou or the Ik't : sonic? sti'oiig 
proof, resting on ioduUtable authority, nuky be de- 
nunded ; aiid here I shall give such pruof, ia a mm- 
nuay of a case which whs tried not long- sini-'e, und 
which was related lo me by the Secretary and Irim'ni 
irf'tbe Sheykh Ei-Mah'dce, who wiis tlieu sH]>reiiMs 
Maortee of Cairo (being the cliief Moul'tce uf the 
Uhaa'afees). and to whom this case vias referred 
«fier judgment in the Cka'dee's court. 

A T^irkiah merchant, residing in Cairo, died, leaving 
property to the amount of six thousand purses *, imd 
tio relation to inlierit but one daughter. The Seyd 
Mohham'mad El-M^hroo'ckee, &e Sha'h-bcn'dar 
(chief of the merchants of Cairo), hearing of this 
CTCDt, suborned a common fel'lu'lih, who wua the 
ban/wa'b (or door-keeper) of a respccled sheykh, and 
whose -parents (both of them Arabs) were known tu 
many personB, to assert htniBelf a son of a brother of 
the decea-sed. The case was brought betore the 
Clca'dee, and, as it nas one of considerable import- 
atKe, BCyeralof the principal 'Ool'ama of the city were 
sommoned to decide it. They were all bribed or iii- 
flumced by £l-Mahhroo'ckee, as will presently be 
shown ; false witnesses were brought forward to swew 
to the truth of the bow'wa'b's pretensions, and others 
tb ^ve testimociy to tlie good character of these 
witneEses. Three thousand purses were adjudged, to 
the daughter of the deceased, nnd tlie other half.of 
th^ prf^rly to the bow'wa'b. El-Mahhroo'ckee 
Ttceited the ttlmre of the latter, deducting only Ihree 
hundred piasters, which he presented tolhebow'wi^'b- 

■ A putaftis Ihe sum of Gva hundred jiiftstenr, and wra IhWi 
e^iraleat to nearly seven pounds sterling ; but is dsw equ*l 
Ifr bnljp five pounds. — 


The chief Moof'tee, £1-Mah'dee, we» ahseai Ciqh 
Cairo when the case was tried. On his I'elimi i'^ 
ibe metropolis, s. few days ufler, the daughter uf ^u^ 
deceased merduuil repaired to his hou$c, sUted by 
case to biiR, and earnestly solicited redress. 1^ 
Moof'tee, tliough conrinced of the injustice M-hicbuliti 
bud suffered, and not doubling the truth of wof^ 
she related respecting the part which EI-Mahbrot/ck^ 
had taken in this uitair, told her thiU be feared jA 
yuBS impossible for him to annul the judg'ment hiUm 
there were some irregularity in the proceedings of (S 
court, but thai he would look at the record of l^ 
caae in the register of the Mahh'-kem'eh. HaiiiJ^ 
done this, he betook himself to the. Ba'shu, with whoiQ 
he was in gKa.1 favour for his knowledge and i^ 
sible integrity, and complained to him that tofn 

tribunal of the (Jka'dee was disgraced by the i 
ministration of the most flaffrant injustice ; that falw 


witness was admitted by the 'Ool'ama, however 
dent and glaring it might be ; and that a judgmei 
which they had {^iven in a late case, during his a\ 
sence, was the general talk and wonder of the towi 
The Ba'shft summoned the Cka'dee, and all Qif 
'Ool'ama who had tried this case, to meet the Muoftgy 
in ttie Citadel ; and, when they had assembled tbeM^ 
addressed them, as from hiniself, with the Moof tce« 
complaint. The Cka'dee, appearing, like the 'Ooj*^ 
ama, highly indignant at this charge, demanded (•' 
know upon what it was grounded. Tbe Ba'sha rac 
plied that it was a general charge, but parlicularH 
groimded upon the case in which the court had aa^ 
niittefl the claim of a bow'wu'b to a relationship 
inheritance which they could not believe to be 1^, 
right. The Cka'dee here urged that he had passnl 
sentence in accordance with the unanimous decisioB 
of the 'Qol'ama then present. " Let the record of 
the case be read," said the Ba'sha. The joatuffl 


hemg sent for, this was done ; and whf n (be aeort- 
tiuy hud finished reading; the miniitm, (he Clca'dee. 
in a. luud tone of proud nulhurity, said, " Aud I judgivd 
BU.'' The Muof'lee. in u louder and mure uuthori' 
tative tone, exclainiedi '' And thy judgment is I'ulso 1" 
All eyes vere fined in asluniohmt^nt, now at llie 
Moofte«, now Ml iho Bfi'shii, now al the otlier 
'Ool'ama. The Cka'dec and ihe Ool'ania rolled 
tbeur heads and atrtiked their beards. The Tormor 
exclaimed, tB|ipitin; liis breast, " I. the Cka'dee o( 
Musr, puss a false sentenue I" " And we," said the 
'Ool'ama, " we, Sheykh Mah'dee ! we, 'Ool'uma el- 
iBb'tDtgive a. tiibedediiion!" " O Sheylth Mah'dee," 
aaid El-Mahhroo'ckee (who, from his coiumercial 
inneactions with the Da'sha, could generally oblaiit 
\ place in his couneils), " respect Uie 'Ool'ama, tm 
Ihey respect thee !" " O Malihroo'ckee !" excIaimMl 
the Moortee, "art thou concerned in thiselTBir? 
Declare what part tboit hast in it, or else hold thy 
peace ; go, speak in the assemblies of the merchants, 
tmt presume not again tu open thy nioutli in the 
Council of the 'Ool'airm !" El-Mahhroo'ckee imme- 
tUtdely lell the palace, for he saw how the affair 
iVDuld terminate, and had to make his arrangements 
kCGordingly. The IVloof'tee was now desired, by the 
Uther 'Ool'ama, to adduce u pruof of the invalidity of 
their decision. Drawing from his faosom a. email 
book on the laws of inheritance, lie read from it, 
** To establish a claim to relationship and inherit' 
ance, the names of the father and mother of the 
claimant, and those of his father's father and mother, 
Ud of his mother's (iither and mother, must be 
ascertained." The names of the father and motlier 
of the pretended father of the bow'wa'b, the falae 
witneases had not been prepared to give ; and this 
oeficjency in (he testimony (which the 'Oolama, in 
t^iag the case, purposely overlooked) now caiiaed 


Qm senience to be aDnulled. The IxiVwaT* was 
brought before the council, and, denying (he imposi>' 
tion of which he had been made the prindftal inHtru-' 
laent, was, by order of the Ba'sha, very severely Ima'i 
tinaded; but the only confession that could bednnm' 
from him by the torture which he endured yras, tiiaf 
he had received iiotlking more of the three thousaifcf* 
purses than three hundred piasters. Meanwhile, fifr' 
Mahtiroo'ckee had repaired to the bow'wa'b'B m:^ 
ter: he told the latter what had happened at tW 
Citadel, and what he had foreseen would be thd' 
result, put into his hand three thousand purses, an<t> 
begged him iramediutely to go to the council; glvC 
this sum of money, and suy that it had been placefti 
in his hands in trust by bis servant. This wad' 
done, and the money was paid to the daughter of tba' 
deceased. ■ '"* 

In another case, when theCka'dec and the coancit^ 
of the 'Ool'ama were influencerl in their decision by Vf 
Ba'shu (not Mohham'mad 'Al'ee), and ptu^sed a wnP 
teiice contrary to Uvt, they were thwarted in 'titi\ 
same manner by EI-Mah'dee. This Moof tee vita iP, 
rare example of integrity. It is said that he neveid' 
took a fee for a fet'wa. He died shortly aftef mj^, 
first visit to this country- I could mention seteiw^ 
other glaring cases of bribery in the court aP &iff> 
Cka'dee of Cairo; but the above is sufficient. ■ ""fv 

There are five minor Mahh'kem'ehs in CaSfotA'. 
and likewise one at its principal port, Boo'la'ctt ; Wfdfl 
one at its southern port, Musr EI-'Atee'ckah. -A* 
Shft'hid from the great Mahh'kem'eh preside B.tttuA'* 
of them, as deputy of the chief Cka'dee, who cenJl!! 
firms their acts. The matters submitted to tb«Nd* 
minor tribunals are chiefly respecting the sales ojrf 
properly, and legacies, marriages, and divorcei 
the Cku'dee marries female orphans under age rwhon 
idrm-iu/ relations art oa ihew ^oe.tdvantt't^ 


»# vfvn odeii buve tecMiiwi to law (o compel iheti' 
tuubaBds lo divuive lliem. In evcTy roumry-Iown 
there is also a Cka'dee, ^iieniiiy a nati\p uC the 
place, and never a Turk, who decides all case*, 
sumetunffi froin his dwd knowlfd^ of th« law, but 
CDarnunly on the authority of a Mooftce. Od« 
C'ka'dec g«nerully sen'es fitr two or three or more 

£ticli of the four orlhodoi sects of Moos'litns (the 
Hten'«feee, Sha'fe'ee^, Ma'likees. uud Htmin'- 
befecfi) haa 'tis Skeykh, or rehgious chief, who in 
efaoKH fjrom among the most learned of the body. 
Mid resides in the inetro{K>lis. The Sheykh of the 
ffwtt niosquc El-Az'har (ivlio is always of the sect of 
iheSbii'fe'ees, and Bometimes Sheykh of that eeet), 
togttliet with the other Slieyktui above ineiilioii«d, 
and the fkii'dee, the Nackoe'b el-Ashra'f (the rfiief 
flfrthe Sberee'fs, or descendnnls of the Prophet), and 
weral other persons, constitute Ihe council of the 
'Ooi'ama' (or learned men), by whom the Turkish 
Bft'*has and Meniloo'k chiefs hafe often been kept 
is awe, and by whom their tyranny has frequently 
bpeii. restricted : but now this learned body has lost 
allADstaJl its influence over the goveriimeut. Petty 
d&pHtes are ofleu, by mutual cimxenl of the parties 
atiTeriance, submitted to the judgment of cne of the 
four Sheykhs first mentioned, as they are the chirf 
JijBof'tees (if their respective sects ; and the ulmast 
dbftvetict is always poid to them. Difficult and delf- 
ttlfi CBtiB^s, which concern the taws of the Ckoor-a'n ■ 
or Uw Traditions, are also frequently referred by Oti-' these Sheykhs; but their opinion ia not 
always followed by him : for instance, after consiih>-' 
11^ them reflecting the legtiUty of dissecting- humrui' 

"*ln tile singular, 'yf/im. This tilie ia moie psTtiiulatly I 
prtn'toaimfcium of juris piiideuce. KurD?Ka\\')rti.(.B,,^Ms'' 
rijl^jll»* tliB filuial form of Ui>9 appeiUtica fai \V& «vn^ 


bodieB, for the sake of acquiriiig analomiuol kiiowf 
ledge, and receiving their declamtioa that it was re- 
pugnant to the laws of the religion, he, neverlhelesa* 
has caused it to be practised by Mooe'Um students vt, 
anatomy, / 

The police of the melropoiia b more under tbi; 
direction of the militaiy than of the civil poner. Ai 
few years ii^ it was under Ihe auihority of the WeHof 
and the2a'oj{,' but since my fiist visit to this coudIjijii 
the office of the former has been abolished. He yrtH 
charged with like apprehension of thieves aud othor 
criminals i and under hiii jurisdiction were the puUis' 
women, of whom he kept u list, and from each off 
whom he exacted a tax. He also took cognizance <^ 
the conduct of the women in general; aud, when fafti 
found a female to have been guilty of a single act 
incontinence, he added her name to ihe list of 
public women, and demanded from her Ihe 
unless she preferred, or could afford, to esca} 
ignominy, by giving to him, or to his oflicerE, 
siderable bribe. This course was always pui 
and is still, by a person who farms the tax of tl 
public women', in the case of unmarried femr 
and generally in the case of the married also; 
the latter are sometimes privatelyput to death, if the] 
cannot, by bribery or some other artifice, aa 
selves. Such proceedings are, however, 
poinls, conlrary to the law, which ordains thai a , 
son who accuses a woman of adultery or Ibrniesli 
without producing Ibui- witnesses of Ihe crime, 
be scourged with eighty stripes, aud decrees otber 
punishments than those of degradation and tribtits. 
against women convicted of such offences. 

The ofiice of tlie Za'bit has before been oientiooed. 
He is now the cliief of the police. His officers, 

have been compelleJ to a <h thuic Ucenliuua pcBCaaeiaojl ' 

itaUBJaaj ■ 

''dltfngTiM&if^ marie to reaSm tbfffi kntMrft 
H HRti, ire intr-mpmn! throuf^h the mulrupolb : 
fbej aftra visit thr utirrr-sbnpn, and obs«rvii the tuu- 
ifaet, bikI Ibtcn tu Um uiurnmiJon, of tin- citiuru. 
Muiy nf them oji? punlmici] thicvci. Tllvy nccdln- 
pMy the loilitu; j;itanl<i in tlirir nlith'ly rininib 
Uiraiif^) ihr Mineets or the inetit>poli«. IIck, none 
Imt the Ulnd tur allowed tn (to out at nlt^Ut ktor tliuii 
dmit ail hinir and a hnll' nnir Bunivt, without a 
hotcrn nr n ti^^tit ol' ^utnr kind. Pew |ht«o[1i> urn 
9(Cn in thv Eireels Jutf r ihun Iwn or thrrr huun bJUt 
crnitet. At tije Hflb or si\th lunir, one mii^t |>bm 
through tlw whole Iciif^h of the iDetnipolin and 
acarcel)' meet mure than u dozen or twenty perMinK, 
eXHUiug thu wutL-linivn and guardii, and Ihr jinrtrre 
■I tat gates or the by-atrcets and <]tiuners. 7*he 
ttutinrl, or guard, calls out Uj Uie nnprincliing \>b»- 
(Mger, in Turkish, " Who is timt • P" and Ih on- 
nmd. ill Arabic, " A dtizenf " Tlie private watch- 
nuin, in the wme case, eiclaims, " Attest the unity 
uf Ood t \" or inertly. " Attest the unity j ! " Tlw 
uttWer gi\en to this is, "There ia no deity but 
OodR !"' which Christians, us well as M<Wlim8, oh- 
jMt not In suy ; the fonner understand I ng time words 
in ft diffeient sense trom tlic latter. It \x Huppoficd 
that a thief, or a pereon hound on any unlawful un- 
dertaking', would not dure to utter these words. 
Some persons loudly exclnim, in reply to the suni- 
auDA of the watcbman, " There is no deity but Gud : 
Mobhtun'miul is God's Apnatle." 

Hie Za'bil, or A'gha of the police, used frequently 
Iwgti about the metropolis by night, often accom- 

f »*'#»«. itior' J. {•.lirt'm door' d. 

t Wn bePtd. It Mini, he onsMeis A'ama. 

i.fValiliUad; in. la more than one pfrBim, n'M'hiidoa. 



panied only by the executioner and the she'alegee, p» 
bearer of a kind of torch called ske'alek, wliich is 
still in use. This torch bums, soon after it is lightect. 
without a fiame, excepting when it is waved through 
the air, when it suddenly bla/.es forth : it therefor^ 
imswers the same purpose as our dark lantern, tb^ 
burning end is sometimes L-oncealed in a small p^b 
or jar, or covered with something else, when not r^ 
quired to give light ; but it is said that tliieves ofte^j 
smell it in lime to escape meeting the bearer. Wh^n 
a person without a light is met by the police at ni£^(, 
he seldom attempts resistance or flight : the puDjilk 
ment to which he is liable is beating. The chief . (if 
the police had an arbitrary power to put any erini^j 
nal or offender to death, without trial, and when fiA 
obnoxious, by law, to capital punishment; and^'C 
also had many inferior oflieers, as will be seen in au' 
sequent pages of this work: but within the last p 
or three years, instances of the exercise of such p 
have been very rare, and I believe they would; 
now be permitted. The officers of the Za'bit i 
form their nightly rounds with the military guan 
merely as being better acquainted then the j^tu 
. with the haunts and practices of thieves antl.OMft^ 
bad characters ; and the Za'bit himself scarcely yugf 
exercises any penal authority beyond that of beatjUg 

Very curious measures, such as we read of in soBjB ■ 
of the " Tales of a Thousand and One Nights, ,w)raB 
often adopted by the police magistrates of CaJrp^^U 
discover an ofiender, before the late innovations. Jj 
may mention an instance. The authenticity .ofi UK 
following ense, and of several others of a sim^gT 
nature, is well known. I shall relate it in the nW' 
ner in which 1 have heard it told. A poor man ap- 
plied one day to the A'gha of the police, and^^ah' 
" S/t, there came to me, to-da^, & viom&t^i vul v 


said lo me, ' Take this ekoors*, and let il remain ia 
(■our possession for a liitie, uiid lend me five bundtwl 
piaslcrs ;' and I look il from her. Sir, and gave her 
tke five hundred piasters, mid she wentuuay: and 
When she was gone away, I said to mysellj ' Let me 
lObk at this ekoors ;' and I looked at it, and behold, 
it Was yellow hruss : and I slapped my face, and said, 
't^ni go to the A'gha, und relate njy story to him; 
perhaps he will inrestigule the ulTair, and clear it 
trp ;' for there is none that can help me in this matter 
felt thee." The A'gha snid to him, " Hear what I 
lell thee, man. Take whatever is in thy shop ; leiive 
nothing; and lock it up; and to-morrow morning 
go eiarly ; and when thou hast opened the sho[), cry 
cjut, ' Alas for my property !' then lake in thy hand 
f»b clods, and heat thyself with them, and cry, 
' ^as for the property of others!' and whoever says 
to Ihee, ' What is the matter with thee ? do thou 
Shawei", ' The property of others is lost ; a pledge 
ft&t I hiid, belonging lo a woman, is lost ; if it were 
Vaj own, I should not thus lament it;' and this will 
(JSar np the aftiiir," The man promised to do its he 
^aa desired. He removed everything from his shop, 
^A early the next morning he went and opened it, 
nttd began to cry oul, " Alas for the property of 
others !" and he took two elods, and beat himself 
-with them, and went about every district of tlie city, 
crying, " Alas for the property of others ! a pledge 
^tnt f had, belonging to a woman. Is lost ; if it were 
, 'Siy'own, I should not thus lament it." The woman 
'4>lio bad given him the ckoors in pledge heard of 
Hfiifk and discovered that it was the man whom she 
"hi^ cheated ; so she said lo herself, " Go and bring 
^n 'action against him." She went to his shop, 
l53in^ on an ass, to give herself couseciuence, and 

. ■ An urDument worn en the ccuwa of tlie Luail-dcess by 
d, tStitiihei) in (lie Apyendu to this vioik. 

to theJlll^l 

.Qiwered, "It Is It 
-■If cried: " dost t] 
J ! 1 will go to the J _ 
" Go," said he; and 4p ■ 
The A'gha sent for tiw mui 

lid to his accD^cr, " Wl 
his possession?'' She umvR 

.V<:JosuT» of red Venetian gold." " Wmnui,'' b 
<4to -Vxna, ** I have a gold ckooni here : I dioo 
lite 'D -^laJv tc ibee." She said, " Show il me, S 
'm I Tfiall know my ekoors," The A'gha ibeB nn- 
Mi » bMKlkerchief, and, taking out of it the cfcoOrt 
vfekk sbe hod given in pledge, said " Look." Si 
^tkai at it and knew it, and liuug; down her heaj 
TW A'gba said. " Raise thy head, and say wbat 
n ibe five hundred piasters of this man." 8h 
tasaercd, " Sir, tbey are in my house." The exeof 
lUBcr M'as sent with her to her house, but withal 
tm ^■ord; and the woman, liaving gone into l_ 
Imev, brought out a parse containing the mone]^ 
aad went bock with turn. The money was given tS 
(he man from whom it had been obtained, and the 
executioner was then ordered to take the womai 
to the Roomejieh (a lai^ open place below 1 
Citadel), and there to behead her, which he did. 

The markets of Cairo, and the weights and mew^ 
suies, are under the inspection of an officer oalk 
the McAhfes'ih. He occasionally rides about till 
town, preceded by an officer who carries a large pai 
of scaler, and foUoived by the esecni loners and nii^ 
merous other servants. Passing by shops, or throng 
the markets, he orders each shopkeeper, one aila 
another, or sometimes only one here and there, Ul 
produce bis scales, weights, luid moa-sures, and tries 
whether they be correct. He also inquires 
of provisions at the shops where such ■ 


r tU 


he atops tt servsHl, or olh«r pus 
sen^^ iin the street, whom he m»y chance |u meet 
carrying aiiy article of foml that he hiia jiist bought, 
and aaks him for whnl aum, gr ut what weight, he 
inireliused it. Whcik he riiujs thut a shopkeeper haa 
Oicorrvct ecales, weights, or mcusureii, or Uml he hiu 
sold* thing deficient in weig'ht, or ahtne the regalnr 
narket- price, he piiuisheB liitn on Ihe s]K)t. The 
general piuiisliment is beating or flogging'. Once I 
mw a man tormented in a diiTercnt wuy, for selling 
bread deficient in weight. A hole was bored thmugh 
his nose, and a cake of bread, about a ^pun wide 
ud a finger's breadth in thickness, was suspended 
to il by a pietv of atring. He was stripped nuked, 
irith the exception of having a piece of linen about 
l)!s loins, and tied, with bis arms bound behind liim, 
10 the bars <il' a window of a mosque called the 
Aahrafee'yeh, iti the principal street of the metro- 
^Is, bis feet resting upon the »II, He remained 
iflils about three hours, exposed to the gaze of the 
multitude which thronged ttie street, and to Ihe 
aopnshing rays of the Bun. 

A person who was appointed Mohli'tcs'ib shortly 
after my former visit to this country (Moos'turti 
Ka'shif, a Koord) exercised his power In a most 
brutal manner, clipping mens ears (that is, cutting 
oft' the lobe, or ear-lup), not only lor the most trifling 
tovnsgression, but oAen for no olfence whatever. 
He once met an old man driving along several asses 
Men with wuler-melons, and, pointing In one of the 
Iwgeet of these fruits, asked its price. Tlie old man 
put his finger and thumb to his ear-lap, and said, 

Cut it, Sir." He was asked Again and again, and 
gnvB the same onswer. The Mohh'ies'ib, angry, bat 
unable to refrmn IVom lauglung, said, " Fellow, are 
you mad or deaf?'' " No,' replied the old man, " I 
am neither mad nordeafj but I know that,if Iwere 


to BjiJ^.the price of tlie melon ia leu fud'daho, y 
WDuTd' Hay ' Clip bis ear ;' and if I gaid j!ue fud'dah^. 
6r nne fud'dali, yoa would say ' Clip his eur :' tUem- 
fore clip it )it ouce, and let me pass on." Uh. 
Ilumour saved him. Clipping Gal's was thet.UHWtr 
punishnieiit inflicted by ihia Mohh'tes'ib ; but souk^ 
times he tortured in il ditferent tnanaer. A. buldM^t 
who tuid sold some meat wanting two ouace^of H^ 
due weiy;ht, he punished b>^ cuttii^ olftwu QU>1C0»4 
Desh from his back. A seller of koona'feh (» lu 
of paste resembling vermicelli) having ma/^ i 
customers pay a trifle more than was juat, he ca^ 
hiin to Le stripped, and seated upon the touad.eiii 
lier troy on which the koona'feh was baked, ami 
ke]iL so until he was dreadfully burnt, lie gi 
lully puuLshed dishonest butchers by putting .ah 
thraush iheif nose, and hanging; a piece of nwat'll 
it. Meeting, one day, a man carrying; a large c 
full of eiifthen water-bottles from ticmennoo'dt w' 
he offered for sale as made at Ckin'e, he caused. ll 
i^ltendants to break each beetle separately a^inst'tl 
vender's head. Moos'tuTa Ka'shifalso exeroiaedUi 
tyranny in other coses than those which pn^terlj ^ 
under his jurisdiction. He once took a fancy, to aen| 
one of his hnrsefi to a hath, and dei^ired tlte keap< 
of a "bath in his neighbourhood to prepare iat g 
ceiviitg it, and to wash it well, and make .its QM 
very smooth. The bith-keeper, annoyed at sg JH 
traurdinary a command, ventured to suggest thMiia 
the pavements of the bath were of marble, line kon 
might slip, and fall ; and also, that it might take.oi 
on going uuli and that it would, therefore, tw.bell 
for him to convey to the stable the contents of.itl 
cistern of the balh in buckets, and there 

the opcratioti. Moos'tuTa Ka'shif saiil, " 1 see h«| 
it U; you do not like tluit my horse tshouLd ga intj 
jour l>atlk" Uc desired some nf ius servsJM 

OOVKBhMtNT. 189 

__ . duwn, ikiid beat him with staves luitJI he 
.■IkiuIiI teU tUcm to ulop. Tliey did so ; and beuC the 
foot mnn tilt he died. 

• A lew years ugo there used to be tarried befure 
^ Mc^i'tesib. wheu going his rounds lu exiuiiint: 
the wei^ls iUtd measures, &c., u pair of hcuIcs 
ivger tha4) that used at presenl. lis beam, it is 
wid, was a hollow tube, containing soine quicksilver; 
ly means of which, the beitrer, knowing those per- 
WHS wiiui had bribed his master, and those who had 
ttot, Msily made either scale preponderate. 

Ab the Mohh'tes'ib is the overseer of the public 
awkete, so there are officers who have a similar 
tb«^ in snperiulending each branch or the Ba'sba'> 
Inde and manufacinres ; and some of these persons 
hwe been allowed to peipctrate most abominable 
WI8 of tyranny and cruelty. One of this class, who 
WH named 'Al'ee Bey, Na'xir cl-Ckooiaa'sk (or 
Overseer vi the Linen), when he found a person in 
|iQM)MSl(Hi of a private loom, or selling the produce 
•f«iich B loom, generally bound him up in a piece of 
Im lineu, Boaked in oil and tar; then suspended him, 
Ans enveloped, to a branch of a tree, and net light 
fc the wrapper. After having destroyed a number 
rf-neii in this horrible manner, he wa.s himself, 
•nong many others, burnt to death, by the explouoa 
i^k powder-raagazine on the northern slope of the 
eitKdei of Cairo, in 1824, the year before my firet 
■rivtiin Egypt. A friend of mine, who spoke to 
■I af the atrocities of this monster, added, " When 
KcDrpM wa.': taken to he buried, the Sheykh £1- 
^hno^aee (who was Bheykh of the great mosque 
WAx^ar) recited the funeral prayers over it, in the 
— i ipi i fif the Hhas'aney'n ; and I acted as moobat- 
lllpb'(n repeat the words of the Ima'm) ; when the 
"* ' " ottered the words, ' Give your testimony 
him,' and when I had repeated l\vet&, no 

its sheykh, 

« is exerted 

trifling disputM 

'i those nliD dis" 

The whole of 

eight districts, 

mllftf Shsykh el^ 

MiA manu&ctures 
ln\ras have aJso 
all disputes r^ 

trades or crafts 
lose sanction is 

' likewise under 

by applying to 

unall fee (tno dr 

1» tor the conduct 

Should a sM- 

latter gives lli- 

thelhcr be can 

must indcmniQ 

(JOVEIlNMltNT. 171 

the comiiiQH thievca aaed, not many yea's 
since, lo respect a superior, wliii wus called their 
aheykh. Uc was ulien rcquireil lo scarc-li fur stiilen 
goods, and lo bring oireiiders to jusiicc ; which lie 
genemlly accumplishi-d. It in very remarkable lliiit 
the same atrau^ system prevailed uniuiiij the unt'lent 

The Coptic Patriarch, who is the head of his 
church, judges petty causes uiiionp; hia penple in the 
fnetn^Iis; aiid the inferior clergy do the sunie in 
g^ier places; but an appeal muy l>e mode to lh« 
-(^k&'dee. A Moos'Iim oggrieved by a Copt muy de- 
mand justice irtim the Patriarch or the Cka'deft: a 
Copt who seeks redress from a Moo^Um mast apply 
to the Cka'dee. The Jews are similarly circum- 
iUnced. The Franks, or Europeans in g;cneral, are 
not wawerable to any uLber authority than that of 
ihek nspective coasuli, exceptin;; when they are ag- 
.fmeaacB ugainst n Moos'Iim : they are then surreu- 
jaied to (he Turkish authorities, who, on the other 
band, will render justice to the Frank wlio is ag- 
^lieved by a Moos'Iim, 

lite inhabilaula of the country-towns and viliages 
.ftre uitder the ^vcrnment of Turkish officers aiKrof 
^hair own countrymen. The whole of Egypt is 
^KJded into several Urav provinces, each of which is 
governed by an 'Osma'nlee (or a Turk) ; and these 
provinces are subdivided into districts, which are 
jgayeraeA by native officers, with the titles of Ma- 
.■wo'r and Na'tir, Every village, as well as town, 
.^BB also its Sheykh, called SHeykh el-Bel'ed; who 
ffi OBe of the DaUve Moos'Iim inhabitanls, All the 
_af^rs alwve nientii)ned, excepting the last, were 
^^merly Tiirka ; and there were other Turkish ^ 
ftroffte of small districts, who were called Ka'sktfa, 
' Cba'im-mticka''ms the change was made very 

* See DiDilonia Sitiilus, lib. i., cap. SO. 



Bhortly before my present yisit to this country; and 
the Fella'hhee'n complain that their condition fi( 
worse than it was before ; but it is ppcnerally froiA 
the tyranny of their great Turkish governors thai 
they suffer most severely. ' 

The following case will convey some idea of thi 
condition of Egyptian peasants in some prorinces. 
A 'I'urk", infamous for many barbarous acts, pre^' 
siding at the town of Tun'ta, in the Delta, went on^ 
night to the government granary of that town, and 
finding two peasants sleeping there, asked them wh^ 
they were, and what was their business in that piscef 
On* of them said that he had brought 130 ardebW 
of corn from a village of the district ; and the otheij 
that he had brought 60 ardeb'bs from the land W 
longing to the town, " You rasca! !" said the gd* 
vernor to the latter; " this man brings 130 ardeb^- 
from the lands of a small village; and you, but W' 
from the lands oF the town." " This man," answerefl! 
the peasant of Tun'ta, " brings corn but oncn a weekj 
and I am now bringing it every day." " Be silent !" 
said the governor; and, pointing to a neighbouring 
tree, ordered one of the servants of the granary W 
hang the peasant to one of its branches. The order 
was obeyed, and the governor returned to his boosd: 
The next morning he went again to the granary}, 
and saw a man bringing in a large quantity of corif! 
He asked who he was, and what quantity he tufl' 
brought; and was answered, by the hangman of Ihls 
preceding night, " This is the man. Sir, whom 1* 
hanged by your orders, last night; and he hat 
brought 160" ardeb'bs." "■ What !" eselaimed ttii 
governor: " has he risen from the dead?" He »M8 
answered " No, Sir: I hanged him so that his to» 

*fioaleyina'a A'ghk, the Silahhil^'n he hai died aincatbia 

ImS&d ti» 

^ \bo ground ; and when jfou were (Kit, i 

Untwd Ibet Topc: \ou did uol onler mc tu kiii Uiiu." 
Tb«Tark muttered, "Aim! hatipug oiid killing' are 
(li$trvut tluuL(s : Arabii; is cupioua ; Dexl time I will 
B»y Idll. ThUc ciire of Ab'oo Ua'-oo'd*." Tliis in 
bis nick-Btwie- 

Another occurrence miiy Iiltc b« aplly related, us 
t further illustraticin of the nature ol'the g'oti'rnmeiU 
iQ which tlte people of Egypt are suhjecteil, A 
felklih, who was appointed Nu'zir (or governor) of 
tbe. disuict of Et-Meu'oo'fee'yeh (the BoutheraroMl 
district of the Delta), a short lime befure my pre- 
tent visit to Egj-pl, iu collecting tlie laxea at « 
nlJsgr, demanded, of u |k>ot peastuit, the sum of 
w^ rija'U (ninety fud'dah^ each, making u sum 
tatsl of a hunched und tliirty-live piastersi, which wu 
ttns equivalent to about thirty shillings), Tba poui 
IQBii urged that he possessed nothing but a coW) 
iducb Mrel)^ ufibrded euslcaance to himself ami hi^ 
■ fcmily. Instead uf pursuiug the tnelhofl usually fol- 
luw^ when u fellu'hh declares bimseii' unable to pay 
Uw tux demanded uf bim, which is (o give him a 

S'lvere baBliaading, the Na';£ir, in this i^ase, oent tlie 
hjCyUiel-nel'ed to bring the pour prasant'h cow, 
ind desired some (if the fella'iibee'n to buy it. They 
Wjnng timt ihey hod nol suiBcieut moneVi be seat 
qtt abutdier, and desired bioi to kill the cow; which 
)»■ dune: he then told him to divide it into sinty 
poota,. The butiher asked fur his pay; aud waf 
pwo the head of the tow. Sinty feUa'hhee'n were 
Ibftn called togcllier ; luid each of ihem was camf- 
Bllled to purchase, fur a liya'l, a piece of the COW. 
She ttfner of the cow went, weeping and complain- 

" Al/iiit ra'-oo'rj, Ab'oo 'AI'bc, &c., ara jiKhoiiymicii, aHeA 

5 the E|{vptinii peMants in Kenetai, out si;;tiiryiii|,' " Fnth« 
Hn'.uo'il," - FaUlet of 'At'ea;' Ut-, bat " whom falhti j> 
(or was) Ui'-oa'il," ■' — 'Ai'ee." kc. 



ing, lo the Na'zir's superior, the late Mohbitiuf-foad 
Bey, Detiurda'r. " My master," said he, " I uat 
oppreased and in misery: 1 had iio property"biU 
one cow, a mUeh c»w : J and my family lived upoa 
her milk; and she ploughed tbi' mc, uud thre^ed 
my C01TI ; and my whole subsi^ileiice was derived 
from her : the Na'zir has taken her, and killed bp, 
and cut her up into sixty pieces, and sold the pieceS' 
to my neighbuurs; to each a piece, for one riytt'!)' 
so that he obtained but siitly riya'ls for the whole, 
nhile the value of the cow was a hundred and 
twenty riyii'ls, or more. I am oppressed ajid in 
misery, and a stranpier in the place, fur I came fi^tn 
another village ; but the Na'zir had no pity an me; 
£ and my family are become be^ars, and have 
nothing left. Have mercy upon me. and give me 
justice : I implore it by thy bharee'm." The Dedgr^ 
da'r, having caused the Na'iir lo !«; brought before 
him, asked him, "Where is thecowof thisfelWhh?" 
" I have sold it," said the Na'zlr. " For )iow ' 
much?" " For sixty riya'la.'' " Why did you kill 
it and sellit?" " He owed sixty rija'ls for latid:,aa 
I took his cow, and killed il, and sold it for tha' 
amount." " Where is the butcher that killed it?" 
" in Menoo'f." The buieber was sent for, and ' 
brought. The Deftutda'r said to him, "Why did. 
you kill this man's cow?" "The Na'iir desired: 
me," he answered, " and I could not oppose him: - 
if I bad attempted to do so, he would liavebeal^n 
me, and destroyed ray house: I killed it; and the < 
Na'zir gave me the head as my reward," ■' Man," 
said the Defturda'r, " do you know the persons who 
bought the meat?" The bulclier replied that he 
did. The DeHurda'r then desired his secretary t 
write the names of ihe sixty men, and an order. I 
the sheykh of their village, to bnug them to McnoAT, 
where this complaiul was made. The Na'zir spd 


Alfi^cr were placed in confinerneiit lUl Uie next 
moi'ning; when Ihr otie^kh of the villfigu fame, 
'" the sixty fella'lihee'n. The iwo prisoni^rs were thea 
Vnnight ogain before the Drlturdn'r, who said to 
Uie sheykh and (he sixty peasaats, " W&ft ibe valua 
\ of ibis mSn's cow nixiy riya'ls ?" " O mir noater," 
ih^ answered, " her value waa greater." The Oef 
turda'r seat for the Cku'dee of Menun'f, and said lo 
him, " O Cku'dee, here is a man tippreued by ihia 
Na'zlr, who liiis taken his cow, itnd killed it; mid 
sold ils flesh for sixty riys'la: what is thy jodg- 
menl ?" The Cka'dee replied, " He is a cruel ty- 
rant, who oppresses everyone under his autfauriiy, 
la not a cow worth a hundred and twenty riya'ls, or 
more? and he has sold Ihis one for Kixty rtyuls: 
(his is tyranny towards the owner." Tlie DetUirda'r 
then said to some of bis soliliers, " Take the Na'air, 
and strip him, and bind liiin." This done, he said 
to the bulcher, " Butcher, dosl thou not fear God ? 
Thou hast kilted the cow nn.tiistly." Tlie bulcher 
again urged that he was obligrd to obey the Na'iir. 
" Then," said the Defturda'r,'" if I order ihce to do 
a thing', wilt thou do it ?" " 1 will do il," answered 
,^ the bulcher. " Kill the Na'iir," said the De(iurda'r, 
[min^diately, several of the soklieis present seijcd 
the Na'zir, and threw him down ; aiul the butcher 
cut W throat, in the regular orthodox manner of 
liilling animals for food, " Now, cut him up," said 
' the Defturdu'r, " into sixty pieces." This was 
done : the people concerned in the affair, and many 
others, looking on ; hut none daring lo spenk. The 
_ f'xlj peasants who had bought the meat of the cow 
were then called forward, one after anoihcr, and 
,each was made to lake a piece of the flesh of Ltie 
'^, Na'zir, and lo pay for ii two riya'ls ; so thnt a han- 
I dre'd'.and twenty riyals were obialneil from them: 
ibej'itlPrt then tJismissed j-biA llie liuUiWt texnivnti- 

I7t ' MODERN f»yPTlANE. 

TbeCka'ciee was aekeil whut sUnuldbe^e rew&Ed' 
of the bulchfr; ami answered Uiat he shuuld be 
paid as he had been paid by ihe Na'eir. The D«f- [ 
turda'r therefore ovdered that rhe head of the Na'»ir ,i 
■hoiild be given to him ; aud the butcher went away r-_ 
with his worse than valueless burden, thanking Goj a 
that he had not been mure unfortunate, and scaruely.j 
believing himself to have so easily escaped until be 
arrived at his village. The money paid for the fiesht 
of the Na'zir was given to the owner of the cow. 

Most of ihe governors of provinces and distiicta • 
carry their oppression far beyond the limits to whiclt',- 
they are authorlKed to proceed bytheBa'sha; and < 
even the aheykh of a village, in executing the oam-it 
mands of his superiors, abuses liis lawful powuM 
bribes, and the ties of relationship and marriage, iu-., 
tluence him and them; und by lessening the up- 
preaaion of some, who are more able to bear it>>i 
greatly increase that of others. But the office of a^ 
sheykh of a village is far from being a sinecure : at. 
the period when the taxes are demanded of himibci 
frequently receives a more severe hastinadiog ihau. 
nny of bia inferiors; for, when the population of ai 
village does not yield the sum required, their sheykb? 
in often beaten for their default ; and not alwaysr 
does he produce his own proportion until he has beeVi 
well thrashed. All the felta'hhee'n are proud of tiidi 
stripes llicy leceive for withholding their coniriburl 
tiona; and are often heard to boast of the niitabet,(K& 
blows which were inflicted upon them before theji 
would give up their money, Ammianus Marcellinua- 
gives precisely the same character to the Egyptians 
of his time*. ' 

The revenue of the Ba'sha of Egypt is generaHy 
Mid to amount tu about three millions of pouncui* 

•Lab. nil. The more easily tlie liensant pBy^thsniitt 3* ' 
henuJeln pay. 


sterling". Nearly liulf nrises from th* dirrct taies 
on lantl, and ftom indirect exacliiinn from the fel- 
la'hhee'n : the remainder, principally from the custoni- 
iBXes, the tax on pa]m-ir«e», a kind of income-tax, 
&nd the sale ofTariouB productions of the land; by 
which sale, the i;ove rumen t, in must instances, ob- 
tains a proRt of more than fifty per cent. 

The present Bu'sha has increased his revenue la 
lhi& amount by most oppressive measures. Ue has 
dispoBsesBcd of their lands all the private proprietors 
lliroug;hoiil his dominions, allotting to eHch, as a 
partial compensation, s pension for life, proportioned 
to the extent and quality of the land which belonged 
to him. The farmer has, therefore, nothing: 'o leave 
to his children but hia hut, and perhaps a lew cattle 
and some small savinp. 

The direct taxes on land are proportioned to the 
naturul advantages of the soil. Their average 
amount is ahout Ss. per fedda'n, which is nearly 
equal to an English acref. But the cultivator tan 
never calculate exactly the Full amount of what the 
gnvernmeul will require of him r be suffers from 
indirect exactinns of quantities, differing fn different 
years, but always levieil per fedda'n, of butter, honey, 
Wax, wool, baskets ol palm-leaves, ropes of the fibres 
of the palm-tree, and other commodities : he is also 
obliged to pay the hire of the tamela which convey 
hia grain to the government shoo'neh (or granary), 
and to defray various other expenses. A portion of 
tbe produce of his land is taken by the government J, 
aod sometimes the whole produce, at a fixed and fitir 

* Some eBlimate it at fiM milliona ; uthi'CS, bI little mgte 
tlun Itpo millionH. 

. 4 The fedda'u has littcty been reduced: it wei equal to 
about an English acre and uaL'-trnth a Tvn years agu ; and 
faoiewliat morp at an eurliti period. 

- ] or Rome productiuQH, as rotton, flax, &e., the gavernmiat 
alvaya lakea t|ie whule. 

im -Kirts ttf Egypt, » 

■. LiLs of the insolveut 

■.i|ilil\ ilie hare nece»- 

_ ■!. Ill ^leai, and convey 

- iL- I'an of the produce 

insL-liKupply the seed 

an from the guvern- 

-, .'i- ■seldom obtainB a 

.-■-Lrabie porlion beiug 

-, ■- (uroufili whose haods 

To relate all the 

. iirv of' Eg'vpt endure 

. ., ill Ihe present work. 

■ ,■ lur them to suffer 
■.jrJly necessary, there- 

■ :, i iiL^age, with assiduity, 

.\iUi= compelled to do 

k'.'ii possession of the 

...■!-^, hut he has also 

.'ii-.irJerable proportion 

. :i I iharitable institu- 

:.<i Mtallh superfluous. 

I'.-h halt' the aiuouiit 

.lil laud which had 

..ilii^iiable by law) to 

. _ .,. .-.ituol, &c. ; and afler- 

. ol' such And s, granting 

«t«' ilwfB. for keeping in repair 

Ik m4 for the mainlenance of 

u them, as Na'zirs (ur 

^ inferior servants, stu- 

Ls thu3 rendered 

i to DKHt persons of the 

1 villnne are oina 



triigfous and leanietl prol'essioiis, slid npeciully to 
the Na'ssira of the mosquesi. who loo ^nemlly en- 
riched themselves frum ilie funds ininislcil (u their 
care, which were, in niust cases, Bujierabuodiant. The 
hmsehold property of the mosqiieB and uther public 
loslitutious (the wuckfs of numerous individuals of 
nrioiis ranks) the Ba'shu. has hitherto left inviulate. 

The tas upon the palm-trees han been calciilat«i] 
to amount lo about a hundred lliousand poundt 
iterling. The trees are rated according to tlieir qtta- 
Uties; generall}' at a piaster and a hnlf each. 

The jncoDie-lax, which is called fir'riek, Is f^ne- 
nlly a twelllh or more uf u man'^ annual income or 
nlary, when thai can he ascertained. The maximum, 
li0We««r, is fixed at five hundred piasters. In the 
large town^ it is levied upon individuals; in the 
villages, iipon houses. The income-tax of all the 
inhabitants of the metropolis amnunts to eight thou- 
sand pur«s, or about forty thousand pounds sterling'. 

The inhabitants of the metropolis and of other 
Urge towns pay a heavy tax on grain, &c. The la< 
on each kind of grain is eighteen piasters per ardeh'ti 
(oTabmit five bushels) ; which sum is equal to the 
I»ice of wheat in the L-ounlry afler a gi)oi! harvest. 







CiliPTBIl V. 

t( yl 


Ttc Life. 

Having suffleiejitly considered the foundiktiuaa of liie 
inortil tutd sucvA state of Die Mcios'liins of £g;ypt, wst 
mu; now take a view of their domestic life and ordi- 
itary hubits ; und, first, let vs contine our alteulioo to^ 
th(: higher and middle orders. :.>i 

A master of & family, or any person yibo itUMi 
nfrived at munUond. and is not in a meiiiul situatioiht 
nt of very low condition, is commonly honoured ^i^in 
the appellation of "the sheykh," prefixed to his nBin|s4) 
The word " aheykh" literally signifies " an elder," on» 
'^uh aged person;" but it is used as synoayButuaq. 
Wilh bur appellation of " Mister*;" a sheree%.ffa^ 
descendant of the Prophel, is called " the sey'd," fttf^ 
"the sey'yid" (master, or lord), whatever l)e.-,b|f||| 
station. Many sheree'fs are employe<l in th^ loweslfi 
offices : there are servants, dustmen, and beggars,o^ 
the honoured race of Mohham'mad ; but all of IJieig|li) 
are entitled lo the distinctive appellation above. meii'^ 
tinned, and privileged lo wear the green turban tAu 
maby of tbem, however, not only among those jf^i 
humble station, but also amcng the weal^y, ai^^w 
paKiCUlarly the learned, aaswnc neither of these pm^ 

■ Though mote paiticulaily applied to a iKarned nrnu, DC a1 

■f 'Mea and wouicq oF tliis caste ofteo cotitroct inarriaffBi 
with iHu-sun^ who Bit nut mrmbt'ia uf lilt) same ; noil ta witf 
title U BhereeT is iDberitoil ftum either uf Uie |>aniul>, tlf i-^ 
iiu1ul>er urpuiioaa vho eajoy tiiit diitioctiaa hiu Ihkubm vnyrfl 
cofiBidei&blo. ' 'M 

the title of "iheykh," utd th» 
wliite turban. A n)&n who has pcrrormed the pi- 
^rim^e i« generally called " tUe khdgg'i" and a 
woman wlio has alike distiii^uistied herself, " the 
kha'g^h:" -vet there are man; pilgrims who, likt 
those sheree'fs Jitst before alluded to, prefer the title 
of "Bheykh." The general appcllaiioii of a lady is 
" the */(/," which signifies " the mistrew," or " the 

'Befij«' I describe the ordinary habits of the matter 
Of^a family, 1 must mention the varioua classes of 
petMiW of whom the family may consist. The hha- 
K^tn; or the females of the limise, have distinct 
Bpirtments allotted to them ; :tnd into these aport- 
SM||9 (ithich, as well as Ihe jiersons to whom they 
BWttpproprialed, are called "the hharee'm") no 
iMIe^ Wrt^llowed to enter, excepting the master of 
this 'Ikmily, and certain other near relations, and 
cMilK^n. The hharee'm may consist, hrst, of a wife, 
or"Wt»eB <to the number of lour); secondly, of 
f^ale slave,?, some of whom, namely, white and 
AtyBsinian i^laves, are generally concubines, and 
Dtbtlrs (the black slaves) kept merely for servile 
olRce^, 'as cooking, wailins; upou the ladies, Ac; 
lOtAty, Af female tree servants, who are, in no case, 
DcWMfiiiies, or not legitimately bo. The male de- 
pettdants'may consist of white ami of black slaves, 
Bifi] fVee sertanlsi but are mostly of the last-men- 
tldned'ciiiss. Very few of the Eg'yplians avail them- 
settM of the licence which their religion allows them, 
of having four wives; and still smaller Is the number 
ofithuse who have two or more wives, and concu< 
bines besides. Even most of those men who have 

• .ThMWOid ia thus pronounced by the inhabitiinti of C»iro 
■ai'tha i^mtvr purl of Kgvft ; but in mnnt uther eoimtriei 
*1i^ Anbic U ipuliea, AAfr^). The Turk* nod Peniani uk, 


but one nife are conteni, lor the sake of domeBHii 
prace, if fur no other reason, lo remain nilhout ■ 
concubine slave; hut some pref'i-r the priHsesuoil ^ 
uu Abyssinian slave lo the more eipensive mail 
Unance of a wife; and keep a black slave-girl,) 
an Egyptian lemalc servant, to wait upon her, tW 
clean und keep in order the apartments of the hhtti 
rcii'in, and to cook. It is eeldom that two or mar4> 
wives are kept in the same house : if they be, th^ 
l^nerally havo diatinct apartments. Of male aer^ 
vanlfl, the master of a, fiunily keeps, if he can affi>i4* 
to do BO, one or more tu wail upon him and his moist 
greets ; another, who is called a iacfi'cka, or tmtwt' 
earner, but who is particularly a. servant of t 
hharee'm, and utteads the ladies when tlicy go out tfl 
&bou/v>a'b, or donr-kepper, who cotistanlly sits al t' 
door (if the house ; and a sa'if, or groom, for t 
koree, mule, or asa. Few of the Egyptians bavM 
mmt^OD'^ j, or male white aliives; most of these beiiig' 
in the poBsesaion of rich 'Osma'ulees (or TurkB)ii 
aud scarcely any but Turks of high rank kee|iii 
eiinuchB 1 but a wealthy Egyptian merchant is proudN 
of having a, block slave to ride or walk behind. himW 
und to carry his pipe. '^mI 

The Egyptian is a very early riser; as he retirM^ 
to sleep at an early hour : it is his duty tobeupaudil 
dressed l)«fore daybreak, when he should say Ike. 
moming^prayers, lii general, while the master c^ 
a family is perfurming the religious ablution^ anft 
saying his prayers, his wife or slave is preparing tb^^ 
hint a cup of coffee, and filhng his pipe, which' (**] 
presealB lo him as soon as he has acquitted himseW 
of bis religious duties. *■! 

Many of the Egyptians take nnlhing before »oon^ 
but the cup of cottee and the pipe; ntliPrs 'mktt'tf" 

* UnlPiB ih*re be a eoniich. The sack'i'ka i 
chief at ll» lervBan, 


nOUEftTlC UFB. >U 

ligktnieal ttt an eorly hour. Tlie meal of iirenkfaM 
(el-faiogfr) generally umsisla of brea<i, with ea;gs, 
butter, cheese, clouud cream, or curdled milk, &c. ; 
or aS B. fitte^reh, which is a. kind oi'pustry, saturated 
with butter, maile very thin, and folded over and 
tiTer like a napkin i it is enlen alone, or with a liicle 
bone; poured over it, or sug^r. A very common 
dish for breakfast is fodl moodiWmet, or beane, 
similar to our Itorse-beana, Blowly bniled, during a 
whole night, in an earthen vessel, buried, all but the 
n«vk, in the hot ashes ol' an oven or a buth, and 
hsvitig the mouth closely slopped: they are ealen 
with linseed-uil, or butter, and generally with a little 
line-juit^e : Uuie prepared, tliey arc Kuld in tlie murn- 
io^ in the soo'cks (ur markets) of Cairo and other 
UMrns. A meal is u<len made (by those who cannot 
tSotd luxuries) of bread and a mjxiure called doocl^~ 
cioAi which iecomnionly conipoHed of atdt and pepper, 
with ga'atar (l^r wild morjaram), or mint, or cumjn- 
(ted, and with one, or more, ur all, of the following 
ingredients; namely, coriander-seed, tinnamon, se- 
Mme,Bijd hhom'rnoos (orchick-pea!<) : each mouthlid 
of bread is dipped in Ibis mixture. The bread is 
always made in the form of a rnuiid flat cake, gene- 
rally about u span in width, and a finger's breadth 
in thickness. 

The pipe and Ihe cup of colfee are enjoyed by 
■Imost all persona who cau alTurd such luxuries, very 
(nriy id the morning, and oftentimes during the day. 
There are many men who are scarcely ever seen 
Witiiout a pipe either in their hand or carried behind 
tbem by a servant. The smoker kee[>H his tobacco 
li» daily use in a purse or bag made of shawl-stuff, 
or silk, or velvet, which is often accompanied with a 
nuall pouch cnnluining a Hint and steel, and some 
Sgaric tinder, and is usually crammed into his bosom. 

The pipe (wliich is called by many names, as shil^- 


but ana wife are content, for the sake of doniMlU 
pnce, if for no other reason, tu remain nitliotit D 
concubine sliive : but Eoroe prefer tile possession ofl 
ail Abyminian slave tu the more expensive tniiinw 
lennnce of a witV ; and Iccep a, blaclc slave-girl, UT 
an Eg'yptian female servant, to wait upon her« t» 
clean and keep in order tlie apartmenis of the hha4' 
ree'm, and \o cook. It is seldom that tvro or tnor^ 
wives are kept in the same house : if they be, th^ ' 
i;enerally have distinct apartinenis. Of male aer^ 
vantB, the master of a family keeps, if he can b&tA' 
to do eo, one or more tu wait upon him and his maW 
guests ; another, wtio ia called a sack'cka, or w&ieN 
carrier, hut who ia partieularly a itervant of ttu ' 
bhorei/n), and atlends the ladies when Itiey go mil *.\ 
a iou/lpa'fi, or dour-keeper, wlio constantly stU at thi 
dour uf llie bouse -, and a sa'is, or groom, for thW 
horw., mule, or aaa. Few of the Egyptians havM 
memlotfks, at maJe white slaves ; mast of these beitigVi 
in the possession of rich 'Osma'tileeii (or 'ruTks)'p' 
and scarcely any but Turks of lii^b rank keejfil 
eunuclis: but a wealthy Egyptian merchant is proul^ 
of having a black slave to ride or waJk behind faimif 
and to carry his pipe. -tlJ 

The Egyptian is a very early riser; as he retilMI* 
Id sleep at an early hour : it is hia duty tu be u] 
dresstd before daybreak, wh«n he should say 
momin^prayers. In general, while the mostM* 
a fiimily is perrorrainfr the religious ablution, atkdj 
saying his prayers, hia wife or slave is preparing fefl 
him a cup of colTee, and filling his pipe, which sKoif 
prasents to him its soon as he lias acquitted hiniseWf' 
of his religious duties. i iijl 

Many of (he Egyptians take nothing liefore noon"* 
but the cup of coHee and the pipe: iit)iers 'ttikl-'ffU 

• Unless there 1)« a erinuch. Tin Eack'dia is fviletjll^'flSM 
chietof the MtvaoW, 'i "'' _ 



Mgfatnual mi an early liour. The meal of breakful 
(,rt-faiot/r) generally omsials of breiul, with eccga, 
butler, cheese, cloutrd cream, nr eiirdletl milk, Ac.; 
tmf^fixte^reh, which is a kind oi' paniry, saiumtHd 
wilh butlpr, tnaile very thin, aiitl fulrfeil over and 
a napkin : it is eitlen nlone, or wiih a link 
honey poured ov«r it, or auffar. A very common 
jiish loi- breukfasl is Jix/l moodem'mei, ut beauK, 
similar to our boTH-benns, slowly boiled, during s 
tvhole night, in an earthen vestel, buried, all bvt Lh« 
eck, in the hot ashes o\' an oven or a bath, and 
luving: the moulh closely slopped: they are eaten 
wUU Unseed-oii, or butter, and gencmlly with b tittle 
Unw-juice: thus prepared, they are sold in the mum- 
' 1 the scn/l'Iis (or markets) of Cairo and other 
towna. A meal is ullen made (by those who cannot 
•Serd luxuries) of bread and a mixiure called dooch'' 
chah, which is comnioiily conipiiseil of salt and pepper, 

' h siJatar (or wild marjoram), or mint, or cumln- 
Kwd, and with one, or more, ur all, of the following 
ients; namely, coriander- seed, dnnamon, se- 
tnd hhrnn'tnoos (or chick-peas) : each mouthful 
of bread is dippetl in this mixture. The bread is 
always made in the form of a round Hat cake, gene- 
nUly about a span in width, and a Anger's breadth 
in thickness. 

The pipe and the cup of coffee are enjoyed by 
almost ail persons who can alford sitcb luxuries, very 
early in the morning, and ofientimes during the day. 
Tlwre are many men who are Bcarcely ever seen 
without a pipe either in their band or carried behind 
them by a servant. The smoker keeps his tobauco 
for daily use in a purse or bag made of shawl-slulT, 
'Ik, or velvet, which is often accompanied with a. 
1 pouch containing a flint and Bleel, and some 
apujc; tinder, and is usually crammed inlo bis bosom. 

Tbit pipe (wbicb is called by many names, tathib'- 


M.L-rT.iv Wtween four and t 

-i;i.iripr, and some ara 

.iimiiiou kind used ( 

M i.iod called ffur'tm 

. -tick (from ihe modll 

■ ..■: its leu^th) is ciafeM 

■ i;icli extremily Ijygd 

1 ,.'iiltiured silks, or b 

.1.. a tiic lower extremity of I 

. !j|k. The coverinff was ( 

uuisteued with water, in on 

I, '^tu«t|uenily, the smoltQ, | 

. ;> only done when the pipSi 

Clierry-siick pipes, which M 

■o used by many persons, jJartj 

III summer, the smnke it 
>>-atiL-k pipe Bs froin the'kti 
he Wwl C<:a1!ed hhai/ar) JB 4 
red or brown J. The moutj 
I Vii-A) is composed of t^ < 
■-, b^bt-cuh)ured amber, int^ 
ii iMuuncUedgold, agalc, J9sp<^ 
Iwi predmis substance, ft 

■ tlwpipe: tlie price of one 

■ ilv used by persons of 1 
.> ibviut one to three poiiw 

..L-v i-jsses throusli it. ThisI 

■ ociimes foul from theol 

•■.' ruquires lo be cleans 

.. Ii low, by meiina o" 

HI fairogriiin iheir K 

;.,TtonB of ihe highfl 

t i believe it ia 
iTjiet from injiity, itsiaa 


ooi*, 'odd, &c.) is generally between foar and 1 
feet Long : sonie pipes are sliorter, and some are 
greater length. Tiie most commou kind us^d id 
tCgypt is made of a kiodof wood colled gu/nHis^ 
licit- The greater part of the stick (from the tnouthi 
piet^e Id about three quarters ul'lts length) is ^iHferei 
with silk, whieli is confined at each estremily By goU 
ttiresd, c^lea intertwined with coloured silks, or byj 
tuba of gilt silver ; and at the lower extremity of tl 
covering is a tassel of silk. The covering was or 
ginally designed to be moistened with water, in ordi 
to cool the pipe, and, consequently, the smoke, h 
evaporation : but this is only done when the pipei 
old, or not handsome. Cherry-stick pipes, whieli U 
never covered, are also used by many persons, jjarll 
cuLarly in the winter. In sunimer, the smoke i« ni 
Eo <:ool from the cherry-stick pipe as from ihelkin 
before mentioned. The bonl (called kka^ar) is I 
baked earth, coloured red or brown |. The moutt 
piece {foom', or turhe^bek) is composed of iv»o t 
more pieces of opaque, light-coloured amber, ^teB 
joined by ornaments of enamelled gold, agate, j^spel 
cornelian, or some other pretaous Kubslance. ■ It * 
the moat costly part of the pipe : the price of one 
the kind most generuUy used by penions of tl 
middle order, is from about one to three ponn 
Bterling, A wooden tube i>aHses through it. Thisi 
^fien changed, as it soon becomes foul I'rom the A 
fif the tobacco. The pipe also reqalres lo be cleaM 
Sery often, which is done wilh tow, by means of' 
tetig wire. Many poor men in Cairo '^nhi their livi 
lihood by going abimt to clean pipes. 

The tobaccij smoked by pertjons of tlie higbe 

• From thi^ Tiiikiab ckiMci. f I belUve it is mapla, 

J Tu pn:i«;rve the iQiitliiig or oatpat troni injury, b-jihi, 

brass truy is often pl.ii:ed beneath thii bflwl ; niiil a 5mall tr 

ofwoodlaiatiie use oCts leceiva the ashes uftlio tobacco. 



DOMFSTIC l.WI'.. 187 

nrder?, and sunie otberti, ia Efcypt, is at a very mild 
and deliciuuB tl&vour. Jl in inoHlly trnni (he nrigh- 
bourhood of El-L&'dickce'yeh' ■" Syria. The best 
kind is llie "rnoumnin iDbueco" (doohh' hliJn 
gel^elee). A nlrongrr kind, which takes iis name 
from the (own of Stx/r Idoohfi! khJ n Sot/ree), lome 
times mixed nilh gel/elee. is used by miwt persons 
of the middle orders. In smoking, ihe people of 
£^ypt and of other coantrie§ of the East draw in 
their breath freely ; so that much of the smoke 
descends inlu the luiiga ; and the terms which ihey 
use to express " smoking tobacco'' signify "drinking 
smoke," or " (Zrin^inj; tobacco :" lor the samo word 
signilies both " smoke" and " tobacco." Few of 
them spit while smoking: I have very seldom wen 
any do so. 

Some of the Egyptiann use the Persion pipCi in 
which the smoke passes through water. The pipe of 
this kind most commonly used by persons of the 
higher classes is called nt^ri/ee'leh, because the vessel 
tt»t contains the water is a cocoa-nut, of which 
" Tuirge^ leh" is an Arabic name. Another kind, 
which has a glass vase, is called skee'slieh'. Each 
has a very long, flexible tube. A particular kind of 
tobacco, called toomba'k, from Persia, is tised in the 
water-pipe : it is first washed several times, and put 
into the pipe-bowl while damp ; and two or three 

Sieces of hve charcoal are placed on tlie top. Its 
avour is mild and very agreeable ( but the strong 
inhalation necessary in this mrnle of smoking is in- 
jurious to persons of delicate lungst- In usini; the 
Persian pipe, the person as freely draws the sinoke 

• A PEmian word, Bignifying ■• glass," 
f 11 ia, huwevcr,»fteiirer;ummen(tedia thecaseofacoueh. 
One ormy rrii^n<ls, tht: most cvliibnitea of the poeta nC Cairo, 
•ho is much troubled 1<J asthma, uses the ua'igisi^leli. lAmvirt 
.^«.S»o(l7 fn"" mufning till night. 


> ; ., 


orders, and same others, in li^ypt, is of a vtry mild 
and deliciokia flavour. It i» mostly IVuni tlw ncigh- 
bourhoud of El-Lu'ttiukee'yeh, in Syria. The beat 
kind is the " mutmluiii lobuc-co" {doeAKkhJn 
qeVelee). A ntroiigfr kind, which inki^s Us name 
from the town of Soo'r {doMi'kha'n Sbf/rae), some 
times mined with gel/elee, is used by most tfrsom 
of the middle orders. In smoking, tlie people of 
Egypt and of other countries of t)ie Easi draw in 
their breatti freelj ; so that much of the tmoke 
dcEcenda into the lungs ; end the terms which Ihey 
use to express " smoking tobacco'' signify "drinking 
tmoVe," or " drinking tobaceo :" for the same word 
signifies both " smoke'' and " tobacco.'* Few of 
them spit while smoking : I have very seldom sec 
jUiy do so. 

Some of the Egyptiaim use the Persian pipe, i 
nhich the smoke passes through water. The pipe of 
this kind most commonly used by persons of the 
higher classes is called ndrgee'leh, because the vessel 
that conttuns the water is a cocoa-nut, of which 
"* Tu/rgee^lek" is an Arabic name. Another kind, 
which has a glass vase, is called she^ahsh'. Each 
has a very long, flexible tube. A particular kind of 
tobacco, called toombc^b, from Persia, is used in the 
water-pipe: it is 6rst washed several times, and put 
into the pipe-bow! while damp ; and two or three 
pieces of bve charcoal are placed on the top. Its 
flavour is mild and very agreeable ; but the strong 
inhalation necessary in this mode of smoking is in- 
jurious to persons of delicate lungs t' In tising the 
Persian pipe, the persun as freely draws the smoke 

• A Peraiiio word, blgnifying " glass." 

f It ia, howver, uCten rt'cunnnendeil in the case of a couch, 
tAeurmy (rimdi, thu most wiebmted of the poets nf Cairo, 
_!._ ; — .1. ■_.... Li, J j,j asthma, uses the na'lgBi^tet AiboMt 
-ning till night. 


into his hmirs as he wouU inhale jntre air. 1 
great prevalence of I iver-eom plaints in Arabia 
attributed tu the general use of tbe iia'rg«e'lch ; a 
mony persons in Eaypt suffer severely from the sai 
cause. A kind oif pipe, called gozeh*, whktitli 
similar to the na'rgee leh, excepting that it has a si 
cane lube, instead of the snake (or flexible one), i 
no stand, is used by men of the lowest cla^ Suf 
smoking both the toomba'k and the inlexicatiul^ 
kkashct^iht or bcmp. ■'» 

The coffee (ckak'ivch\) is made very strong, ani 
without sugar or milk. The coffee-cup (which .ii 
called Jingin) is small ; generally holding not quits 
an ounce and a half of liquid. It is of porce)aia,i(9 
Dutch-ware, and, being wiihont a handle, is plaed4 
within another cup {colled zurf^, of silver or f 
according lo the circumstances of the owner, atli, 
both in shape and size, nearlj' resembling oor 
cupj. In preparing the coffee, the water is firtt 

• " Go'ieli" is tlie must iroinm 

t Thii i. the oatni) iif li.e 'i 

whule 0[ [Biiniled) are coUeJ Anoj 

J /n « fuJt service Ihtw 4.rt tei' 

Uad»,aad oltea another dap' 



mBSe In boil: the colfee (freahl; rowt«l, ud 
pounded) is tlien put in, and »timd ;. anerwhich (b« 
pot is >^n placed on the fit«, ones or Imice, uMil 
tfae coff«« begfins lo simmer ; when it is laktn uff, 
imd'ita contents are pouivd out ioto the cups while 
the surfBce is yet creamy. The Egyptians are m- 
tiesaively fond of pure and strong coffee, ihiis pr«- 
ptfed ; and lery seldom add sugar to it (though some 
do ao when they are unwell), and never milk nx 
eream; but a Utile cardamom-seed " Is often added (o 
H. It is a common custum, also, lo fumigate the 
oup with the smoke of mastic; and (he wealthy some- 
limes ifnpregnatc the coffee with the delicious fm- 
prance of ambergrist. The most geueral mode of 
doing this is, lo put about a carat-weight of amber- 
gris in a. coffee-pot, and melt it over a fire ; then make 
the co^e in another pot, in the manner before de- 
soribedi and, wheu it has settled a little, pour it into 
ithepntwhichcontainstheambergTis. Some persons 
make use of the amberp'is, for the same puqiOse, 
in a different way ; sticking a piece of it, of the 
weight of about two carals, in the bottom of the cup, 
and then pouring in the coffee : a piece of the weight 
above-mentioned will Ber\'e for two or three weeks. 
This mode la often adopled by persons who like 
always to have the coffee which they Ihemselves 
drink flavoured with this perfume, and do not give 
ijH their Tisitei's the same luxury. The coffee-put is 

io'lfie mtwtei of the house, or fui a distin^nilshed ^iftit. la 
EoecnuipanyinB Bltatch, the coiTee-pol {br^rg, or ti'k'nig) 
^tte ^''tfs »!>'' 'ray are of 5iWer, and flie rppresonlcl on a 
Mahjif ODB-eighth of the nal size. Bvlaw thi> act an it 
anikr luiT aail fln|;B'ii, on a bcale of one-fourth, and a liiusi 
jurf, wilh Ihe finna'n placed in il. Some >urf« are of plain 

.6t({:>!t»'lv"Elii;ree; anil a few opuleot penons hutethem of 
^M. Many Mous'iinH, however, relig»o»lv disaltow all 

..atemilsotiruM and of liWer. ■.. *■■ 

,j»,jHjlo*'i-AA.. t Am'hor, 



iMo his hiiigs as he would inhale [lure nir. Th« 
great prevuleiiw of liver-complaints in Arabia 
attributed to the Gpeneral use of the na'rgee'lefa ; a 
many persons in E^-pt suffer severely Irmn Ihe sa 
cnwse. A kind of pipe, called gozek', nhiehiit 
Bimilar to the na'r^ee'leh, excepting that it has a ahoti 
cane tube, instead of the snake (or flexihie one), wid 
no stand, is used by men of the lowest class, iof 
Binoktn" both the toomba'k an<l the inle\icflling| 
kha. h ^ k h mp 

Th a ( k I At) m d y tro a i»4 
with t mik Ih coll p (wh h > 

c- Iledji jo' ) m 11 rally h Id ff n t ' ' 

' 1 II flq d It fporcelan 

D t hw 



P { II d /■) r 1 

b K^f 



vnBe to boj): the cofTee (freshly roasted, and 
pouiided>is then put in, nnd stirreil ; uAerwhich Uic 
pot is sguin placed on the tire, niici^ or IwiiJe, until 
ttte' colfee begins lo simmer; wheD it is taken off, 
kud its contents arc |)Oured out hilci tlie cups while 
the surface is yet creamy. The EgypUmiB are ex- 
Mscively ibnd of pure and slrong- coffee, thus pre- 
pared ; and very seldom add sugar to it (though Rome 
do GO when they are unfvell), unci never mtik or 
cream ; tut a Utile cardamom-seed ' is often added to 
it. it ia a common cuKtuni, also, to iiimigate the ' 
cup with the smoke of mastic ; and the wealthy some' 
Itanes iinpregnale the coffee nith the deUcioiis fra- 
granee of ambergrisf. The most general mode of 
doing this is, to put about a carat-weight of anibei^ 
piB in a coffee-poL, and melt it over a fire ; then make 
tile cofiee in another pot, in the manner before de- 
scribed, and, when it has settled a little, pour it into 
ithe pot which contains the ambergris. Some per»3ns 
make use of the ambergris, for the same purjiose, 
in a different way; sticking a piece of it, of the 
weight of about two carats, in the bottom of the cup, 
and then pouring in the coffee : a piece of the weight 
above-mentioned will serte lor two or three weeks. 
This mode is often adopted by persons who hke 
always to have the coffee which they themselves 
drink flavoiu^ with this perfume, and do not give 
,all their visiters the same luxury. The coffee-pot is 

te Qie maetet uf the house, or fur a ilislinRuuhed girtat. In 
Uw accDHiIiiiiiyinB Hkateh, the cofftt-pol {brt^rrg, or iuh'nig) 
V^'lhf iiirfs ami tray 8re of silver, onJ aie rcprtisnlta on b 
■ate ol ona-eifihlh of Uie itul siie. Below jhi« set are a 
liniilir turf and tirca'n, on a ecula of one-tourth. and a biasa 
M)ir,«i1h the finKa'n placed in it. Some lutfa are of plam 
w.Kflttiiver filigree; BOd a few opjilent pemoni havethem of 
(tola. Mboj Muoslims, howovur, reUpooslv diulkin iH 




KiinettDiffl broi^bt in a vessel of silver <» 1 , 

(cslled 't^t'cScee), containing biirninp; charcoal. Thn 
vessel is siispeniled by three chains. In preeentias 
be coflte, tlie servant hokl.s the Toot of the zurf niw 

his thumb and first fliiffer. In receiving the fiopra't 
nnd «urf, he makes use of both hands, placing' the left 
beneath and ttw right above at the same instant. 

In cold weather, a brasicr, or chafing-dish (called 
mwi'eMvd), of tinned copper, fu!l of burning chmv 
cual, is placed on the floor; and soBietimes perfumn 
is burnt in it. Tbe Egyptians lake great delight bi 
perfiimest; an'l »fte" fumipite their apartiwntfc 
The substance most commonly used for this purpose 
is frankincense of an inferior quality, called hakkixff 
et-burr. Benzoin t and aloes-wood § are also used 
for the same purpose. 

• One of the UttBi (that lu the right) is nn earthen vessel. 
K»di of th« ttbo*e uteoali is reprcBeilteil on n scale of i 
one-eiiEbtti oEllui tmI >iio- 

t Thej soraatimti perfume the Iward and musliKhei with 

.^.Jf be CU ronvenienlly afford U keep a horat, 
jnvie, at aas, nr Ui hire uii ass, the Eiryptlan is m1- 
^m seen wslkintc far Ixiyond ihe tbmhold of his 
(nn buuse ; but very few oi' the people of Cairo, or 
of ihe oilier towns, venture to expose ihemselTes lo 
the Buspicion of posaesaing superfluous wealth, and, 
coDSequently. to greater exaelions of the i^ernment 
ll»H they would olhervme spffer, by keeping horsei •. 
The modern saddle of the horse is generally padded, 
and covered with cloth or velvet, embroidered, or 
(itherwise ornamented ; and the beBd-s(a11 and breut' 
leather are adorned with silk tasaeh, and coins, or 
Other ornaments, a( silver. Wealthy merchants, Mid 
the gnat 'onl'ama, usually ride mules. The saddle 
of tlte mule Ik, ijenemllv, tieurly the same as that of 



•emctimes brought in a wssel of eiheir m 
(called Wt'ckcr), conlaininf; burning; chareoal. 
vessel ii suspendeil by three chains. In present 
coSee, the servant balds the fool of the zurf 4 

I thumb and first fiii(fer. In receiving; the fioffi 
d ?,avf, he mftkes iL<!e of both haiid^, placing the t 
tnealh and the right above at the same instant. 
In cold weather, a brasier, or chafing-ilish (ca! 
mun'ckrtd}, of tinned enpper, full of burning u) 
coal, is placed on the fluori and sometimes pertii 
is burnt in it. The %yptiaii!9 lake great deiighl 
perfiimea fi siwl often fumigate (heir Bpartin«I| 
The substance most commonly used for this purp<; 
ia frenklDcense of an inferinr quuUty, called bakhi' 
el-burr. Benzoin J and aloes-wood § are also u 
for ttie same purpose. 

* One oC the btlti (that to the right) is aa cartheu vfi 
Caihof th« above uleasils is cepieseilteJ on n scnio of nil 
ODe-eJehlh of tku imI tila- 

f They sonietinici peiiViuia the beEnd and inustuhea 



^it be can couvenienUy afford la keep ■ }ian», 
mole, or asii, or h> hire an niK, llic E^ryplion 'i» mI- 
dom setin walking: tar beyond tbe ihrvahokl of bis 
own Iviui^e ; but very few ol' ihe people of Ckiru, or 
of the otlier towiiN, venture to expose themselves to 
the suspicion of ptiasessinii: Huperfluous wealth, and, 
const' (|uciitly. Ill frreaier exActions of the ^rovemmeiit 
Utut they would otherwise suffer, by keeping horses *. 
Tbe mudern aoddle of the horse is generally padded, 
and covered with cloth or velvet, embroidered, or 
iiUierwise omamented ; and the bead-BlBll and bretut- 
lenther sre adorned with silk tassels, and coins, nr 
oUier orDaments, of silver. Wealthy merchants, and 
llie great 'ool'amn, usually ride mules. The saddle 
:iMy, nearly the same as that of 

<• Wb^thei walking or rtding, a petwm of the MghM «luMa 

13 iiauttlly iitleudt'il 1^)' a- Hervaiil bHarim; iiis y*!"*' 
/ A'emly tbu wbolo of its coat iti clostiy siwift. 



the ass; of which a skclcli is inserted: wh«n the 
nd»ti: is one of tlie 'oul'ama, it is coyered with k 
legga'deh (or prajer-tarpet) : so, al«a, sometimes is 
the ladies' sadcl!e ; tVum wliich, however, the fortaer 
differs cousideraiily, as will be ahowii hereaftef. 
ABsea are must generally used for riding through 
the narrow and trowded streets of Cairo ; and then 
are nmny for hire : theiruBual pace is an easy ambM. 
The ass is fiirnished with a stuffed saddle ; the tore- 
part of which is covered witii red leatlier, and Ihfe 
8«ati most commonly, with a kmd of soft woollen lace, 
similar to our coach-lace, of red, yellow, and other 
colours. The stirrup-leathers are, in every caie,-VBi5 
short. Tlie horseman is preceded by a servant, 'dr 
by two servants, to clear the way ; and, for the Eame 
purpose, a servant generally runs beside or betaiUd 
the ass, or sometimes before; callinn; out U> thepaG- 
senjers to move out of the way to the right or left, 
or to take care of their backs, faces, sides, feet, «t 
heels", The rider, however, must be viprilant, and 
not trust merely to his servant, or he may be thrown 
down by the wide load of a camel ; which accident, 
indeed, is sometimes unavoidable in the more narrmv 

* Ycmee'Hali ! thisiaflat ! (^io thy ntchti to thy left I), AiV- 
nki (thy biuk J), wiigshoi! (Ay iara '.j,grm'bak .'(thy ^6tA),. 
ri^iik! (Ihyfootl), io'aia*.' (thy hsell). ""d, tu, a: Tu*, 
M^ckUl (takaeiirelJjiirethenioslcommoQcrieB, TheluUofiN' 

ing appellations are 1 • ' - 

Turk), sd ikrskh! (t 
natiTe), ya'mi'K / (tt 

<■'- - boy), jn'iA(rfr'/.'''(lo a gnen-tutbnned ilrsnudaotl i 
■rophet), ■ • -■ ■ • ■ "■ ■ ■■ -' - 

St common COBB, ineiouop* 
aASsi-.—yd e/n^dec f .(to « 
or a inidille-aired, WoMfom^ 

_ _ . , .^en-tutbaned drsnudaotl at 

Prophet), yo'ai'a^i^ni.' (to a native Cbii>ti*ii, pr aJewlr 
ihawi/gek! (to a Frank), yet litl ! (lu a lnOj, Or a femaJt 
r the middle order), and gi{ hint! that is, "daUghtti;"-o« 
prl" (toipoor female). .4 womau oElhe lower di'— '* — 
rer old she be, the aervaut muit call " girl,*' or " da 

the Prop] 
of the 

[T probably ehe will not move an inch out oFUte.wayJi A 
little i!irl,oryomiBwomau,iaufteacnned'o™o'irA,or_";hpdji'* 
and UiJjgeh, or " female pilgrim," ia an appellatinn onett 
given la women ia the atieelB, i . l.:i 


Md «(awde<t «r«it. His pipe ia irrowall)' mrrted 
hy tiif! servant, an<! filled and lighted it be dlsiiraUHt 
■t a bouse or shop. 

If he have do regubr business to i-mplc»y him, tll» 
EgjrpUaii spends tite greater part of the day In ridiW, 
liajrifig visits, or raaking purchases ; ot in RinnhJiAc 
«nd topping coffee and chnlting with a friend H 
bome ; or he paswa an hour or more in the morninj: 
-enjoying the luxuries of a public balh. ACnonn, he 
ttts iigun U) say prayers, if he fulfil the duties im- 
,pused an bim by his. religion : bui, as I have remarked 
inn a foimer oci-Eision, there are comparatively fbw 
-^Tsons among the Egyptians who do not sometimes 
dieglecl these duties; and there nre many who 
-Mttrcely ever pruy. Directly after mid-day, he dines ; 
ilhen lakes a pipe and a cup of L-otfee, nud, in hot 
weather, usually indulijes himself with a nap. Often 
.hereureato recline in the hharee'm ; where a wife 
icr female slave watches over his re|H)se, oriutM thc^ 
iifoles of his feet with her hands. On such occusiow, 
rand at other times wheu he wishes to enjoy privacy, 
,!BV«y person who come.s to pay liim a visit is told, 
v^ the servant, that he ia in the hhnrue'm ; and no 
..friend expects him to be called thence, unless on 
, vei7 urgent business. Prom the time of the after- 
.■Boon prayers until sunset (the next lime of prayer), 
'lie generally enjoy.s, again, his pipe and a cup of 
^coffee in the society of some one or more of his 

• ilnends . at home or abroad. Shortly after sunset, 
The sups. 

■' ■ "I- must n«w describe the meals of diunet (hl- 

* i77ifi,<f(lj and supper (^el-'ask'a), and the manner and 
H.etiqi^ui^.o'' eating. The tome remarks will apply to 
''.■botb'these repaF^ts; excepting that supperia al^\s 

-{■ the' principal meal. U is the general custom ta'ctt>k 

■ui'theaflernnon; and what remains of the slipped is 
eaten the next ilny for dinner, when VVwt. ast.^jwi 



Uw.Ass; <tfwhicha skelcli is inserted: when Ae 
ridnt is oue of the 'ooL'ama, it is covered with i 
legga'dek (or prayer- carpet) : so, iiIbo. 
the ladies' saddle ; from whifh, however, the forftier 
diScra considerably, aa will be shown hereafler. 
Afises ate naoat generally used for riding' through 
the iiarrow and crowded streets of Cairo ; and there 
axe iQiuiy for hire : their usual puce is an easy amble. 
The ass i& furnished with a stulfVd saddle ; the ftn-e- 
part of which is covered with red leather, and th^ 
«eat, most commonly, with a kmd of sott woollen lae<, 
similar to our coach-lace, of red, yellow, and «lher 
colours, 'I'he stirrup-leathers are, in every caBe, veiy 
short. The horseman is preceded by a servaut, or 
by two servants, to clear the way ; and, for Uie same 
purpoEe, a servant generally runs beside or hehiiiiil 
iheass.or sometimes before; calling outlothepae- 
sengers to move out of the way to the right or \ek, 
or lo take care of their backs, faeea, sides, feet, ( 
heels*, The rider, however, must be vigilant, and 
not trust merely to his servant, or he may be thrown 
down by the wide load of a camel ; which accident, 
indeed, is sometimes unavoidable in the more narrim 

• YevmfHaJ,! ihimi/laki (to thy right! to thyleft!)^ o 
mkl (thy buck !), miilthM (thy face ij,gfm'hak .'{Ihy fidcX), 
ri^hk! (IhyliKitl). *a'a4n*.' (ttiy Imell), and, to a. Tu*. 
nickis! (tBkeciiiel),ttrethBmostcommoncriBa. ThofoH^pfc; 
iog appellations btb also uttcn added :— yrf efe^dee t (to « 
Turk], 3J ihei/kh! (to an ulil, 01 a middle-Bged, MmVUbI 
nUive),y<i'fii&'n / (toayuimg nun),;/!/ wtfed ! otyu'AW*^ 
(lo u l)oy), bo' lArrw'/J (to a green-turban ed drseendBiitl d 
the PfophEl),ya'»'ni'ftin.'(to a naliye Cl>""li«a,or adew)^ 
g<i khawJs'k! (toaFra.ik), gJiitl! (tu o lady, 01 » feffl«J» 
uf the middle order), and ya' Util! that ii, "daughter;" ■■"« 
"(rirl" (to ft poor female). A woman of the lower ettoii' ^^ 
erei old she ha, the ierv»ot mint call '■ giil," or " dni^jlMlcr 
or probably she will not move an inch out of lb* woy:^ 1 A 
M.,M .,,»„5.™.,i.d55,;.,l.d-^.V^„.^*j? 


and wowded elwels. His pipe is ^nerslly otrrMd 
bj.tiw servant, aiid filled and lighted it he dtemounl 
at a, house or shop. ' 

if he liave no regulm- buf^iness to prnploy liim, th* 
E^ptianspendBthe irrc&ler part nf the day in ridJt)^, 
payitlfC visits or making purchases ; or in ninrricliftc 
«n<t' sip[)jn^ CoIIm and ctiatting with a friend M 
lioine ; or he passes an hour ur more iu the moriiint; 
enjoyini^ itie luxuries of a public bath. At* noon, lie 
bas again to say prayers, if he fulfil the dutivs im- 
posed on him by tus religion : but, as I have remiirked 
«n B tomner occasion, there iire mmpara lively few 
])eT6»nB amon^ the Egyptians who do not sometimt^ 
neglect these duties; and there are many who 
Haicely ever pray. Directly aflerm id-day, he dines; 
Ihoi takes a pipe and a cup of <»lfee, and. Ju hot 
weather, usually indulges hini^lf with a nup. OHeii 
be retires to recline in the bbaree'Di ; where a wife 
fit female slave watches over his repose, of rubs tht 
. eolea of his feet with her hands. On such oci^asiofK, 
I and nt other limes when he wishes to enjoy privai^, 
every person who comes to pay him ai visit istuld, 
by Ihe servant, that be m in the Idiiiree'm ; and no 
fi'iend expecU him to be called thence, uitless on 
veiy urgent business. From the time of Ihe after- 
noon prayers until sunset {tlie next lime of prayer), 
lie generally enjoys, a^in, his pipe and a cup of 
,',,(;of(Ve in the society of some one or more of his 
' trMndB at home or abroad. Shortly atler sunset, 
' 'I must now describe the meals of dhiflet (hi- 
ijftiicTa) and supper {et'aff^a), and the manner and 
.«liquetle of eating. The Same remarks will apply lo 
'both these repasts; excepting that supper is always 
heprincipal meal. It is the geneml custom td'eiSik 
nihe. afternoon; and what remains of (he aiippei; is 
the next day for dinner, w^iietv V'ftete-'MB. jia 


guasts ta the hoase. The master of a famitj' gctte* 
rati) liiues anij sups with his wite or wi\'es and chit' 
tlren ; but there are many men, pariieulariy in the 
bigher classes, who are too proud to do this, 
nwuli engaged id eociety to be able to do so, unlesa 
on some few occbsJuqs ; and there are men even In 
the tovrest class who scafcely ever eat with their wKea 
or children. When a per&on is paying a visit to a 
Iriend, *id the hour of dinner or supper arrives, it 
is incumbent on the master of ilie house to order the 
gi«al to be brought; and the sanie is generally con- 
siiieTed necessary if the visiter be a stranger. 

Every peraoo, before be sits down to the table, or 
rather to the tray, washes his hands*, and some- 
Liiues his mouth also, with soap and water; or, at 
least, has some water pouied upon his right liand. A 
senant brings to him a hasin and ewer (called li'hl 
and Hrre^ei), of tinned copper, or of brosa +. The 


femur ol dwae hat a cmvr fMerced willt holes, with 
a raised receptacle for Ihc toap in the nikidle; aiaJ 
t)ii9 water, bcitig poured upon the biiiidK. {Hissce 
tlmnigli this covL'r into the space below ; so ibaL 
wbeii ibe basin is brought to a second petson, the 
water with tvliich the runner on« bus waabcd i» uot 
aeeo. A napliiit (/uo'fiiA) is giv«H la each |ierMHi. 

WmahDBbgfoRu mSn, 1 MnL 

A round tray (calle 1 eene/j/uli) of t nned copper 
or somel met. of brass, generally betweeii two ao 1 
three feet n cbameler serves at a table be n^ pkced 
npon a Htoo) (ioo/jee) about fifteen i cl es hgh 
made of wood and ofteu covered w tli mother of 
pearl tortoise shell hone &c Fhese two pieces uf fur 
niliire eomp se the Jon/Va/i Round cakes of brewl 
such as have been betore descnbed someUTO^a «m.\. 


guests in the house. The master of & family gent' 
rally ilines and sups with las wife or wives and chi!< 
dren ^ but there ace muiiy men, parijcularly in th« 
higher classes, wtio are loo prouil to do this, or 
Inueh engaged in society to be able to do so, unless 
on some few occasiuDs ; and there are men even in 
the lowest class who searcely ever eat with their wives 
or children. Wlien a person is payinff a visit 
friend, iRid the hour of dinner or supper arrives, it 
is incumbent on the master of llic house to order the 
meal to be faroug'ht ; and the same is generally <x 
sidered necessary if the visiter be a stranger. 

Every person^ before he sits down to the table, 
rather lo the Iruy, watihes his hands*, and some- 
times his mouth also, with soap »nd water; or, : 
least, has some water poured upon his right hand. 
servant brings to him a basin and ewer (called lifhl 
and ibree'ck), of tinned copper, or o( brass \. ~ 

TiEbl nod Ibrec'clil. 
• See MaTfa,v)i. 3. 

-f In the hoiietH of soniF of the opulent these utemilsal 
nilver. I hate alio seen kome of j^lt capp«(. 'I 

; The widtli of the furmiu u IuuDl'sh in<ih«s; bu>I 
height ut'the httei, llie samL'. 


of ihcfie lias B cover |iierce4l with holeH, with 
a raiacd receptac'e for Ihe mop in the middle ; uul 
the nalcr, being pouri.-(l upuii ih« hiiudH, poskes 
Ihrough Lliis anct mtu (he apace Loilowi ho thnt. 
wlwu Ibe Liasin is brought to a second pevenni the 
water with wliicli the Tunner one has washed is ttgt 
seen. A napkin (yiH/foA) is given lo each peraon. 

'HublnjlMCina onnsMo 

A round tray (called eenetfyeh) ut I nned copper 
Of, sometimes of brass, genertilly between two and 
thfbe.feet in diameter, serves as a table ; being placed 
upon a stool (ioor'see) about fifteen inches high, 
made of wood, and often covered willi mothet-of- 
pearl. tortoise-shell, bone, &c. These two pieces of titr- 
niture compose the wo/VnA. Round eakeaofbreari, 
snch as have been before described, someUmes im.\. wv 

ii» olaecd round the tray, 
fii. to be squeezed orei 

■ -^-mire the acid ; and e 
'".11V, or tortoise-shell, it 
■rpaJ often serves as s 
vJ ccpper, or of china, 
> ::iuds, vegetables, Ac, 
. jfi-ording to the corn- 
er only one dish is pul 

. -J mode. 

-ii-tiike of the repast sil 
I . ; each with his napkiji 
r-jy be placed near t!ie 

.1: is onen done, s< 

Kloewn'fl, and the others 

. :\ bo iiuinerdus, lhe-,li;a¥ 

H the room, and ihey,-^^ 

ground, and the ■Wter 


(lOB riglit) raiiied; and, in this inaiiucr, &s m^ujjif^ 
twalve perswis may sil rouud u tray tliiee Jeel Wiq^^ 
Ewli person burps hie riphl arm to tUu cll]ow,_qi;, 
locks «i» the hanging end of his sleeve, Befur« ^e 
bi!«cias to (Mit, he say* " Bi-smtflali" (In the n 
of .(ioii)». This is generally suid in n low but and 
bfe-wiee'i and by the master of tlie house first. 


halves across Ihc middle, are placed round the tray, 
With several iimes, cut in two, to be squeezed orat) 
any of the dishes that may require tlie acid; and' si 
spoon of box-wood, or of ebony, or tortoise-shell, jW 
pnt far estch person. The bread ofien serves lu «) 
plal«. Several dishes of tinned copper, or of chioit^ 
containing ditferent kinds of viands, vegetables, Adp 
are then placed upon the Iray, according to the coniw' 
nion fashion of the country; or only one dish is put 
on Qt a time, after the Turkish mode. 

The persons who are to partake of the repast sit ' 
upon the floor around tile tray ; each with his napkin 
upon his knees: or, if the tray be platted near ihe 
cdu;e of a low deewa'n, which is often done, iionie of 



(iie Hghl) raised; and,. in this manner, &s qiuuy,{t%/ 
Iwulve persons may siL round a Irny three feel wl^^^ 
ElK'li persou bares bis tighL arm Id (lie ellH>w,,.(jr 
>Hcks up the banging t nc! of hi;- sleeve. Belbre U$, 
hefB'ms lo eui, he says " Bi-smi^lah " (In the mune 
0/ .tioil)*. This is ({linerftlly aiiid in a low bul aiuli- 
hle voice ; and by Ihc master of the house first, ll 



' J3 considered both as & grace and as sn invitation .1 
any peKoii to partake of the meal; and when aji 
one is addressed with " Bismi-Hah." or " Tafwl'ii<il" 
(which latter signifiea, in this case, "Do me l^ie 
favour to partake of the repast"), he must reply, if 
he do not at'cept the invitation, " Haieif-an '' (or 
" May it benefit "), or use some similar expression : 
else it will be feared that aa evil eye has been past 
upun llie food; and they say that, " in the food that 
is eoveted " (or upon which an envious eye has 
fallen), "'there is no blcBsiiig." But the manner jn 
which the Egyptiau oflen presses a strany;er to eat 
with him phows that feelingn of hospitality most 
forcibly dictate the " Bi-smi-l'lah." The inaal " 
the house first begins to eat ; the guests or othera 
immediately follow his example. Neither knivm 
nor forks are used : the thumb and two fingers rf 
■he right hand ser^e instead of those instruments^ 
but the spoons are used tor soup or rice, or other 
things that cannot be easily eaten without; and but^ 
hands may be used in particular cases, as will V^) 
presently explained. When there are several dish^ 
upon the tray, each person takes of any that he likea, 
or of every one in sitccession ; when only one dii^h i 
placed upon the tray at a time, each takes from it] 
lew mouthfuls, and it i» quickly removed, to giij 
place to another*. To pick out a delicate mors^ 
and hand it to a friend, is esteemed polite. The 
manner of eating with the Angers, as practised in 
Egypt and other Eatlern countries, is more delicaU 
than may be imngined by Europeans who have nol 
wilnessed it, nor heard it correctly described. Ea*i 
persiin breaks olf a small piece of bread, dips it ^ 
the dish, and then conveys it lo his moiilh, toget&ii 
with a small portion of the meal or other cantenl 

* Oui: Savioui will bis iliKiplei thiu ate fram one 
Sve Jtlatt. xm. 23, 

domestk; use. 19" 

at'&ie diah*. The piece q1' bread is generally doubted 
together, so as In enclose llie luursel of meKt, &e, ; 
uid only the thumb and firtit uiid seuoad fingers are 
commonly uiied. When u per>uii lakes a piece iif 
lOBat too large for a siaj;le iiioiilhtul, he usually 
pUcea it upon his bread. 

The food is dressed in such u maimer that U may 
be eauly eaten in the mode ubiive -described. It 
generally consists, for Ibc musi part, of yui/i'nee, or 
ifewed mcul, with cUnpped uiiidiiH, or with a quan- 
tily of 6aW^«/M t, or ulher vcgctabies; chi^woot'' 
'meA, or a ricber stew with onions; tea/wk maiih'- 
ihte, or fiiie-leuves, or biis of leituue-ltaf or cab- 
txigi^leaf, with a mixture of rice and minced mvAt 
(delicately eeaifoiied witb Kail, pepper, and ouioDH, 
and ofien with garlic, parsley, &c.) wrapped up in 
them, and boiled i cucumbers {khiydr), or bUck, 
wbite, or red ba'dinyalnsU"' h kiud of gounl (called 
cha^a koo'seh) of Lite she uiid vbape of a Hinall 
cucutnber, which are all jaah/t'shee, or stulied, with 
the same composiliou as the leaves above-mentioued; 
tknd heba'ii, or small morsels of niutioii or lamb, 
roasted on skewers. Many dishes cuusisl wholly) or 
for the most part, of vegetables ; such as cabbage, 

Claiu, Bplnacb, beaus, lupins, cluck-peas, gourd cut 
small pieces, culpcaaia, kniils, &c. Fish, dressed 
irilh oil, is also a common dish. Must of the meats 
«e cooked with claritied butter, on account of ttia 

* Ot he meiely sops Ms mucsel of bcuad m thu illah. Sea 
Buth.ii. 14; and John, wii. 26. 

4 Tha ba^roiyeh is the carulent UliiKUi: the part which 
la eiien it a paljiiiaiul pad, gcnaially batweua one and thieu 
uieheaialeugth,aiidQf thu thidkncH of almallliiigcr: it is 
fiiUofHieda and nutritive mucilsge, and has a very jileBEoot 
Savour. A little lime-juice is usuully diupped uu the plute uf 

t The black and wbite bo'dinga'n are the ftuitBQEtnofc'fti* 
of ogg-jjlaat : tisred ia the totnata. 


is considered both as a grace and as an inTJtallan to 
aay peivon lo partake of the meal; and when any 
one is addressed with " Bi-smi-Hlah," or " TafuWdai" 
(wlijch latter signifies, in (his case, "Do me the 
favour to purt»ke ol'the repast"), lie must replj.^if 
he do not iitcept the invitation, " Hene^-an'\ (or 
" May it benefit"), or use some similar expression.: 
else it will be f'etkred tbal un evil eye has been c»et 
upon Ibe Ibod ; and they say that, " in the food thai 
is coveted " (or upon which an envious' eye has 
fallen), ''there is no blessiug-.'' But the manner in 
whiclk the E^ptian oRen presses n stranger to eat 
with him shows that feelings of hospitality mo«t 
forcibly dictate the " Bi-smi-l'tali." The master of 
the liuuse first begins to eat ; the guests or uthe^ 
immeilktely follow bis example. Neither knives. 
nor forks are used : the thumb and two fingers of 
the right hand serve instead of those instrument^;' 
but the spoons are used tiir soup or rice, or othe 
things that cannot be easily eaten without; and bot 
hands may be used in particular cases, as wilt ts 
presently explained. Wben there are several dishei 
upon the tr^. each person takes of any that be likesh 
or of every one in succession : when only one dish I 
placed upon the tray at a lime, each takes from it i 
lew mouthfuls, and it is quickly removed, to giv 
place to another*. To pick ont a delicate morse^ 
and hand it to a friend, is esteemed polite. Thtf 
manner of eating with the fiogers, as practised ia 
Egypt and other Eastern countries, is more delkslft 
than may be tma«iued by Europeans who have nO 
witnessed it, nor beard it correctly described. EaC 
person breaks olf a small piece of bread, dips it _i 
the dish, and then conveys it lo his mouth, logetlu 
with a smoi! portion of the meat or other coutenl, 
* Oil! Saviguf aad his disciples thos aie tnia one diri 
An Mstt. am. 23. 


j«f IhedlBb*. The piece of hreiul is gencrall;r doubled 
together, so as lo enclose ilie iiiurael i>f meal, &c. ; 
' Bii(l only the thunib and lii'st and second fiugers are 
commonly used. Wtien a ^ler^cii lakus a piece iif 
' meat loo large for a single itiuulUlul, he usualiy 
places it upou Liij bread, 

' The food is drehsed in bucU ii tnaiinet' lliat it niuy 
be easily eal«n iu the mode ubove- described, ll 
'generally consists, fur the musl part, uf yui/i'nM, or 
'jtewed uiE'ut, Mjiti chopped unitnis, or with a ijuui- 
'thy of ia'mjyWw ti oi other vegetables j dta'woor'- 
'meh, or arither slew with onious; vja?\ickmi)Ml- 
'thee, or viiie-leuves, or bits of leituue-leaf or cab- 
'tngie-laaf, with a mitture of rite aud minced meat 
'(delicaXely seasoned with ^alt, pepper, and ooionft, 
find often with giirtic, parsley, &c.) wrapped up in 
^ihein, and boiled ; cucumbers {khiydr), or bUck, 
vhite,orred ba!dinija!ns\,i\t a kind of gourd (called 
'C^W^^ koo'sek) uf the si^e und ithape oi' a small 
cucumber, which are all iitahiithee, or stulTed, with 
%R same comfiositign as the leaves above-mentioiied; 
Mtd keba'h, or small morsels ul' uiulion or lanil^ 
no^ted OQ skewers. Many dishes consist wholly, or 
for tlie most part, of vegetables ; such as cabbage, 
|niralaia, spinach, beaus, lujuns, chick-peas, gourd cut 
nta email pieces, colocasia, Itntils, &c. Fish, drease<l 
frith oil, is also a common dish. Most of the meals 
kre cooked with citified hiiiter, on accoont of the 

* Or he metdy sops his moi 
anth,ii. 14; and Johii,sk». 36. 

tnucael of briiikd in the disli. Se« 

__, leuglh, and otthe tmtkBe*!. 

f^ of seeds aud autiitive mucilase, and bss a very ploiHtot 
flirour. A Utile lime-juici; is usually droppi^d on Ihv plate of 

re tha fruits of t«oV\iu^« 


i«rf arc xnaile very rich : 

'a*aa, is perfeclly liquid. When 

L''« on the tray, both hands are 

' r«pMBte the joints ; or two f*r- 

■ n^A hand alone, perform this 

bat some will do it very cleverly 

■ad with a single hand. Many 

lit aUow the left hand to touch 

. - excepting when the right is 

■• i, siutfed with raisins, pislachio- 

,. . mil porsley, is not an uncom- 

^■t » wliole lamb, stuffed with 

■• wtuetimes served op ; but the 

K :»r'l with one hand. Sweets are 

.: AttI meat, &c. ; as, for instance, 

■ i Mtd itigar with yukh'nee. Va- 

■Sis tire also served up, and oilen in 

f wUh respect lo other meats. A 

i liiM is ktion^feh, which is made of 

X nra«inljles vermicelli, but iS finer; 

'iMMtrned with sugar or honey. A 

luMi (f-uliet/kh), if in ^Kason, gene- 

>j| ibc uhfol. This is cut up about a 

■uiM bclor«, and led to cool in Ihe a- 

\ cuiTwiii of air, by the evaporation 

'tt« surfaces of the slices; but it is 

uui'luc this lime, lest a. serpentshould 

, iv*^wu it by its breath or bite ; for 

miiv btt extremely fond of the waler- 

-uM-t 't at a great distance. Water- 

^ .^u ni Egypt, and mostly very 

A dish of boiled rice 
; Ha'i of the Turks), 
<.asoned witli salt and 
uhich the last a 
^-.^ V=*s of the weillhy, this M 

t .- . • < 

'•■1 ■ > : 

>' • 
/ ■ 

.'.I.- ■' 

J I . : 

i ■ ■ 

■1 .: .'■'• 

I : 



deficiency of fat, and are made very rich : ' 
butter, in the hot season, in perreclly liquid. Wt 
a. fowl is placed whole on the tray, both hands 
generally required to separate the joints ; or two p«* 
sons, each using' the right hand alone, perrorm thii 
operalioi) together: but some will do it very clever^ 
without assistance, and with a single hand. Man 
of the Arabs will not allow the lel't hand to tone 
food in any case*, esMpting when the right Is 
maimed. A boned fowl, stuffed vvith raisins, pistachitfj 
nuts, L-rumbied bread, and parsley, is not an uocom^ 
mon dish ; and even a whole lamb, stuffed vi\& 
pistachio-nuts, &c., is sometimes served up ; but tl^ 
meat is easily separated with one hand. Sweets art 
olYen mixed with stewed meat, &c. ; as, for instancfl^ 
'ajmdh (or jujubes) and sugar with yukh'nee. Va- 
rious kluds of sweets are also served up, and often ii 
no particular order with respect lo other meats. / 
favourite sweet dish is koondfek, which is made o 
wheat-flour, and resem Ides vermicelli, but .a finer^ 
it is boiled, and sweetened with sugar or honey. ^ 
dish of water-melon {Lulle(/kh), if in season, gene* 
rally forms part of the meal. This is cut up about t 
(juorter of an hour before, and left to cool in the erf 
ternal air, or in a current of air, by the evaporatio) 
of the juice on the surfaces of the slices; but it I 
always watched during this time, test a serpent shoula 
come lo it, and poison it by its breaih or bite ; 
this reptile is said to be extremely fond of the water- 
melon, and to smell it at a great distance. Watery 
melons are very abundant in Egypt, ar>d mostly ver^ 
delicious and wholesome. A dish of boiled ric0 
(called rooi'i maofe^fel, the piia'v of the TurkaJ 
mixed with a little butler, and seasoned with salt aiU 
pepper, is generally that from which the last morsels 
arc taken ; but, in the houses of the wealthy, this is 
■ Because used for uQcUan {lutjoiei. 

;.;■*» 1 »« t / .i 


>Ji:; .'. • ■ 

■ 1 ■ • 

1 ■ 

;'• V. 



i}.- ' 




I < 

. » '.■ 



_. ./ 

I ", . ■ ■ 



-•»i: ..; 

ir • 

I »1 1 1" ■ 

ai ziA: , / , ; . 

fiillawed by n bovrl of kImnshiJj'*, n sweet 
drink, cDinmonly conaisUng^ of waler with raisins 
boiled in it, and iheii sugar: wben coul, a, lillle rose- 
water is iIroi>ped ioUi itt. The waler*melou fre- 
quently supplies ihe place of ihisj. 

The Egyptians eat very moderately ; lliou^h 
quickly. Each person, tvi suon as he has finished, 
says " Elkkam'dao li-i'la'h '■ (Praise he to God)§, 
and gets up, without waiting till the others have 
done II : be then washes his hands and moutli with 
GO^ and water; the basin and ewer being held by a 
servant, as before . 

The only bevcra|{c nt meals is water of the Nile, 
or, someliraes, at the tables of the rich, sherbet, 
whicfa wilt presently be describeil. The water of ibe 
Nile is reniaikably good ; but that of all the wells in 
Cairo and in other ports uf E^ypt is slightly brackL'th. 
In general, water is drunk either from an earthen 
bottle or from a biasB cup ^. The water-bottles are of 
two kinds; one called dt/rvck, cud the Other 
ckool^leh : the former has a narrow, and the latter a 
wide, mouth. They are made of a greyish, porous 
eaitb, which cools the water deliciously, by evapora- 

* So called frorn tlic Perilan thJiA Jb, or " iweot irater." 

f It is drunk wifli ladlv^ af toctoiue-Bhell, or cocoo-aut. 

\ The piinciiml oud b«Et fruits of l^yi't ore dales, grapM, 
eruigi!! and eittunsol variuua kinds, commno fi|^, BjCJimori!- 
&tt, iiriEkly-peaia, poQusgnnate), bananu. and ■ gnat variety 
ormelaiui. Fiom this vimiuenitiua il appuiB thst llien Ua 
not many sotiil fiuitk in this (country. 

i IJt •'^l-hha-mfitm li-fla'hi ruffbU-'iilameein" (Prsiie be 
to God, the Iiord uFaUen>aturei). 

II It is deemed biiihiy imiiiopur to [iie itarin); a neal, pven 
ttma reapMt tu b iiiip«rior who may Hpiirouih. It lias l«en 
ncDtionld bFloCH, that the Prophet fucljiule hu fulluwen to 
rise .while mating, ur v'nva aboul lu eat, even if the time of 





ill m 



^ Jk^B 

Wjt«-l)ollle. (Do- 

iiDki),>IIta ciffari pf ailTercntkliidi.'loiMjB 


TitarMtlN COkoDiniU}. ^^^^^^H 


riolloned by a Iwwl of kkooahalf, a sweet 
driuk, vommonlf consisting of" water with roisins 
boiled lit il, and then sugur: wh«n cmiI, u little rose- 
water is dropped mlo it+. 'Hie wu[er- melon fre- 
<guently supplies ibe place ot*this]. 

The Egyptituis eat very moderately ; thougli 
quitkly. Each person, as »oon as he hus fiiiislird, 
says ■' Elhham'doo li-l'la'h " (Piaise be In God)§, 
unU eels up, without wuitiiio; tjli the others have 
donef: he then washea his hands imd mouth with 
sttop and water; the hasin and eiver heing held by a 
savant, as he tore. 

The only bever^e at meals is water of llie Nile, 
or, tamelirucs, at the tuliles i>t' the ridi, sherbet, 
which will preseutly be described. The water of the 
Nile la reroArkably good ; but that (il'all the wetis in 
Cairo and in other parts of E^^t is slightly brackish. 
lu general, water is drunk either from an eartlien 
bottle (ir from a brass cup ^. The water-bottles aie of 
two kinds; one called d(/Tueh, nnd the other 
ekoolfieh: the former has a narrow, and the littler a 
wide, mouth. They are made of a greyish, porous 
eftrth,whii:U cools the water deliciously, by evapora- 

• So called froio the Persian iktii/t a'i, or "sweat walar,'' 

t It is dmnJi willi lidlis of tortoite- shell, or cocoa-Diil. 

i The princi|'al and bent liuifi of Kgy^it uib dulug, grapFB, 
orangea and citrons of vhiqus kiiiils, common flgn. sjciimoie- 
G|pi, |iriekly-p?ars, poBUigran«les, buniinu, nud a i^niat variety 
of roelana. From tlib Biiumomtiun il appeaiE tbtt theft ua 
not many gnod fruit* iu th« country. 

J Or ■' fit-AAnm'i/oii li-rMhi Tu&bi-l-'Jiamcr'a" (Ptaiia be 
to Bad, the Lonl uf ull ereitutiw). 

II It is deemed highly improper to nie during a ncnt, even 
bma respMt tu a bugwriur who may npi)ra3oh. It hoi Iiobd 
meotionid before, tlint the Proplutt furL>ade his foU^oers to 

fl Kie ancient KRyptians used drinking-cups o! li[8.*4, 
I (HerodotuSjUbiiLeap. 3AJ 

- - _ . Udl ifcK I 

ncfa time lb* kc A'i^a dvn^ a ma 

"b ^ M>< >t bwrfU •• ; to 

of tbc <1(%WU " TklM 

Jfishia," rf irnwriag " the 

f>o< cnm intTwumd mi 

^ . J or aAcr tbe taeal, «r it 

■Ao' times, tn^ the Hoo^ms of Eerpt in the pmeM 
Mij. Vur of them, bowetTT, habKictUy indnkfiv tai 
^Awu^ wine with selMI parties oT tbeir aM}ittjM- 
^iiee. Tbe serra&ts of g mso iiho ia addkiei) In Uib 
*1^l)ltkiiaw mdi oT bis frieiuls as ma; be admitteil. if 
^hir^ happen to caD irfaen he i$ engaged in this un- 
' Vwfiil i^^sure ; and lo all rthers (hey <ay (hdl he is 
^i* Bt home, or Uiat he i« in the hharee'm. Driak- 
Tng wine is indulged in bv such persons before Wtd 
'ftltn' siniper, and dnrii^ that mml: but il is most 
^Sipnjw^ before supper ; as they say ihnC it quickens 
*tfee appetite. The *' table of wine " is usually Ihns 
^''TOared, according to a penitent Moo^Unt wine- 
TrilAer, who is one of my friends (I cannot spe«k en 
Thb subject from mj own enperience ; for, us I nenr 

• Btttt'-om. 

■f jr/ak fthi^Htr'li (.for fooiuit Wr'* ). 



tion; aiid they are, tlieiefore, generally placed in 
current, of air. The inU'rior is oAen blackened wit 
the i^noke of some resinous wood, und'then pei 
fumed wilh llie smoke of ckuf'al '-wood and' mMKo . 
tim ktter used last. A smaJl enrllien vesHet (called 
Mtt/kliar^n/i) is employed in perfnrining these q«ra- 
liujL<i, to contain Ihe burning charcuul, .which ii 


required to ignite the wood, and tlie mastic; and t| 
water-botlle is held inverted over it. A slri^ of it 
is tied round the neck of the do'ruck, at tiw distdni 
of about an inch from ihe moutll, to prevent U 
smuke-black from extending too fur upon tlie eslerM 
of the Many persons also put a little oranji 
tio\¥er-waler into the bottles t- This gives a ^ej 
agi'eeable flavour U» their contents, The bottles hu 
sloppets of silver, brass, tin, wood, or palm'Iearaj 
and are generally placed in a tray of tinned copM 
which receives the water that aKudes from thc-n. 3 
cold weather, cUina bottles are used In many iuHUj 
inatead of those above-described, which then muj 
the water too cold. The two most cummua forin^ 
drin king-cups are here represented. 

__ i^^'sei zakr, 

before and after tjriiikiiin', repeats the aam? ej^tcuU- 
tiolis as befure and after eating; and this he iIix'h 
each time thai he drinks during a metd : eiu;h friend 
present then says to hirn " .Sliiy it benefit"*; to 
which the nply is " God benefit tlvee''t. 

Thpu^ We read, in some of the delightful " Tules 

of ftTkuoBuid and One Nights," of removing; " the 

table of viands'* I and bringing " the table of wiDe"§, 

this prohibited beverage is not often introduced in 

geiierol sodety, either during or after the meul, or at 

qthet times, by the Moos'lims of Egypt in the present 

vif. Many of them, however, habitually indulge in 

%tnt3ng wine trith select parlies of their ncquaint- 

^iiCe. The servants of a innn who is addicted to tliis 

"ti^bitknow such of his friends as ma; be ndinitted.if 

^flieV happen to call when he is engaged in this un- 

"fcmiil pleasure ; and to all others they say that he is 

%bt al home, or that he is in the hharee'm. Drinli- 

^^ wine is indulged in by such persons before and 

*tiulr' supper, and during that meal ; but it is most 

i^^J^hrt^ before supper ; as Ihey say that it quickens 

•fee apatite. The " table of wine " is usually thus 

*teq)ared, according to a penitent MiHWlim wioe- 

^hber, who is one of my fViends (I cannot speak on 

tKh subject from my own experience ; for, as I never 

i S^ratrl-ta'a'm. \ Sgo/rot cl-nvndA'm, 


tion; and they are, therefore, generi 
current of air. The interior is ofto^'' 

the ^nke of some resinous wood^i, 

fumeil with tlie smoke of iiu/'o/'-wiwd 
tho latter used last, A small eu 
mifk/iar'ak') is cinplojod in perfi 
tidu;., to contain liie biirninj 

required to ignite the ii 
WBter-boltle is held ii» 
is tied round ihe ni'ili 
of about an imli !"■■ 
sinoke-black fr'.'in ' 
of the buttle. \l :i 
llower-water ini 
agreeable flavniK 
slopijwrs of sih' 


which ri 

cold weather, i 

instead of tii.. 


te IMC cUfemTMlM 

r me, « tbMC k»d 

Hcf «ncd dolb dnncd vnr riafs cf «ti*t*M 
• nl IniMB rf lined con-r. tlws ^Md «f 
BH fe hoe wjwwatrf. logeifcK wilt »*;«»; 

i. alieh wtnts to Bfotect Ihe toi»e ««? *• 


drink wine,! have never been invited to join aMoo>^ 
lim wine-party ) : — a round japanned tray, of a glast 
dish, ie placed on the stool before-mentioned ; on this 
are generally arranged Iwo cut-g;laas jugs, one con* 
tainiiig wine*, and the other, rosogliof; and some^- 
times two or more bottles besides; several sm^ 
glasses are placed with these ) and fflpi eaucers of 
dried and Iresh fruits, and, perhaps, pickies; lastly, 
Iwo candles, and, oilen, a bunch of flowers stuck in a 
candlestick, are put upon Ihe tray. 

The E^jptians have various kinds of sherbets, or 
sweet drinks. The moat common kindj is merely 
sugar and water ; but very sweet : lemonade^ is ano- 
ther : a third kind, the most esteemed ||, is prepared 
from a hard conserve of violets, made by pounding 
violet-flowers, and then boiling them with sugar : this 
violet-sherbet is of a green colour; a fourth^ kind is 
prepared ftom mulberries ; a fifth •*, from sorrel. 
There is also a kind of sherbet sold in the fitree^ tt* 
which is made with raiBins, as ha name implies; anth 
ther kind, which ia a strong infusion of licoriee-rqot, 
and called by the name of that nwtJt; and a thinV 
kind, which is prepared from the fruit of the locu^ 
tree, and called, in like manner, by the name of tiif^ 
thiit§§. The sherbet is served in covered glasa cups 
containing about half a pint measure, or rather more ( 
some of which (the more commou kind) are ont^q 
mented with gilt flowers, &c The sherbet-cups ara 
placed on a round tray, and covered witli a toWoA 

• A'ebee'd,oi mooda'in, f 'Am'ber'tt. ^ 

X CbIIhiI simply ahurba'l, or thurba'I loai'kar, (oaibet o( 

i Ltj/'ntai'ita'tih, ar ihara'b tl-lnmoo'n. 

II SkiB-a'beUeiie/'Ks. 4 Shara'b et-lt»'l. ' 

■• Shara'brl-khomnay'd. 

+t Called seoee'i. This name 


BDf embroidered silk, or clolh of gold. Oii the 
fight arm of the person who preseiiU ibe shsfbct k 
hung a. lai^ obloDC!; napkin wiih a wide eiiilroideri-d 
border of i^hl und coloured silks uL each end. Tliia 
sibly ottered for the purpose of wiping the lips 
aAer drinking the sherbet i but it is reully not sq j 
much for use as for display : the lips tm seldom ur 
scarcely touched with iu 

The inlervd between supper and the 'esk'e, or 
time of the night-prayers, is generally passed iu 
smoking a pipe, and sipping d cup of coltte. The 
^trjoymetit of the pipe may be iulerruptcd by prayer, 
hoi ia continued afterwards ; aud sometimes draughts 
or chess, or some other gume, or at least conversa- 
tion, contributes lo muke the time glide away more 
sgreeably. The mcnibem of an Egyptian family in 
BftHy eiKumstances may pass iheir time very plea- 
iittlly t bW they do so in a quiet way. The men 
£ifteh pay orentng visits to their friends at, or after, 
BUpper-liine. They commonly use, on these and 
rimilar occasions, a folding lantern (fa'norfs), com- 
posed uf waxed cluth strained over ringn of wire, and 
a top and bottom of tinned cupper. Tliis kind of 
lanterU is here represented, together with the eom- 
taon lamp (ckandee'l), and its usual receptacle of 
VraoA, which sen'es to protect Ihe flume from the 
*flnd. The lamp ia a small vessel o5 g\aa6^\j&"™% » 
11 ^ 

bs lu llie txxUfin, in which is stuck a wick 

iif imWiu (wbted roiiQd--a piece of. straws 

I is puured in 6rsl, and then the oil. .4 

r ^EMMM>»'o'^n hung over the entrance W 
I Jfl^j^lSk-Mght, the iiittriora of the houses present 
P %^ff^"* -• I""'""" 'li^" 'i^ ^'^^ <l»y - the light Qf 
r W ' ji'.K^d on the duor or on a stool. 

V. >U-d by n large gloES shade, or 

•.. : utorn, on account of the wia- 

^.. . \ I'l' lattice-work) is general^ 

1^, t^l .;^K..»al ti>r II )arge and lofty saloon. Fct 
»f*> »^vi**»» «l up later, in summer, than tbrfie 1 
^ 4lu« j-'ma'^. which is three or four hours aflci 1 
^,t„-_ i^ .1. : i<^-k(iiiing of time is from sunset 
f,i i I' \par ; in winter they nl\en sit 

Iv spent by men of moilerate 
f, . I'l^lar businesH to attend to, 

„, lirir own active superintend- 

,„, ...wClhe tradesman to repair, 

notaKstic li^. so 

mCA aAei* breakfasl, to liia shop or warehouse, and 
to remain thcr« uniil nenr Hiiiisct *. He hiin leisure 
(o smoke as much ns lie likpH ; mid hi^ customers 
often smoke willi him. TV) some of these he olllere 
his own pips (unless ibey have theirs with Ihem), 
and a cup of coffee, which is oblained from the 
neaheBt eolfee-ahop. A (freat iKirtion of the day he 
Bometimes posies in au^eiible chst with ciutomers, 
or with the tretfesmeii of tlie next or opponiie shops. 
He geuefally says his prayers without moving from 
his shopi Shortly aller the noou-prayers, or some- 
limes eat-]ier or liter, lie etLls a light meal, such as a 
plate of keba'b and a cake of bread (whii:b a boy or 
inuil daily briOEfs Irom hia house, or procures in the 
market), or some bread and cheese or pickles, fte., 
which are carried about the streets for sale ; and if 
B customer be present, he is aliv-ays invited, and often 
pressed, to partake of Ihifi meal. A large earthen 
bottle of water is kept in the shop, and replenished, 
whenever necessary, by tk passing sach'cka, or water- 
CBlTier. In the evening, the tradesman returnft fo 
hia house, eats his supper, and, soon alVeri reiirm fo 

It is the tfenerol custom in E^it for the husband 
tmd wile to sleep in the some bed, exeeptinf^ amohtr 
th6 wealthy classes, who mostly prefer separate beds. 
The bed Is usually thus prepared in the bouses of 
^T^nns of moderate weulth: a maltreat, stuffed 
with cotton, about six feet long, and ihree or four 
feet in width, is placed upon a ion frame J: a pillow 
IB placed for the head, and a sheet spread, over this 
and the mattress; the only covering in Burlimer Is 
generally a thin blanket § ; and in winter a thick 

I * A iletcriplioQ of tba shoi>s, aud a futlhvr neaaunt of tho 
.|f^i|a«(iaC Cain), will be );itea in anulhur cliapttr, nn In- 



little tube in the boilom, in which is atuck a wicfc ] 
formed of cotton Iwisted round- a piece of- straw* 
poured in firsi, and then the oil, J^ 

LuDtEro and Lunp, 

lamp of this 'liindia'often hung over the entrance of pi 
house. By night, theinteriorsof the houses pres^i^t 
a more dull appearanee Ihun in the day : the li9;ht qf 
one or two candles (placed on the floor or on a sUiol, 
and sometimes anrrounded by a large glass shade, iff 
enclosed in u glass lantern, on account of the win- 
dows being merely of lattice- work) is general 
thought sufficient for a large and lofly saloon. JPev ■ 
of the Egyplitins sit up later, in summer, than thi^ 
or four o'clock, which is three or four hours after 
sunset; for their reckoning of time is from sunset 
at every season of the year : in winter they often Sit 
up five or sis hours. 

Tlius the day is usually spent by men of moderate 
wealth who have no regular business to attend to, 
or none that requires their own active superintend- 
ence. But it is the habit of the iTadesman to repalri 


i tSicT lireakfast, to his shop or wnrthouKc, tuid 
ti) remalu there until neor sunaei*. He hw leisure 
to smoke as mui^b sa he likes; nnd hi.'; L-ustomers 
oflen smoke with him. To some ul' these he ulleri) 
1 pipe (unless they have tlieire with them), 
(ind a cup of coflee, which is ohtained from the 
uesresl colfte-sliop. A great \Kir<i«a of th* day he 
Bomelimes passes in a{;reeBble chat with ctntomerB, 
or with the tradesmen of the m\1 or oppoftite shops. 
He generally says his prayers without moving from 
his shop. Shortly alter the iiouii-pnyers, or sume- 
ttmcR eaitlier or later, he eitia a ligltt meal, nii'h as a 
plute of heba'b and a euke ot bread (which a boy or 
maid daily brini^ from his hoiiw, ur procures in the 
marltet). or some bread and cheeso ur pickles, Ac, 
which ore carried about the streets for sale ; and if 
B cUBtonier be present, he is always biviteil, and often 
pressed, In partake of this meal. A laige earthen 
iMttlB uf water is kept in the shop, and rtplt-nisheil, 
whene^'er necessary, by a passing .^nck'cka, orwater- 
caVfier. In the evening, the iradeamon retamd to 
hib bou^e, eats his supper, and, soon afisrt reiitvs to 


■ It is the tfenemi custom in Egypt for the husband 
tetd wife to sleep in the same bed, cxceptiii"' amoiic; 
ibe T*e»lthy dosses, ?riio mostly prefer separate bed*. 
"Ww bed is usually ibus prepared in the houses of 
Jiereons of moderate wealth: a mattress t, stuffed 
with cotton, about sis feet long, and three or firar 
htit in width, is placed upon a low trame t: a pillow 
is placed for the head, and n sheet spread over this 
■im die mattress: the only covcriug in summer is 
generally a thin blanket §; and in winter a thick 

< t A dencriplion of the shofs, itiul n further ucoount of tliD 
badv*nGa vS Cairu, will b« |;iviin ia anothet clmptur, ou la- 

■""t-7!»f/':.',«flA. ■ {SrJ-rt'h % HK*Vft'Tn. 



quilt^stuffed with cutton. If there b« no frame, 

the mattress is pUced upon the floor; iii two mat- 
tressea are laid one upon the other, with tile sheet, 
pillow, &c. ; anrl ofteti, a cushion of the deewa'a is 
placed on each ^ide. A musquito-curtuin t '^ sus- 
pended over tbe bed by means of four strinc^, which 
are attached to nails in the wall. The dress is seldom 
changud on going to bed ; and in winter manj 
people sleep with all Clicir ordinary clothes on, exr 
ccpting the giVbeh, or cloth cout; but in summer 
they sleep almost, or entirely, unclail. In winter, the 
bed IK prepared in n small closet (called khuJnehy : 
in summer, in a large room. All the bed-clothes are 
rolled up, in the day-lime, uitd placed on one side, 
at in the closet above-mentioned. During' the 
hottest weather many people sleep upon the houses 
top, or in a. fe^hhiih, which is an uncovered apar^~ 
ment; but ophthalmia and other diseases often result 
from their thus exposing themselves to the external 
sir at night. The most common kind of frame. for 
the bed is made of palm-sticks ; but this hmrboDts 
bugs, which are very abuudant in Egypt in the SrUm- 
mer, as fleas are iu the winter. These and other 
plagues, to which the people of ii^gypt are exposed b^ 
night and day, have been before mentioned \. With 
regard to the most disgustiu); of them, the lice|,4t 
may here be added, that they are not alwaya to i)e 
avoided even by the most scrupulous cleanliness :, but 
,a person who changes his linen aBer two or tkUM 
days' wear is very seldom annoyed by these vertntj^; 
and when he is, they are easily removed, not sttaol|- 
ing themselves to the skin: they are generally faaoA 
ill t\it linen. A house may be kept almost olearpf 

%T,«: fax «»r ] „ ,. . . ^ 

hi M iii ■wi rt i 1 iii ' iB * lB. ■■Imi t "'i Jfmi iilil 
e hMoa Am dw B^rpDM «nM»; Im I mi 

B ofMsnce, Am tlwy hMft 
I diis reyaf -- ' ' 

ftom tBe lo lM> I 
fi^) per mouh : faM Ifaev n 
'Oa Ok '<^ (or fea6vwi) after Rntn'Mta'si, thi- a __ 
'geitnOj gii«5, ta adi «f kis wnaats, pan «r lln 
•«lKik of a oewsirit of dMbes, eonststin^ of M) '«fVi 
fk bine iturt, wbicb b their notcr divss), & AtriiWiA, 
■nd a Uiri»n. Oiher ankte of drew whith tiwy 
)fe<]nire during the year (exi:«ptiD^,soinrtimM,^nv9) 
Ibe servants are obtigpd to piwidf for thems*I*», 
Besdes what their master ^xts them, th#t lihn 
;'t*<*TTe smalt presents of moneyfrom his vifil^rsiiUl 
'frdm ihe trades-people with whom he deals : pattira- 
larly whenever he Las made any considerabla ptti> 
.chMe. They sleep in the clothes which HitfUmK 
'■■■• ""(" 



qliill 1*, stuffed with cotton. U there be no fnun<^ 
tjie mattress is placed upou the floor ; iir two mat- 
tresBes are Islii) oue upon the other, with Uie shee^ 
pilloiv, &i:. : itnrl ol'ien, a cushion of the deewa' 
placed on each side. A muaquito-curlain t is sus- 
pended over the bed by means of tour strings, which 
are attached to nails in the wall. The dress is aeldoqi 
chan^red on goin^ to bed ; and in winter many 
people BJeep with all their ordinary clothes 
cepting the gib'beh, or cloth coat; but ia ; 
they sleep almost, or entirely, undad. In winter, loe 
bed is prepared in a small closet (called hhui'nehy: 
in summer, in u large room. All the bed-clothes are 
rolled up, in the day-time, and placed on one side, 
or in the closet above-mentioned, During' the 
hottest weather many people sleep upou the houBce- 
t(^, or in a fes'hhah, which is au uncovered apar^ 
ment; but ophthalmia and other diseases oHeu result 
ironi their thus exposing themselves to the externAl 
air at night. Tlie most common kind of frame /fitc 
the bed is made of palm-sticks ; but this hwhtHiTB 
bugs, which are very abundant in Egypt in the suiq- 
raet, as fleas are in the winter. These and, athqc 
pl^^es, to which the people of l^g3^t are exposed bf 
night a4)d day, have been before mentiuned.j; W-iiIl 
regard to the most disgusting of them, the licoi^' 
may here be added, that they are not aJway& to i)B 
avoided even by the most scrupulous cleanliness :,b^t 
,B person who changes his linen aAer two or tlftrap 
days' wear Js very seldom annoyed by these vermu^; 
and when he is, they are easily renmved, not attat^ 
ing themselves to the skin : they arc generally fauDd 
in the linen. A house may be kept almost clear. qT 

■ Ufha'f. . .1 

■t MiaBa'ti'gfli. It ii compoaed of muslin, orllinejuidia 

open tenture, cir crape, sail farms a close eanujTj 

/ /□ fJie intruJuctinn to thii wuck. 


BeM'hj Itequent washing anri streepiiif; ; a/ld dge 
(Hm mnj- be kept out by placing ncta ut the dooffi 
and windows : but it ia impossible to purify in 
Egyptian house from bugs, il' it contain much wood- 
■work, which is generally the ease. 
' The mole servants* le»d a very easy lite, with the 
«!ieepti(ni of the la'ii, or groom, who, whenever bis 
iiiasler lakes a ride, runs Wlore or beside him j and 
this he will do in the hottest weuther for hours lo- 
gether, wiiitout uppearing fatigued. Almost every 
weallhy pereon in Cairo has u boufwa'b, or door- 
keeper, always at (he door iif his bouae, and seTeral 
other male servants. Most of these are natives «f 
Etfjpt ', bat nmny Nubians are also employed as 
servants hi Cairo and other Egyptian towns, "nic 
latter are mostly bow'wa'bs, hue! are generally esteemed 
more honest than the Egyptian ner^'aiits; but I am 
Ittelined to think, from the opinion of several of my 
frieod.4, and from my own experience, that they have 
acquired this reputation only by superior cunning. 
The wages of the male servants are very small, usuaHy 
fVbm one to two dollars (or from four to eight shil- 
lings) per month ; but they receive many presents. 
On the 'eed (or festivid) after Rum'ada'n, the master 
generally gives, to each of his ser\'anls, part or the 
whofe of a new suit of clothes, consisting of an 'ei^ee 
(a Wuc shirt, which is their outer dress), a tttrhocftk, 
■nd a turban. Other articles of dress which they 
Ttquire during the year (excepting, sometimes, shoes) 
the seri-anls are obliged to provide for themselves. 
Besides what their master givea them, they tdln 
'rtceivc small presents of money from his visiters,'iWid 
'fi-dm the trades-people with whom he deals ; particu- 
larly whenever he has made any con.siderable pur- 
chaie. They sleep in the clothes which they wear 

' fCha^da'met'n, singu\Bi bhad'da'm. 


dilriDg (he day, each upon a small mat ; and in winter 
Ihey wver themselves with a cloak* or blankei. In 
Bdme respects, they are often familiar in their manners 
to their master, eveji laughing and jottins; with him : 
in others, they are very submissive; paying him the 
Utmost honour, and bearing corporal chastisement 
from his hand with child-iike patience. 

The male bkck slave + is treated with more consi- 
deration than the tree servant; and leadg a lif^^^t^l 
sllited (0 his lazy disposition. If discontented with 
his situation, he can legally compel his mastef la 
Mil him. Many of the slaves m Egypt wear tlje 
Turkish military dress. They are. generally the 
greatest fanatics in the Ebf=1; and more accustomed 
than any ottier claws to insult the Christians ^nd 
every people who are not of the faith which they have 
thfemselves adopted. Without knowing more of its doc- 
trine than Arab children who have been but a weel; 
at school. 

An acquaintance with the modem inhahilanls of 
Egypt leads us often to compare their domestic haliifc 
1*ith those of Europetuis in the middle ages; i^i^ 
nerfabps, in this comparison, the points of resepi- 
Blattee fthich we observe, with regard to the lilB(i, 
ifre Uiofe striking than the contrasts ; but the t^yiiss 
will be (bund to be the case when we consider 11^ 
(rtatt of the females, 

• Sw Emdus, xiii. 26, 27. j Cnllid 'oW 

Chapter VI. J^^^^^l 

wunJBsrrc Lifz—continiitd. ' ^^^* 

QniTTiNO the lower apartments, where we have been 
loiiBf detained, I must enter upon a more presump- 
tuous office than I have yet undertaken, which is that 
of a guide to the Hharei/ni : hut first 1 must give 
some account of marrmge, and the miirriage ceremo- 

To abstain ftoai murrjing when a mau has at- 
tained a sufficient age, uiid when there is no just 
irapediment, is esteemed, by the Egyptians, improper, 
and even disreputable. For, being myeeir guilty of 
this itiult (to use no harsher term), I have suffered 
much inconvenience and discomfort during my slay 
In this country, and endured many reproaches. 
During ray former visit to Egypt, having occasion to 
remove tVom a house which I had occupied for some 
months in a great thoroughfare -street in Cairo, I ea- 
gsged another house, in a neighbouring quarter; the 
lease was written, and some money paid in advance; 
but,aday or two after, the agent of the owner caine 
to inform mc that the inhabiiants of the quarler, 
who were mostly sherc^fn (or descendants of the 
Prophet), objected to my living among ihem, because 
I was not married. He added, however, that they 
would gladly admit me if I would even purchase a 
ftmole slave, which would exempt me from the oppro- 
brium cast upon me by the want of a wife. I rephed, 
that, being merely a sojourner in Egypt, I did not like 
either to take s wift or female sla,ve,'«\io'av\nH»^ 



dttringthe day, each uponasmall mat; and in winter 
tbey cover ibemsclves with a doak* or blanket. In 
Bdme respects, they are often familiar in their manners 
to their master, even laughing and joking with him : 
in others, tliey arc very submissive ; paying him the 
utlnost honour, and bearing corporal thastiaement 
from his hand with ctuld-like patience. 

The mule black slave t is treated with more consi- 
deration than the free servant ; and leads a lif^ ^^\ 
SklSttd to bis lazy disposition. If discontente4 V/lifi 
hie situation, he can legally compel his mostet' tii 
8611 him. Many of the slaves in Egypt wet^ th^ 
Turkish military dress. They are generally tfie 
g^atest fanatics in the Easl j and more accuslomBU 
than any other clas.'* to insult the Christians and 
every Jwople who are not of the faith which they hayt^ 
OiemSelves adopted, without knowing more of its 3oi:- 
Itlnes than Arab children who have been "but a w^efc 
Ol school. ' 

An acquaintance with the modem itihabiUhts of 
Egypt leads us often to compare their domestic habib 
#ifh those of Eumpeans in the middle ages ; aui 
perlilips, in Ibis comparison, the points of resem- 
hhnce which we observe, with regard to the tne^ 
&ie thore striking than the contrasts; but the revTsrsB 
tvlll be fb\ind to be the case when we consider, ,IB^ 
Stole of the females. ; 

» See Elodua, ^a. 26, 27. + Collsd 'aU 

Domestic Life — coii[inu*d. 

QOiTTJNO the lower apartments, where we have been 
long detained, I must enter upon n more presump- 
tuous office thun I have yet undertaken, which h that 
of a guide to the Hharee'm : liut flrst i must give 
some account of marriage, and the marriage ceremo- 

To abstain from marrying when a man has at- 
tained a sufficient age, und when there is nn juat 
iDfiediinent, is esteemed, by the Egyptians, improper, 
ana even disreputable. For, being myself guilty of 
this fault (to use no harsher term), I have sufiered 
much inconvenience and discomfort during my stay 
la this country, and endured many reproaches. 
During my former visit to Egypt, having occasion to 
itmove from a house ivhich I had occupied for some 
mohths in a great thorough tare-street in Cairo, I en- 
^ged another house, in a neighbouring quarter : the 
Ui^was wrillen, and some money paid in advance ; 
'bat,a day or two after, the agent of (he owrrer came 
to inform mc that the inhabitants of the quar(er, 
who ivere mostly nkeretifi (or descendants of the 
Prophet), objected to my living among them, because 
I was not married. He added, however, that they 
would gladly admit me if I would even purchase a 
female slave, which would exempt me from llie oppro- 
brium cast upon me by the want of a wife, I replied, 
that, being merely a sojourner in Eaypt, I did not like 
either to take a wife or female slave, -w^iomY twiBi'*. 





soon abandon: the money that I had paid was, 
fore, teturoed lo me. In another quurter I fl 
unfortunate ; such heavy objections on accooHl 
being unmarried were not raided : 1 was only requin 
to promise that no peranns wearing hats should COQ 
into the quarter to viail me ; yet, afler 1 had establisbl 
myseli' in my new residence, the sheykb (or chid 
of the quarter oilen endeavoured to persuade me I 
marry. All my aro;umeiits against doing so iT* 
deemed of no weight. "You tell me," saJdhp, "" 
in a\ear or two )0U mean (o leave this counfr 
now, there is a young widow, who, I am loMyi 
handsome, living within a few doors of you, who# 
be glad Id become your wife, even wtlli the «tpn 
understanding that you shall divorce her when f 
quit this place; though, of course, you may de ( 
before, if she should not please you." This ] 
damsel had several times contrived to let me 
ft glimpse of a pretty face, ua I passed the hoiiae I 
Which she and her parents lived. What answer cod 
r return ? 1 replied, that 1 had actually, by acciden 
fl«n her face, and that she was the last vroman< 
should wish to marry, under such clrcuinsbmces ; 
T was sure that I could never make up my mind U 
part with her. But I found it rather diflicull I 
silence my officious friend. — It has been menliou) 
before, in the Introduction, that an unmarried met 
or one who lias nut a female slave, is usually obligai 
to dwell in a weka'leh, unless he have some ne'" 
illation with whom to reside; hut that Franks a 
now exempted from this restriction. 

The Egyptian females arrive at puberty muck 
earlier than the natives of colder chmatea, Mmf 
marry at the age of twelve or thirteen years; an 
fume remarkably precocious girls are married at tll( 
age of (ett*: but such occurrences are not comnxMk 
• JTiey am often betrothed two m lhf» « mora jem larUM 

lit t« 


unmarried n&et sixleen years of age. 
Egyptian girl at Die ug« of thirtetin, or even 
earlier, may be a inolLer. The women of Egypt are 
generally very prolific; but females of other coiintnes 
Kesiding here are often childless; and the ctiililren of 
fofeigners, bom in Egypt, aeldoin live to a mature 
age, even when the mother in a natiie. It was on 
this Bcconnt that the emancipated MeraWks (or 
Military sliLves) usually adopted MemWks. 

it IE very common among the Arabs of Egypt and 
(rf' other countries, but less so in Cairo than in otbet 
parts of Egypt, for n man to marry his first cousin. 
In this case, the husband and wile coutiuue to cnu 
ea^ other " eousiik'' ; becuase the tie of blood is in> 
diSBoluble, but that of malrimony very precarious. 
A UBion of this kind is generally lasting, on aewiunt 
of this tie of blood ; and because mutual intercourse 
may have formed an attachment between the parties 
iot^iderage; though, if tliiv be of the higher or 
middle classes, the young man is seldom allowed to 
BM the face of his female cousin, or even to meet and 
Caaverae with lier, after she has arrived at or near the 
age of puberty, uuUI she has become his wife. 

Marriages in Cairo are generally conducted, in the 
case of* virgin, in the following manner ; but in that 
ii^ B widow, or a divorced woman, with little cere- 
nouy. Most commonly, the mother, or some other 
near female relation, of the yuutti or man who is 
desiroua of obtaining a wife describes to him the 
personal and otliec qualilicatioDs of the young women 
with whom she is acquainled, and directs his choice' : 
or he employs a kha't'beh, or kha'tibch; a woman 
wboae regular business is to assist men in such cases, 

* ALiahum'B acniliag a iucSBen);Er lu his ovn countiy to 
*&'a wife for his »™ Ibmc (see Gene sib, luiv,) was jnatBUch 
4^' ViMUvnt us moit madeio Arabs would adojil umlsr liinilar 
"*"■—' if Easily piaeticKble. 


Boon abandon : ihe money that I had paid w 
fore, returned lo me. In another quurter I was h 
unfortunate ; such heavy objections on acconnt of n 
being unmarried were not raised : I was only requirt 
to promise that no persons wearing hats should con 
into the quarter to visit me ; yet, after I hud establistn 
myself in my new residence, the sheykh (or chie 
of the quarter oflen endeavoured to persuade me' 
marry. All my arguments against doing' so 4 
deemed of no weight. " You tell me," said he, " th 
in a \car or two }ou mean to leave this cottntf], 
now, there is a young widow, who, I am toldv* 
handsome, living within a few doors of you, who "» 
be glad to become your wife, even with the expn 
understanding that you shall divorce her when jl 
quit tliis plate; though, of eotirse, you maj ds I 
bnfure, if slie should not please you." This ) ' 
damsel had several times contrived to let mt 
a glimpse of a pretty face, as I passed the b 
which she and her parents lived. What answf 
I return ? I replied, Ihat I had aciuaJly, by acctdeil 
seen ber face, and that she was the last woman' 
should wish to marry, under such circumstances! 
1 was sure that I could never maVe up my mind tl 
patt with her. But I found it rather difficult M 
silence thy officious friend. — It has been mention*! 
before, in the Introduction, that an unmarried mal 
or one who has nota female slave, is usually obli^ 
to dwell in a weka'leh, unlesB he have some ned" 
relation with whom to refiidc; but that Franks U 
no* exempted fVom this restriction. i 

The Egyptian females arrive at puberty mu<A 
eatlier limn the natives of colder chmatcs. M 
marry at the age of twelve or thirteen years; 
tome remarkably precocious girls are married at tb^ 
hge of ten * : but such occurrences are not comauub 
* The f are alien betrothed two at three (ninDreyean«>rliM 

UARRIAGt. 216 

ntnain unmarried ai'tct sixteen years of age, 
An Egyptiun girl at tlie age of ttiiiteeii, or even 
enrlicr, may be a molher. The women oi' Egypt ore 
generally very prnlilic; but females of other coiintrie; 
reaidiiig liere are often childless; ami the children of 
foreigners, bom in Egypt, seldom live tu a mature 
age, even when the mother is a native. It was on 
thin BcooiiDt that the emancipated Memluo'ks (or 
military slaves) usually adopted Mcmloo'ks. 

It is very common among the Arabs of Egypt and 
of ether countries, but less so in Cairo than in other 
parts of Egypt, for a man to marry his first cou^, 
Id this case, the husband and nife continue to call 
eadi other " cousin" ; because the tie of blood is in- 
disBoluble, but that of matrimony very precarious, 
A uaion of this kind u g'eiierally lasting, on account 
of this lie of blood ; and because mutual inCercourBS 
may have formed an attaclimeut between the partiea 
inteoderage; though, if Iht.) he of the higher or 
middle classes, the young mau is seldom allowed to 
Me the face of his female couaiu, or even to meet and 
coaverse with her, afler she has arrived at or near the 
age of puberty, until she has become his wife. 

Marriages in Cairo are generally conducted, in the 
ease of« virgin, in tlie following manner; but in that 
of s widow, or a divon^ed woman, with little cere- 
Sumy. Most commonly, the mother, or some other 
bear female relation, uf the youth or man who is 
desirous of obtaining a wife describes to him the 
peraotial and other qualifications of the young women 
with whom she is acquainted, and directs his choice* : 
m he employs a kha't^beh, or kha'tibek; a woman 
vAoae regular business is to assist men in such cases, 

* Abraham's stnding a inesneiiijer tu his own eoiurtiyls 
welc a irifii fur his sun I«bbc (a«e GetiesiE,ixir.} waBJuitiuell 
,4!'nu««ira aa moit modern Arabs would adopt under (imilar 
JIMUlB(tHMe*t if easily pcacticable. 

Sooteliiiies t«o ov more women of this profession 
are empluyed. A kho't'beh gives her report confi- 
dentially, describing one girl as being like a gazelle, 
preLty and cleganl and yuuiig ; aud anuthet, as oot 
pretty, but rich, and so Ibrth. If the man have a 
inolher and olher near female relations, two or three 
of these usually go with a kha't'beh to pay visits to 
several hharee'nis, to which she has access in her 
profeKsional character of a match-maker ; for she is 
employed as much by the women as by the men, 
She s(Hnetimes also exercises the trade of a delldleh 
(or broker) for the t^ale of ornaments, clothing, &i:.| 
which procures her admission into almost every Uia- 
ree'm. The women who accompany her in searda 
of a wife for tbeir relation are introduced to the dif' 
ierent hharee'ms merely as ordinary visil«cs; and its 
such, if disappointed, they soon take their leave, 
though the object of their visit is of course understooil 
by the othtr party : but, if they find among the femBles 
of a family (and they are sure to see all who are 
marriageable) a gir! or young woman having the 
necessary personal qualifications, they slate the mo- 
tive of their visit, and ask, if the proposed match 
be net at once disapproved of, what properly, orn^ 
ments, &c., the object of their uristies may possess. 
If the father of the intended bride be dead, she maf 
perhttps possess one or more liouses, shops, &c. ; and 
in almost every case a marriageable girl of the mid- 
dle or higher ranks has a set of ornaments of gaU 
and jewels. The women-visiters, luiving asked then, 
and other questions, bring their report to the expects 
ant youth or man. Jf satisfied with their report, hi 
gives a present to the kha't'beh, and sends her again 
to the family of bis intended wife, to make known ta 
them his wishes. She generally gives an esagf^rated 
description of his personal attractions, wealth, SXt, 
For inslance, she will sa.y, of a very ordinary young 


of scarcely any property, aud of whose dispo- 
sition she knows aoUuni;, " My daug'hter, the youth 
who wishes to msrTy vou is yoiin^, gruceful, cWgant, 
beardless, has plenty of money, dresses handso nely, 
is fond of delicacies, but cuiinot enjoy his luxuries 
ilone ; he wants yoii as bis companion ; he will give 
you everything' that money can procure; he is » 
stayer-at-home, and will spend his whole time w'th 
you, caressing and fondling you." 

The parents may betroth their daughter to whom 
they please, and marry her to him without her con- 
sent, if she be not arrived ot the »ge of puberty; but, 
after she has attained that u^e, she may choose a 
husband for herself, and appoint any man to ammge 
and effect her marriage. In the former case, however, 
the khat'beh and the relations of a girl sought in 
marriage usually endeiivour to obtiiin her consent to 
the proposed union. Very often, a father objects to 
^ving a daughter in marriage to a man who ia not 
of the same profession or trade us himself; and to 
marrying a younger daughter before an elder*. 
The bridegroom can scarcely ever obtain even a 
Smreptitious glance at the features of his bride, until 
he finds her In his absolute possession, unless she 
belong to the lower classes of society ; in which case, 
it is easy enough for tiim to see her face. 

W)ien a female is about to marry, she should have 
a Weke^l (or deputy) to settle the compact, and con- 
dude the conli'act, for her, with her proposed hus- 
band. K she be under the age of puberty, this is 
absolutely necessary ; and in this case, her fattier, if 
liriag, or (if he be dead) her pulemul grandfather, 
or a guardian appointed by will, or by the Cka'dee, 
performs the oflicc uf wekee'i: but, if she be of age, 
febe appoints her own wekee'i, or may even make 
Ike contract herself ; though this is seldom done. 
-, * See Genesis, xhIk. '2i&. 

SoBKtwies two m move woioen of this 
are employed. A kiiti't'lieh gives her report t.'oafi- 
dentjally, describing oae girl us being like a gazelle, 
pretty and elegant and young ; and anulher, as not 
pretl]r, but rich, mid so forth. If the man have a 
mother and other near female relations, two or three 
of these usually go wiLh a kba't'beh to pay visits lo 
several hhaiee'nis, to which she has access in her 
professional character of a match-maker ; for she is 
«mpbyed as much by the women as by thi: men. 
She sometimes also exercises the trade of a delldleh 
(or broker) lor the sale of ornaments, clothing, &c., 
which protures her admission into almost every hha- 
ree'm. The women who accompany her in wardi 
of a wife for their relation are introduced to the dif- 
ferent hhuree'ius merely as ordinary ^lsite^s; and as 
such, if disappointed, they soon take their leave, 
though the object ot their visit is of course understood 
by the other party : but, ifthey findumongthefemBleB 
of B family (and they are sure to see all who ni« 
murriageable) a girl or young woman having the 
necessary personal qualifications, lliey state the mo- 
tive of their visit, and ask, if the proposed matcb 
be not at once disapproved of, what property, orna- 
ments, &c,, the object of their wishes may pussesi.- 
If the father of the intended bride be dead, she m^ 
perhaps jKissess one or more houses, shops, &c. ; and 
in almost every case a marriageable girl of the mid- 
dle OT higher ranks has a set of ornaments of gM 
and jewels. The women-visiters, iLaving asked thew 
and other questions, bring their report to the expect- 
ant youth or man. If salis6ed with their report, he 
gives n present to the kha't^h, and sends her again 
to the family of his intended wife, to make known la 
them his wishes. She generally gives an exaj^geraUd 
description of his personal attractions, we^th, &c. 
For instance, she will say, of a very ordinary young 


man, of scarcely any property, aud of' whose difipo- 
sition she knows ooUiini;, " My daughter, the youlh 
who wishes to marry you is young, graceful, ekj^t, 
beardless, hits plenty of money, dresses haodsonely, 
.is fond of delicacies, but cannot enjoy his luxuries 
■lone ; he wants you an his companion ; he will give 
you everything that money can procure ; he ii & 
Blayer'al-homc, and will spend his whole time w'lh 
you, caressing and fondling you." 

The parents may betroth their daughter to whom 
they please, and marry her to liim without her con- 
sent, if she be not arrived at the age of puberty ; but, 
afl«r she tuts attained that age, she may choose a 
husbaud for hei^eif, and appoint any man to arrange 
and elFect her marrjau^. In the former case, however, 
the khat'beh and Uie relations of a girl sought in 
marriage usually endeavour to obtain her consent to 
the proposed union. Very often, a father objects lo 
living a daughter in marriage to a man who is not 
Df the same profession or trade as himself; and to 
marrying a younger daughter before an elder*. 
Tbs bridegroom can scarcely ever obtain even a 
Atneplitious glance at the features of his bride, until 
he finds her in his absolute possession, unless she 
bdong to the lower classes of society ; in which case, 
it is easy enough for him to see her face. 

Wbcn a female is about (o marry, she should have 
a weke^i (or deputy) to settle the compact, sud con- 
clude the contract, for her, with her proposed hus- 
band. If she be under tiie age of puberty, this is 
absolutely necessary ; and in this 'case, her father, if 
Lviag, or (if he be dead) her paternal grandfather, 
tK • guardian appointed by will, or by the Cka'dee, 
performs the office of weUee'l; but, if she be of age, 
Abe appoints her own wekee'l, or may even make 
Ifae contract herself ; though this is seldom done. 

i^ ' ' ' Set! GtUlifKli, 1UU& 'ZQ, 

■WL, I. O 



i two or more women of this 
sre employed. A kha't'beli g-ives her report 
deutiaJly, describino; one girl as bcin^ like a gaoail 
|n%lty and ckguiit und young ; and anuther, aa d 
pretty, but rich, aud no fortli. If the man hare 
mother and olher near female relatiouB, two ot tkf 
of these usually go with a kha't'beh to pay visitB> 
several bharec/ms, tu wbich she has access in;! 
professional character of a match-maker ; for sbH 
employed aa much Ly the women as by the M 
Sh« sometimes itlao exercises the trade of a dettiU 
(or broker) for the eale of ornaments, dothingi Si 
whk'h procures her admission into almost evNyll| 
ree'm. The women who accompany her in wti 
of a wife for their relation are introduced to ther^ 
ferent liharee'ms merely us ordinary visilers; audi 
such, if disappointed, they soon take their laC 
though the object of their visit is of course underste 
by the other party ; but, if they find among the fetai 
of a family (and they are sure to see all who i 
marriageable) a girl or young woman having t 
necessary personal qualifications, lliey state the in 
tive of their visit, and ask, if the proposed mat 
be not at once disapproved of, what property, orfl 
infnts, &c., the object of (heir wishes may poG 
If the father of the intended bride be dead, she 
perhaps possess one or more houses, shops, &c. ; ui 
in almost every case a marriageable girl of the nii 
die or higher ranks has a set of ornaments of gi 
atid jewels. The women-visiters, having asked till 
and other queelioiis, bring their report to the expei 
wit youth or man. If salisiied with their report,'! 
gives a present to the kha't'beh, and sends her agi 
tu the family of his intended wife, to make known 
tlumhis wishes. She generally gives an exaggerab 
de^criplion of his personal attractions, wealth, & 
For iuslanee, she will saj, of a very ordinary joui 

tilmtbe knmi* weaiiMg, ' My itutbiM, tW jMk 
wkn widbrs to m«*7 **»>> "^ ' * " 

^ food of JLhrwHr*. ImI < 
akNw i be vnutta Tcw •* ^ 
jn nenrllua^ dial «nw.*y nn 
Mvw-at-ixMDe, wkI will ipriid U* wbofa Uh 

Hw psreitK Bi»y batrotk tbrir lUuftitcr to wlwm 
KJ pleaM, wmI BIUT7 b«r Ui lum wiUwwi her cum- 
pi, if ^te be not wriinl bI tbt xgc of pulwrtjr ; biH, 
ier ^e bw >luua«<I ibal aur, •hi ■■>]! ilmti » 
abnod for bcraelf, mmI afipoiM any nuw lo wtanfv 
id effect her uiimiagc. In Uwftinn«rcM», brawvar, 
t khnl'bcli ami the relMlions oT • prt aouflM ia 
u-ually imdeatuur lu obtain Iter amwut (a 
: pioposrti union. Very ofl«D. a fallicr ubictis U> 
\ittf; B (iMiffbtcr in in«ria|(t to n man wba it not 
the sottie prcifrsaun ur lrtul« a* kiniM'lf i and lo 
atjiag a Toangcr daiit^hler bvrure an «ld«r*- 
B bri<t«gnjuai tarn aoircely «vtir obtain cicn a 
nrpthioaa ghu»ce at tlic fcatarcs of bis briiU, until 
• finds her in his abNiluto pO(U«aaion, unleM ahe 
the lower cUvucsof nociel)' ; in which caM, 
ikk ns; enough for him lii imt her face. 

When a female is abuut tu malty, she ahouM tukVd 
fe Vtke^/ <or de]iuty) (o tiettk- the ciinipBCl, and cod- 
cUr the conlntcl. for her, witli lier jinipnM-d htu- 
ktod. If she it uinler Ibe agv ol' pubi-rly, tbji {i 
abnkteij neiHMry ; und in thin 'vaiie, her father, if 
Atiag, at (if he be dead} ber pulemal grundfniber. 
gturdinn appointed tiy will, or by Iht- Cka'dC* 
vms the oJlioe nf uohve'l; but, ifshe be of o^' 
■l^mnia live own wetce'l, or may even to^"* 
herseli' ; ibougli this is seMom dune< ' 
■ see 6^ac>», xxh, 'JS. 



Aflr a youth or man has made choice of u female 
to demand in marriage, on the wport of his female 
relalruns, or that of the kha'rbeh, and, by proxy, 
madf llie preliminary arrange in ents before describm 
with her and her relations in the hharee' rep«( 
with two or three ol'his friends to her wekee't. H^ 
ing obtained the we kee'l's consent to the union, if ft. 
intended bride be under age, he asks what Li tat 
aruount of the required nwftr (or dowry). 

The giving ttf a dowry is indispensable, as I have 
mentinned in a fbrmer chapter. It is generally ealcu- 
lated in riyifu, of ninety fud'dahs (now equivalent 
to five pence and two fifths) each. Tlie riya'i is an 
imaginary money; not a coin. Hie usual amount 
of the dowry, if the parties be in possession of a 
moderately good income, is about a thousand riyals 
(or twenty-lwo pounds ten shillings); or, sometimes, 
not more than half that sum. The wealthy calculate 
the dowry in purses, of five hundred piaiters (or, now, 
five pounds sterling) each ; and fix its amount at ten 
purses, or more. It must be borne in mind that we 
are considering the case of a virgin-bride ; the dowry 
of a widow or a divorced woman is much less. In 
settling the amount of the dowry, as in other pecuniary 
transnclions, a little haggling frequently takes place: 
if a thousand riya'ls be dem'andedthroughthe wekee'l, 
the party of the intended bridegroom will probably 
make an offer of six hundred: the former party then 
gTBdiiDlly lowering the demand, and the other iu- 
creafilug the olfei, they at lengtLi agree to fix it at 
eight hundred. It is generally stipulated that two- 
thirds of the dowry shall be paid immediately before 
the marriage-contract is made ; and the remaining 
ttiird held in reserve, to be paid to the wife in ease 
of divorcing her against her own consent, c 
of the husband's death. 

This affair being settled, and coutirmed by all n 

Etms present reciting the opening cliapter of tlif 
OkooT-a'n (ihe Fa'l'lih&h), un eiirly day (perlmps 
tht" ilnv next (cillowiiijr) is ajipiiiulcd for piiyiiig ihe 
money, nntl ]*rrornung the ceremony of the marriuge- 
coniract, which is properly called 'ackd cn-nika'hA*. 
The making this cfitiimct is comniouly called kf(b 
el-kitc^b (or the writing of the writ) ; but It is very 
seldom the ease that any document is written to con- 
firm the marriage, unless Ihe bridcffroom is about to 
travel to another place, and fears that he may Iww 
oecasioii tu prove his marriage where witnesses of the 
contract cannot he procured. Sometimes the marriuge- 
■contract is concluded immediately after the arroiiOG- 
ihent respecting the dowry, but more generally a Jay 
or two alter. On the day appointed for this cere- 
mony, the brid^room, again accompanieil by two or 
three of his friends, g;oes to Ihe house of the bride, 
uBtlBlly about noon, taking with him that portion 
of the dowry which he has promised to pay on tbis 
otCadon. He and his companions are received by 
the bride's weiiee'I; and two or more friends of tiie 
latter are usually present. It is necessary that there 
be two witnesses (and those must be Moos'lims) lo 
tlie lb arri age-con tract, unless in a aituutiou where 
wTlneases cannot be procured. All persons preMiut 
recite the Fn'i'hhah ; and the bridejjruom then pajs 
the money. After this, tlui marriage- contract is 
performed. It is very simple. Tbe bridegroom and 
the hride'a weiiee'I sit upon the ground, face to face, 
With one knee upon the ground, and grasp each 
other's right liand, raising the thumbs, and pressing 
them against each other. A fick'eet is generally 

* it ia B common belief in Egypt, thut, if aoy one laiike ■ 
maniage-camiact iu tbe mautli vi &lo1ihai'r&in, tbv tnarriuge 
«&1 be unhappy, auil bouh cliaaolvi^il; whifiefuie, few pacsous 

4 tira appellation is commonly giveu to a Bchoolni aster. 
a 9 



AftT & yuuth or man has mode choice of a female 
to demand in mftiriage, on the report of his femalq 
relatJitns, or that of the kha't'beh, and, by prosy, 
Dtddf the preliminary arrungements before deBcribej 
nith her and her relations in the hharee'm, be repairs 
witbtwo or three of his friends to her wekee'l. Hav» 
ing obtained the wekee'l'e cotiseat to the union, if th^ 
intiinded bride be under age, he aslts what in t% 
amount of the required »mhr (or dowry). ,t 

The giving of a dowry is indispensable, aa f imff' 
mentioned in a former chapter. It is generally Golcitn 
loted in riyjls, of ninety fud'dahs (now equivolei^^ 
to five pence and two fiflhs) each. Tiie riya'i is a1^' 
imaginary money j not a coin. The usual amount 
of the dowry, if the parties be in possession of ^ 
mbderately good income, is about a thousand riya'll 
(br twenty-two pounds ten shillings); or, .sometime! 
not more than half that sum. Tiie wealthy caloul^ij 
the dowry in purses, of five hundred piasters (or, noi^ 
Ave pounds sterling) each ; and f\x Us amount ul t^^ 
purses, or more. It nmst be borne in mind that ff 
are considerfug the case nf a virgin-bride ; the dovn 
of a widow or a divorced woman is much less. I 
sattlingtheamountof the dowry, as in other pecuniar 
transactions, a little haggling frequently takes pWeT 
ifathousandrlya'iabe demanded through the wekee'C 
Uie party of the intended bridegroom will probabis 
make an offer of six hundred : the former party thei^ 
gradually lowering the demand, and the other i^ 
creasing the offei, they at length agree to fix it d 
eight hundred. It is generally stipulated that twih 
thirds of the dowry ahijl be paid immediately befo^ 
the marriage-contract is made ; and the remaininf 
third held in reserve, to be paid to the wife in eaft^^ 
of divorcing her against her own consent, or itt ^^ 
of the husband's death. ^ 

Th^ affair being eettled, and conlirmed by ell. j^e;^ 

sons prestnt retiliiig the opening chapter of thi 
Ckoot^a'n (the FaVhtmh), an surly day (pvrhnps 
the day next following) is appoinletl for payiiifj ihe 
money, and performiiig the ceremony of themarriiiife- 
ftJtlttBct, which Is properly called 'ackd cn-nika'/tA*, 
'rbx muking this contract is commonly caHeH tctb 
rt'kita'b (or the wxiUn^ of the writ) ; but it is vwy 
seldom the case that miy docnmeut n written to cou- 
firm the marria^, unless the bridcfrroom is about to 
tra\el to another place, nnd fears that he may have 
DticBBiou to prove hi>t marriage where witnesses of the 
dtmlract cannot be procured. Sometimes the marriage- 
'dontract is concluded immediately at\er the armnge- 
ihenl respecting; the dowry, but more generally u dny . 
iVr two' after. On the day appointed for Uiis cere- 
mony, the bridegroom, again accompanied by two or 
three of his friends, goes to the liouae of the bride, 
usudly about noun, takiug with him that portion 
of the dowry which he has promised to pay on this 
oCbasion. He and his companions are received by 
the bride's wekee'1 ; and two or more frieiKU of the 
latter are usually present. It is necessary that there 
be' two witnesses (and those must be MoDs'lims) to 
the Dlarfiage-conlract, unless in a situutioo whero 
nilnesses cannot be procured. All persons present 
redte the Fa'l'hhah ; and the briilegruom then pays 
the money. After ttiis, the marriage -con tract is 
p^rfonned. It is very simple. The bridegroom and 
tilt bride's wekee'l sit ui>oii the ground, face to face, 
With One knee upon the ground,' and gruBp eucli 
other's right hand, raiainij tlie thumbs, and pressing 
them ttgtdust each other. A fick'eef is generally 

■• It in 

B coTnmDn belisf ill Egyp!. that, 

f any one make S 

inliatt in Ihc mouth W Mohhaj 

ram, thu mnrriuge 

happy, and soon dissolved ; whe 

trore, fe» iieinjut 



Aft^r a youth or man has made choice 
to deiiiand In tnurriage, on the report of his femalq 
relatk-nfi, at that of the kha't'beh, and, hy prosy, 
madf the prehminary arrangemenls before describe^ 
with her and her rfelations in the hharee'm.he repajin 
with two or three of his friends to her wekee'l. HaV- 
thg obtained the nekee'l's consent to the union, if th^ 
ilH^'nded bride be under age, lie asks what is th^ 
amount of the required mahr (or dowry). ,i 

The giving of a dowry is indispensable, as I h&T§ 
mentioned in a former chapter. It is generally caicu,-; 
lated in riy(/ls, of ninety (ud'dahs (now equivalei^' 
to five pence and two fifths) each. Tiie riyal is at^ 
imaginary money; not & coin. The usual umoUii|' 
of the dowry, if the parties be in possession of (. 
moderately good income, is about a thousand Hyals. 
(hr twenty-two pounds ten shillings); or, sometimei| 
ndt more tlian half that sum. The wealth; calcul^tl 
the dowry in purses, of five hundred piasters (or, nofT 
flVe pounds sterling) each ; and t^x ils amount at tei 
puTS^, or hiore. It must be home in mind th^ yf 
are considering the case of a vii^in-bride; the dowr 
of a widow or a divorced woman is much less. L 
B^tUingtbe amount of the dowry, as in other pecuniae 
transactiotis, a little haggling frequently takes place 
if a thottsand rlja'ls be demanded through the wekee^ 
the party of the intended bridegroom will probablj 
maJce an offer of six hundred : tlie former partf tl^e^ 
gt&dually towering the demand, and the other ii), 
creasing the offei, they at length iigree to fix it q 
eight hundred. It is generally stipulated that tw^ 
thirds of the dowry ahdl be paid immediately befoq^ 
the marriage -eon tract is made ; and the remaini 
lliird held in reserve, to be paid to the wife in c ^^ 
of divorcing her against her own consent, or in ca^ 
of the husband's death. "J 

This alfair being selded, aud confunted by all pe)>-' 



TOiW' firestnt reeiling the opening chapter of Ult, 
Ckoor-s'u (the Fa'fhiiah), an eurly day (|^)erh«[w 
the dny next rotlowiiig) ie aiipoiiited fur piiyiiig llie 
money, and perfoimiiig the ceremony of the marriuge- 
coniratt, wliicli is properly called 'atkd fn-nika'hh'. 
The making tliis contract is cominouly called kelb 
et-kilafb (or the wilting ol' the writ) ; but It is \efy 
seldom the cnse that aiiy document is written to eou- 
firm the marriage, uuless the bridegroom ia about to 
travel to another place, and fearx that he may havf 
oeeasion to prove his n^rriage where witnesses of the 
ctmtract cannot he procured. Sometimes the marriu^- 
■ccAitract is concluded immediately after the ominKe- 
ment respecting the dowry, but more generally a day 
ftr two afler. On the day appointed for this cere- 
mony, the bridegroom, again accompanied by two or 
three of his friends, goes to the house ol' the bride, 
usually about noon, lakiug with him that portion 
of the dowry wluch he has promised to pay on this 
occasion. He and his companionn are received by 
tfie bride's wekee'l ; and two or more friends of tlie 
latter are usu nil y present. It is necessary that there 
be two witnesses (and those must be Moos'lims) to 
the liiarriage-contracl, unless in a situation where 
witnesses cannot be procured. All persons present 
recife the Fa't'hhah; and the bridegvuom then paya 
tfie money. Afler lliis, the marriage -con tract is 
pertbnned. It is very simple. The bridegroom aad 
tht bride's wekeeT ait upon the ground, face to face, 
with one knee upon the ground," and grasp each 
olh^r^s right hand, raising tltc thumbs, and pressing 
Ih^Di against each, other. A flck'eet is generally 

belief in Egypt, thnt, it aaj one make ii 
tlw maiith lit Mohhu'rain, Iha marriilge 
i soon dissulveil : wheietDrei few parsmii 



After a youtli or man has made choice of a femalt 
to dehiand in miirriage, on the report of his femalt) 
relalicflS, or that of the kha't'beh, and, by prosy, 
maiif the preliminary arrangements before described 
with her and her relations in the hharee'in, he repairj 
witbtno or three of his friends to her wekee'l, HaVf 
itig obtained the WeVee'l's consent to the union, if th^ 
mi^nd^d bride be under age, he asks what iti thfi 
amount of the required mcSr (or dowry). ,[ 

The giving of a dowry Is indispensable, as I hxvff 
mentioned in a former chapter. It is generally catok 
iftted in riydls, of ninety (ud'dahs (now cquivalei:^' 
to five pence and two fifths) each, The riyal is aft 
imaginary moneys not a coin. The usual amoun^' 
of the dowry, if the parties be in possession of ^^; 
moderately good income, is aboul a thousand riya'lt 
(6r twenty-two pounds ten shillings); or, sometimeGi 
not more than half that sum. Tlie wealthy eakulatj 
the dowry in purses, of five hundred piasters (or, now^ 
flte pounds sterling) each ; and fix Its amount at te^ 
purses, or more. It must be borne in mind thai n ' 
are considering the case of a virgin-bride ; the dowi,^, 
ofs widow or a divorced woman is much less, tq 
BBtUing the amount of the dowry, us ! n otiier pecuni ^ 
ti^nsactions, a little hailing frequently takes plaeeT 
ifa thousand riya'ls be demandedtbroi^h tlienekee^L 
the pafty of the intended bridegroom will probablji 
make an offer of six hundred : the former party theq 
gradually lowering the demand, and the other 
creasing the ofiei, they at length agree to iix i 
eight hundred. It is generally stipulated that t 
thirds of the dowry ehSl be paid imniediately befoq 
^e marriage -con tract is made ; and the remainioj 
third held in reserve, to be paid to the wife in iaSu^ 
of divorcing her against her own consent, or in Ct^ 
of the husband's death. ' 

This affair being settled, and C| 

arty theq 
other ii^ 
o iix it % 

vOTii present rtdlting the opening chapter or tlit 
dtoor-a'n (the Fa't'hhali), an early i!ay (j)crliapB 
the (Iny next following) h njipuinte*! for p^iying ihe 
money, ond)>erfomii!ig the cereinniiy of IhemuiTiuge- 
Mrttract, which is properly called 'tickd rit-nika'/iA*. 
'We inakinir this contract is cornmonly called kHl> 
et-kita'b (or the wrUing of the writ) ; but ll is very 
seldom the case that any document it written to con- 
firm Ihe marriage, unless the bridegroom is about to 
travel to another place, nnd fears that he may tiave 
occasion to prove his marriage where witnesses of the 
contl*:t cannot he procured. Sometimes the marriage- 
'Contract is concluded immediately alter Ihe anunge- 
ment respecting the dowry, but more generally a day 
or two aller. On the tby appointed for this cere- 
mony, the bridegroom, again accompanied by two or 
three of his friends, goes to the house of the bride, 
udaDlly about noon, taking with him that portion 
of (he dowry which he has promised to pa; on tUis 
occasion. lie and his companions are received h}' 
the bride's ivekee'li and two or more friends of llie 
latter are usually present. It is necessary that there 
be two witnesses (and those Must be Moos'Umij) lo 
tbe marriag'e-cnntract, unless in a situutioii where 
vitneBses cannot be procured. All persons present 
rvcite the Fa't'ittiah; and the bridegroom then pn<^s. 
the money. After this, the marriage -contract is 
Iftrfonhed. It is very simple. Tbe bridegroom aud 
the bride's wekee'l sit upon the ground, face til fate, 
^Ih one knee npon the ground,' and grasp each 
other's right hand, raising the thumbs, and presslnjj^ 
them against eacli other. A flck'eef is generally 

* It ii acgmmon 1)i:liefia Egypt, that, if an; one miik« N 
iaanUg;iM;oo1ciu:t in the month ut Mohhac'rom, tha morriiigc 
will be unhappy, itiiil wjon lUaiolvcit : wheteroro, Ceii \GnwycA 


employed to instruct them what they are Id s&y- 
Having placed a hiindkerchief over their juined hands, 
he usually prefaces the words of tlie contract with a 
khoot'bekt consisting of a few wordB of exhortatiou and 
prayer, with quotations from the Ckoora'nand Tradj- 
tion^t oa the eicceltency and advantages of marriage. 
He then desires the bride's wekee*! to say " I betrotlt 
[or marry] to thee my daughter [or the female, who 
has appointed me her wekec'l], such a one [naming 
the bride], the virgin* [or the adult virgin], for a 
dowry of such an amount." (The wurda " for, a 
dowry," &c., are sometimes omitted.) The bride's 
vrekee'l having said this, the bridegroom, prompted. in 
the same manner by the tick'ee, says " I accept from 
thee her betrothal [or marriage] to myself, and take 
her under my care, and bind myself to alTord ber my 
protection ; and ye who are present bear witness iif 
this." The wekee'l addresses the bridegroom in the 
same manner a second and a third time ; and each 
time, the latter replies as before. They then gene- 
rally add, " And blessing be on the Apostles, luid 
praise he to God, the Lord of all creatures, amen :" 
aftet which, all present again repeat the Fii,'t'hb*b. 
It is not always the same form of Mooi'fieA thjit is 
recited on these occasions: any form maybe uged; 
and it may be repeated by any person : it is not even 
necessary, and is ollen altogether omitted., .fhe 
contract concluded, the bridegroom sometimes, (jbot 
seldom unless he be a person of the lower orders) 
lisses the hands of his iriends and othera tlisre .pre- 
sent; and ihey then remain to dinner. £aCll of 
them receives un embroidered handkerchief^ prtrw^ed 
by the family of the bride ; excepting the fick'ee, who 
teodves a similar handkerchief, with a small gold 
coin tied up in it, from the bridegroom. Before^ the 
* If thcbiiile be not a viigio, a *ord importing. JfcH ii 


persons sssembled on this occasion disperse, they 
aellle when the " le/let ed dookh'Ieh" is to be : this 
is the night when die briile is brouglit la the house 
of the bridegroom, and the Icitter, fur the first lime, 
visits her.* 

In general, llie bridegroom wuits for his bride 
about ei^t or ten days atier the conclusion of tile 
contract. Meanwhile, he seiuls to her, two or three 
<ir more timei., some fruit, aweetmcttls, &c. ; und per- 
haps QiakeB hec a present of a shawi, or aoDie other 
article of value. The bride's family are nt the same 
time occupied in preparing' fur her a stock of house- 
' hold furDiture (as deewa^ns, malting, carpets, bed- 
ding, kitfhen-uteusils, &c.) and dress. The portion 
' of the dowry which has been paid by the bridegroom, 
' and generally a much I'lU-ger sum (the additional 
money, which is often mure than the dowry itself, 
Beiug supplied by the bride's family), is expended in 
pitrehasing the articles of furniture, dress, and oma- 
ments, for the bride. These articles, which are called 
[■jnfto'*, are the property of the bride; and, if she be 
dlvorceil, she takes them away with her. She cannot, 
'tUerefore, with truth be said tabe parckaaed'. Tlie 
*' flirnlnire is sent, commonly borne by a train of 
• 'leamels, to the hridegroom'.s house. Oflen, among 
''■■(he articles of the gaha'z, is a chair for the turban or 
*'''&ead-dreHs (kaor'see d-''emi/meh'), alluded to in a 
■•" termer page. It is of a large size, but slight make ; 
("ttw- bottom and back generally of cane-work; somc- 
""tinws with a canopy. It is never used to sit upon. 
J" The 'turban, when placed upon it, is covered with a 
■"'napkin of thick silk stuff, usually ornamented with 

1,1... • AiaoiiK'he pe»»ants, however, Ihfll'ulhet, or nearest mala 

^fpi»l»*iwftl"'''f"''-'>"'^""^"'"^ dowry, .111.1 gives nolhinK in 

retoro but the aai mnietimei b, littla com, Sc, TTiH 

' Vridtf^aomi in tlui caae, mipjiliei EveijUan^ ^ k^uh >^u^ &t.«sk 

(ir lbs bride. 


^^^Siwally esleemed the more forlonate f '^rjod. Let 
1^ eay, for instance, that the bride is lo L uiiiducled 
to him oil the eve ol' friiliiy. During Iw or tliree or 
more preceding nighls, the slreet ur qua ler in which 
tbe bridegroom lives is illuminated w id chandellere 
and l&nterna, or with lanterns and sma.[ lamps, su^ 
penned from cords drawn across ih>in the biide- 
g^-oom's and several other houses uii e' ch side to the 
houses opposite; and several small sit'i flags, eQch of 
two colours, generull)' red wid green, ure attached to 
other curds *. An entertainment i» also given on 
each of these niittiU, particularly on Ij-it; latl niiihl be- 
fore that on which tlie wedding is roncluded, at the 
bridegroom's house- On these or>-afaons, it is cus- 
tomary' for the persons invited, ai>'l fur all intimate 
friends, fo send presents to his h<'\ise, a day or two 
before the feast which they pur ose or expect to 
attend : they generally send sugar, codec, rice, wai 
candles, or a lamb; the former articles are usually 
placed upon a tray of copper or wood, and covered 
with a silk or embroidered kerchief. The guests are 
enierlained on these occu^iona by musicians and male 
or female singers, by dancing (iris, or by the per- 
formance of a khnllmek or a f- 
Ctita, with Us book befote me, and after guffioiont eipeilence 
and inquiries. 

• The laiilera Imre represEuteil, which is eoosftucted of 
vood, anil pitiated i^ceeu, reil, while, and blue, ia called loorei'aif 
(the Arubic name of the Pleiudes), and, togelher with the 
(cam* above, ftoni which six lamps ace suspended, and wbiiJi 
is Mcmed tAu'lmt Swiijwia'n (or Solomon's seal], compotes 
vhal.ia called a hhm/l ckan'a'dti^l. 

f Thi!sa entertainments 1 do not heie puticulaily deicnb*, 
as it is my inlenlioa to derate the whola of a lubBequetit 
cbE^teTlu tha subject uf private Itistivitiiis. Tho kkal'mk u 
tl;e. leeitatiun of the Ckoni-a'n ; and the sikr, tha repetition of 
the UBme of God, or uf thu prufeuiun of his unity, &c. : I 
■ball havD occaiton to speak of both more fully in aaolhec - 
Ghqitu, on tbe petiodicat public fcstivsli. 




goU llir 



(llW.. , In 

.^i-fcffc or 


.--A) of 

■ Uf 1 , 


■ I i -r u.e 

ereiri^l , 



- ^.-uiilei. 


-.-nl side, 
■■■■■re them 

. >»I IQ parluke of 

-:«-io»i. At every 

r*;ed with a repast, 

r if iheir inlcnded 

1 have sometimes 

■.X druina before 

■ ."t of these inslru- 

^ of joy. called 

r (.'u tlie Saturday 
.^ eve of Monday), 

.;ie later, the tride 


L [>rocession to the 

.. It is headed by 
:'my, or two, and 

-,-ciitly. 83 I have 


. ..^ heard on TBtiout 

-.-t tiisteni counltiei. 


;■, Yuiee, ■ccompanied 

.. .: [irotesBion, snd & 


. p. toilh much later, 
i nid : n».1 lh>. aim 



MARBUCE. ''■*23 

mentioned in a Fonncr chapter, t<ome peraoi) 'ftvaOs 
hjjnself of this opporlunily lo jiarade liis youOgiun 
previoualj to oircumtisiori : ihe child and his uttMid- 
ants, in this case, folbw next after the musicJBtt^, in 
Ihe manner already described. Sometimes, U 'the 
bead of the Lride's party are two men who carfy'tlie 
utensils and tintn used in Ihe, upon two roand 
Irays, each of which is covered with an emlfroi- 
dered or a. plain silk kerchief: also, a sack'cka, who 
gives water to any of the passeii^rs, if asked j «nd 
two other persons, one of whom bears a ckootii'tlieom, 
orhotlle, of plain or g:ilt silver, or of chin3,contAi!t<ing 
rose-water, or orange -flower- water, which he OCca- 
sionally sprinkles on the passen^rers ; and the other, a 
mil/khar ah (or perfuming- vessel) of silver, with sfces- 
wood, or some other odoriferous substance bnrnin^ in 
it : but it is seldom that tbe procession i^ thutf at- 
tended. In ^neral, the first persons ninong the 
bride's piurty are several of her married female dela- 
tions and friends, walking in pairs; and neiH, a 
number of youni^ virgins. The former are drwsed in 
the usual manner, covered with the black silk hliat/- 
arah; the latter have white silk hhat/arahs,orshkwls, 
, Then follows the bride, n-alking under a canopy of 
silk, of some gay colour, as pink, rose'-colrfo?, or 
yellow ; or of two colours, composing wide stHpes, 
often rose-colour and yellow. It is carried by'ibur 
inen, by means of a pole at each cornet, andi^ Open 
only in front ; and at the top of each of the four 
poles is attached an embroidered handkerchief. 
. jbe dreis of the bride, during tliis procesaioii, en- 
tirely conceals her person. Site is generally tM>v£red, 
froifi head to foot, with a red Kashmee'r shawl ; or 
with a white or yellow shawl, though rarely. TTpon 
twr bead is placed :i sniall piistehoard cap, or c^own. 
-.Xhe shawl is plated over lliis, aoA cuac«iA« ^c^a ^2°» 
rietr of the public the richer anit^cs lOt^MM *■ 


her face, and her jewels, &c., excepting pne or tno 
ckaos'salis* (and «>metimeH other omuinents), gene- 
rally of diamonds and emeralds, attached to that port 
of the sfauwl which covers her forehead. She is ac- 
companied by two or three of her female relations 
trithiQ the canopy ; and often, when in hot weather, 
a woman, walking- backwards before her, is constintly 
employed in fanning her, with a lai^e fan of black 
ostrich-feathers, the lower part of the front of which 
is usually ornamented with a piece of looking-glass. 
Sometimes one zef 'feh, with a single canopy, serves 
for two brides, who walk side by side. The proces- 
siou moves very slowly : it is closed by n second 
party of musicians, similar lo the first, or by two or 
three drummers. 

In the bridal processions of the lower orders, which 
are oflen conducted in the anme manner as that above 
described, the women of the parly frequently utter, at 
iutervals, those shrill cries of joy called zugh'a'ree't, 
which I have before had occasion to mention ; and 
female.s of the poorer classes, when merely spectators 
of azeffeh, often do the same. 

The whole bath is sometimes hired for the bride 
and her party exclusively. They pass several hours, 
or seldom less than two, occupied in washing, sport- 
ing, and feasting; and frequently 'jl'/'meAj' (or female 
singers) arc hired to amuse them in the bath: they 
then return in the same order in which they came. 
The expense of the zef'feh falls on the relations of 
the bride ; but the feast is supplied by the bridegroom. 

Having returned from the bath lo the house ofher 
family, the bride and her companions sup together. 
If 'A'l'mehs have contributed to the festivity in the , 
bath, they, also, return with the bride, to renew their 
concert. Their songs are always on the subject of 

• For a ilescriphoaottliesu oroamenU, bbb lie Appendii. 

*•.'. ■ 


,^e, and of ihe joyous event which occusions iheir 
presence. Afler liie compiuiy huvc been thus enter- 
tained, a lar^ qu&iility of lihen'na Ituvlng been |ire- 
pared, mixed into a piiste, the bride takes a lump of 
H in ber hand, and receives contributions (ualied 
noockofff) from her guesU ; cuch of them sticks >t 
coin (uiiually of j^old) in the hheii'nu wliich she holds 
upon her hand; and, when the lump is closely stuck 
^riIh these coins, she scrapes it off' her hand ii|>on the 
edge of a basin of water. Having collected in this 
munner from all her guests, some more hhen'na is 
applied to her hands and feet, which are then bound 
with pieces of linen; and in this slate they remain 
until the next morning, when they are found to be 
fiuiSciently dyed with its deep orange-red tint. Her 
guests make use of the remainder of the dye for their 
own hands. This night is culled Ley'let ei-Hhen'na, 
or " the Night of the Hhen'na," 

It is on this night, and sometimes also during the 
latter half of the preceding day, that the bridegroom 
gives his chief entertainment. Mohhabbazven (or 
low farce-players) often perform on this occasion be- 
fore tike house, or, if it be large enough, in the court. 
The other and more common performances by which 
the guesta are amused have been before mentioned. 

On the following day, the bride goes in procession 
\o the house of the bridegroom. The procession be- 
fore described is called " the zeffeh of the bath, " U> 
distingnisb it froni this, which is the more important, 
iiod which is therefore particularly culled zef'fet el- 
'arodseh, or "the zeffeh of the bride." In some 
cases, to diminish the expenses of die marriage -cere- 
monies, the bride is conducted privately to the bath, 
and only honoured with a zet'feh to the bridegroom's 
house. This procession is exactly similar to the 
former. The bride and her party, after breakfasting 
t<^ttier, generally set out a Ultie attet m\iAB.'j. "S.\wi"j 


love, and of ibe joyous event which occasions lltcJr 
presence. Ailcr llie cumpany have been Ihus enter- 
tained, a large qiiunlity of hhen'iift huving been pre- 
pared, mixerl iiiiu a -pume, the bride takes a lump of 
it in lier hand, and receives contributions (eulled 
noock<x/f) from her guesia ; each of Ihem sticks n 
coin (usually of gold) in the hheii'iia which she holds 
upon her band ; and, when the lump is clo»iely stuck 
with these coius, she scrapes it off her hand upon the 
edge of a basin of water. Having collected in this 
manaer from all her guests, some more hhen'na is 
applied to lier hands and feet, which are then bound 
with pieces nf linen ; and in this slate they remain 
until the next morning, when they are found to be 
sufGciently dyed with its deep orange-red tint. Her 
guests make use of ilie remainder of the dye for their 
own hands. This night is called Lei/ let elHkerina, " 
or " the Night of the Hhen'na." 

It is on this night, and sometimes also during the 
latter half of the preceding day, that the bridegroom 
gives his chief entertainment. Mohhabbazeen (or 
low farce -players) oikii perform on this occnaion be- 
fore the bouse, or, if it be large enougli, in ihe court. 
The other and more common performances by which 
Ihe guests are amused have been before mentioned. 
On the following day, the bride goes in pmcessiun 
to the house of the bridegroom. The procession be- 
fore described is called " the zeffeli of the bath, " to 
distinguish it from this, which is the more important, 
and wbicli is tlierefore particularly c:dled zef'fet el- 
'arot/teh, or " the zeCfeli of the bride." In aome 
cases, to diminish the espenses of the marriage- cere- 
monies, the bride is conducted privately to the bath, 
and only honoured with a ^effeh to the bridegroom's 
house. This procession is exactly similar to the 
former. The bride and her party, after breakfasting 
leather, generaUy set out a litUe after mid-A*:^ . Tft«l 


proceed in order, the same, and st the same slow 
puce, as in the zePfeh of the balh ; and, if the haufe 
of tile bridegroom be near, they follow a circuiKnls 
route, throuj;!) several principal litreets, for the sake 6f 
display. The ceremony usually occupies three or 
more hours. 

Sometimes, before bn^al processions of this kind, 
two swordsmen, clad in nothing but their drhwefe, 
engage each other in a mock combat ; or two fellu'- 
hliee^ cudgel each otiier with nebboo'fs, or loitg 
staves. In the procession of a hride of a wealthy 
family, any person who has the art of performing 
some extraordinary feat to amuse the speetttora ia 
almost sure of being a welcome assistant, and of 'k- 
ceiving a handsome present *. When the s^d 'Om'ra, 
theNackee'bel-Ashru'f (or chief of the descendants 
of Ihe Prophet), who was the main instrument ttf 
advancing Mohliani'mad 'Al'ee to the dignily of 
Du'sha of Egypt, married a daughter, about Iweflty- 
seven years since, there wulkerl before the proeesHon 
u young man who had made an. incision in Ms tAt- 
domeD, and drawn out a large portion of his io^ea- 
tines, which he carried before him on a siltW triy. 
Afler the procession, he restored them to their [Iroper 
place, and remained in bed many days before he re- 
covered from the effects of tills foolish and disgusting 

■ Que ot* Ihe muHt common u( thu fcata irilot'seed oi^'tiacb 
aa occaiiun is the peiEunnaiice pf a libgriuus (mTi by n wtttv- 
rartivr, inired a tiei'jim, who, fur tha sahe of a prrstntjaod 
thm empty title, canii-* a vaUt-iikiD filled f itii «>)id-»i»l 
WHBr, ot gietter weigLt, ind fot nlouger iieriu^jlh^n aniuE I 
ha hnthitn will ventiiie lo Ao; and IhiE hf miiat accoin|>iUh ] 
iprhhant ever sitting djwn. uitcept in A croucliing- po^tioi 
real, In tin: cBtie of a biidal i)iocei>iDii vhich I talElf 
ncned, the chei'yim befru lo CD.ny hs buiden, a akin of i 
»nd watHT ireigiuiig nbout li»i> honclnjil ponnlii, it nKi« 
the piecejinj- day ; bore it the whole ii>i;li>, and Ihe sdm 
day, before and during the proCi-tEiOD, and efintLatied la d 

act. Another man, on the same occa.sion, rift^'a 

Bword through liis orni, lie/ore Ihe iTowiling' spfeCti- 

.tors, and then bound, over the wountl, wiihytit with- 

-drawLEig U^e sword, iicveral haudkert'ljiers, which 

were soaked with the blood. Tliese fueta MCta de- 

Bcribed tn me by an eye-witnesn. A spectntle of "a 

, inQre:SinguliLr and ntot'e disgusting nature usod to be 

.ODtuncaniiiioa on similar occasions, but is now very 

seldom witnessed*. Sometimes, ulso, kha'metr Qpr 

, Dcoijui'ers and sleiirht-ol-liand performers) e)ihib!l a. 

-^■aaitty of tricks on these occasions. But the most 

.^common of all the performances here mentioned are 

the inock fig^hts. Similar exhibitions are also EOme- 

,. thnes witnessed on the occasion of a circumcision -f. 

, The bride and her parly, having arrived at ihe 

\ bridegroom's house, sit down to a repast. Her 

"ii friends, shortly after, take their departure; leaving 

nith her only her mother and bister, or other near 

I female relatiocs, and one or two other women ; 

. usually the belJa'neh. The ensuing; night is called 

-.l^iflct ed-Dookli'-kh, or " the Night of the En- 

., trance." 

»■_ The bridegroom sits below. Before sunset, he 
•-•g^oes to the bath, aud there changes hia clothes ; or 
B.^ merely does the latter at home, and, afler having 
^Sipped with a party of his friends, waits till a little 
Lf>betbre the 'esffS (or time of the night-prayer), or 
^■vntil the Uiird or fourth hour of the night, when, 
^according to general custom, he should repair to some 
? celebrated mosque, such as that of the Hhasaney'n, 
' AcciimC ilescriplion of this is gleen in Barckhsrdl'B 
■ irMfC PioiiiIjs," pp. 115,116. 

' ' t Smid ieff>-h« ■» niimetimei accompanied by a Dumber 

ktf PBK riuA bcarm^ a tcruup of peniini of some niiuiuLiclure 

pfirtnuki pistibrmiuK ihe uBiml work of tlieir craft; even mifIi 

■ Mbkildcn, white-wn^lierii, &c. 1 includiii); tutmliera of B-U, at 

ftlmoit till, the arts and maaufacliireifTDA^W&'aiLji^Uk' 

If youDg, he is ^eiieruUy 

the mosque preceded liy muaitiana with drums and 
one or more hautboys, uud ac::oinpunied hy a. num- 
ber of frieDds, and by several nien bearing 7neih"aU. > 
The mesh''al is a sLafT with a cylindrical frame af, 
iron at the top filled with flaming wood, itr having . 
two, three, four, or five of these receptacles for fire. ■ 

THl' party usually proceeds to the mosque with a 
i|uiek puce, and without much order. A second ' 
group of musicians, with the same instruments, o* ' 
with (tiTjms only, closes the processioi. The bride 
groom is generally dresEed in a clcuAa'n with red,< 
stripes, and a red gibTwh, with a K.ashm«e'r shawl of 

KMAKtUAGf,. 23S 

:olotir lor his turbun ; and uaUtB betweeu 
, eimilarfy ilresserf. The prajcra are coni- 
monlj perfonned merely as a. mailer of feremony ; 
and it is frequently the cnse that the bridegrouni does 
not pray at ail, or prays without having previously 
performed the wiwdot/, like 1116011001(5 wno say tbeir 
prayera only because Ihey fear their master*. The 
proces^on returns from the mosque with more order 
and i&BpIay, and very slowly ; perhaps because it 
nould be considered unbecoming^in the bridegroom 
to hasten home to take posgession of his hride. It is 
headed, as before, by musicians, and two or more 
"bearers of mesh'Vls. These are generally followed 
by two men, bearing, by means of a pole resting hori- 
zontally upon their shoulders, a hanging frame, to 
which are attached about sixty or more small lamps, 
in four circles, one above another ; the uppermost of 
which circles is made to revolve ; being turned round 
Dccaaonally by one of the two bearers. These 
numerous lamps, and several mesh''als beside those 
before-mentioned, brilliaTitly illumine llie streets 
through which the procession passes, anil produce a 
remarkably picturesque efl'eci. The bridegroom and 
ids friends and other attendants follow, advancing in 
the form- of an oblong ring, all facing the interior of 
the ringr, and each bearing in his hand one or more 
wax candles, and sometimes a sprig of hhen'ua or 
some other flower, excepting the bridegroom and the 
friend on either side of him. These three fnrm the 
latter part of the ring, which generally consists of 
twenty or more persons. At frequent intervals, the 
party stops for a few minutes ; and, during each of 
{bea@ pauses, a boy or man, one of the persons who 
pompom the ring, sings a few words of an epithala- 
miuni. The sounds of the drums, and the shrill 


notes of the liautboy (nliich the bride hears hiUfjd 
hour or more berore the proceiisiaii arrivi 
house), cease during these songs. The train 1 
closed, as in the former Ciise, by a second grot^ I 

In the manner above described, the hridegropin| 
zef feh is most comniotdy couduqted ; but therej 

anotlier mode, that is more respectable, called ^ff'^ 
tt/daftee, nhich signilies "the gentlemen's zerfeS 
In this, the bridegnwin is accompanied by his frieiT 
in the same manner as before related, and atteiii' 
and preceded by men bearing meiih.''als, but 
musicians : in the place of these are about 
eight men, who, from their being employed as 
on occasions of this kind, are called v.ila'd«l-lS.yJ 
at " sons of the nights." Thus attended, he goes' 
the mosque; and, white he returns slowly thence 
his house, the singers above mentioned chant, 
rather sing;, moowak'»kabh.i (or lyric odes) in pra 
of the Prophet. Having returned to the house, tlii 
Name persons chant portions of the Ckoor-a'n, 01 
afler another, for the amusement of the guesu 
then, altogether, recite the opening chapter (U 
Fa't'hhah) ; after which, one of them sings 
vkaseedch (or short poem) in praise of the ftbphrf 
lastly, all of them again sing moowesh'shahlfi 
After having thus performed, they receive noockoa 
(or contributions of money) from the bridegrotril 
and his friends. ' "J 

Soon after his return from the mosque, w 
bridegroom leaves his friends in a lower apartni^t 
enjoying their pipes and coffee and sherbet Tn 
bride's mother and sister, or whatever other febiiS 
relations were left with her, are above ; and thfe brid 
herself, and the bella'neh, in a separate aparliti^ 
If Ihe bridegroom be a youth or young n)iui,it|i 
considered proper that he, as well as the bride,,sboui 

^khlMt son 

^hlblt some degree of bashfuluesa: one of im 
frieuils, therefore, carries him & piut of the nay up to 
^he hharee'in. On entering' the bride's apLirlment, 
he gives a present to tbe belltt'iieh, und she retires. 
The bride has a shawl thrown over lier heud ; and 
fhc briiiegrooni must gi\e her a present of nioney, 
trhic)i Is called "the price of the uncovering of the 
face*^'' before he attempts (« remove this, winch she 
dees not allow liim to do without some apparent re- 
hictaJlce, if not violent resislunce, iu order to show 
her maiden modesty. On removing the covering, he 
Bays, " Ta the name of Uod, the Cumposaionate, the 
Jljercifu]," and tliea greets her with this compliment : 
"The night be blessed," or " — is Uessed :" lo which 
she replies, if timidity do not cholte her utterance, 
'*' God bless thee.'' The bridegroom now sees the 
face of his bride for the first time, and generally finds 
A^r. nearly what he has been led to expect. Often, 
.Du^not always, a carious ceremony is then perliirmed. 
plie bridegroom lakes off every article of the bride's 
.clothing excepting her shirt; seats her upon a mat' 
'^ess or bed, the head of which is turned towards the 
^ireciion of Mefc'keh, placing her so that her bade is 
J ^isff twned in that direction ; and draws forward, and 
'_jpreada upon the bed, the lower part of the front of 
pOfir shirt : having done this, he stands at the distance 
.of rather less than a yard before her, and performs 
the prayers of two rek''3hs; laying his head and 
,^ nite, in prostration, upon the part of her shirt that 
Js, ^stended before her lap. He remains with her 
\fi^i a few minutes longer-f: having satistieil his 
^ "i|irii)sily respecting her personal charms, he calls to 
, ,!" Biaui'ii heih/tl-wUh'th. HT.A'iA is a vulgB. cuttuptiUQ 
ijf J(*ffA, or wejh. 

V^ I 1 big to refer the reader, if he clesice fuither details on 
^tfttsaiilject, tupugB 1 17 of BuickhanlCa "Arabic Frovsrbs." 
'BiUseeoutit mighl have Iweu matB complete ; but be aeeatu in 
luve ttudied tu be pftrticuliuly coBcisi! in this cow. 


the women (who generally collect at the door, Whril J 
Uiey wuit in anxious ftu^iise) to raise their i^FJeB<dr'{ 

joy, or zugt'a'ree'L ; and the shrill sounds at _ 
the persons below and in tlie neighbourhood, a 
ollen, responded by other women, spread still ti 
the news, that he has 3cknowledg;ed himself sal 
with his bride ; he soon after descends to rejoin 1 
friends, and remains with Ihem an hour, or mcM 
berore he returns to his wife. It very seldom h 
pens that the husband, if disappointed in his bri 
immediately disgraces and divorees her : in fi;«nen 
he retains her, in this case, a week or more, t 

IlaviDg now described the most usual manueri 
which the marriages of virgin-brides are condactedu 
Cairo, I may add a few words on some of the o 
monies observed in other cases of matrimony, I 
of virgins and of widows or divorced women. 

The daughters of the great, generally having bat! 
in their own houses, seldom go to the public bdj 
previously to marriage. A bride of a wealthy famil 
and her female relations and friends, if there be n 
a bath in her house, go to the public bath, which, 
hired for them exclusively, and to the brldegroonl 
house, without music or canopy, mounted on aasei 
the bride herself generally wearing a Kashmet 
shawl, in the manner of a hhab'orali. If the brid 
groom or the bride's family have eunuchs, these ri 
before the bride; and sometimes a man runs at the hci 
of the procession, crying '■ Bless ye the Prophet" 
This man, on entering the house, throws duwn.upc 
the threnhold, some leaves of the while bete {sulck 
over which the ladies ride. The object of this Bct< 
to propitiate rortuue. The same man then exclaim 
" Assistance from God, and a speedy victory+ !" 

• Sal'loo 'iwi-nei'w. 'A-n-nrli'tt it a vl 


Marriages, among the Egyptians, are sanietimes 
conducted without any pomp or ceremony eveit in 
the case of virgins, by mutual consent of the bride- 
groom and the bride's family, or the bride lierself; 
and widows and divorced women are never lionoured 
with A eef'feh on marryinjr aguin. The mere sen- 
tence " I give myself up to tliee * " uttered by u 
female to a man who propoKea lo become her hus- 
biuid(even without tlie presence of witnesses, if none 
can be easily procured) render her hia legal nile, If 
arrived at putwrty; and marriages with widows and 
divorced women, among the Moo^'lims of Egypt, and 
other Arabs, are sometimes concluded in this simple 
manner. The dowry of such women is generally 
eae quarter or third or half the amount nf that ofa 

In Cairo, among persons not of tlie lowest order, 
though in very humble life, the marriage -cere monies 
are conducted in the same manner as among the 
middle orders. But. when the expenses of such 
zef'fehs us 1 have described cannot by imy means 
be paid, the bride is paraded in a very simple maimer, 
covered with a shawl (generally red), and surrounded 
by a group of her female relations and friends, dressed 
in their best, or in borrowed clothes, and enlivened 
by no other sounds of jiiy than their zugh'a'ree't, 
which they repeat at frequent intervals. 

"Hie general mode of zef'feh among the inhabitants 
df the villages is different from those above-described. 
Hie bride, usually covered with a shawl, is sealed 
on a cornel i and so conveyed to the bridegroom's 
dwelling. Sometimes four or live women or girls sit 
with her, on the same camel; one on either aide of 
her, and two or three others behind : the seat being 
made very wide, and usually covered with caqiels or 
<4het drapery. She is ibllowed by a group of 

• H'ahcb'loa lak nrfsec. 


woiHcn singing'. In the evening of the wedding,! 
bften during several previoAs evenings, In a viVt 
the male and female friends of the two pardvain 
at the bridegroom's house, and puss several honn 
the night in the open air, amusing' themselves n 
Bon^ and n rude kind of dance, aeeompaniett liy'l 
sounds of a tambourine or some kind of dnrni; HI 
W\ta sing; bnt only the women dance. I hav« inl 
duced here these few words on the maiTiage-rt 
monies of the peasantry to avoid scattering notes 
suhjeeta of the same nature. I now revert to | 
castomsof the people of Cairo. ' 

On the morning after the marriage, khovfabfl' 
gha'ze^yehu (dancing men or girls) perform iU -i 
street before the bridegroom's house, or in the cot 
On the same morning also, if the bridegroom t 
young man, the person who carried him up-sl 
gieneraliy takes him aitd several friends to an ei 
tainment in the country, where they spend the wht 
day. This ceremony is called tl-hooroo'beh, or t 
flight. Sometimes the bridegroom liimsell' mat 
the arrangements for it; and pays part of ( 
expenses, if they exceed the amount of the contrili 
lions of his friends ; for they give nooekoc/t 06 fl 
occasion. Musicians and dancin^girls are ott 
hired to attend the entertainment. If the fctj^ 
groom be a person of the lower orders, he i: 
ducted back in procession, preceded by three or fl 
musicians with drums and hautboys; his friemtH ai 
other attendants carrying each a nosegay, as iii "L 
zef 'fell of the preceding night ; and if their i«ti| 
be after sunset, tliey are accompanied by men bearil 
mcsh"als, lamps, &c, ; and the friends of the b ' ' 
gwNim carry lighted wax candles, besides the noj 



^utiwqueat testiviiies occasioned by mai^ 
\Jbt dMchlwd iu A lawr chapttr. 
nabtuid, if he can conveiiieiitly so amugei 
vpreiers that hia muilier elioulil reside wiib 
his wife ; ihat she may protect his wife's 
jfHmmit, and consequeutly hts own also. It is suid 
Jlhat tlM mother-iu-law is. Ibr Uiis reason, culled 
JAv"!oh t- ^b« women of Egypt are euid lo be 
^BUAlly proitf Ui criminal Juli'ignes ; nud I fear that, 
^.lUis respect, theyore not unjustly accused. Some- 
times a husband keeps his wite in llie bouse of her 
.ii)0llur,aDd pays the daily expenses of bot^. This 
.OUgbt to make the mother very careful with regard to 
ft^uditure, and strict ua lo Iter daoghter's conduct, 
^lest the bitter should be divorced; but it is said, that, 
^.tbis caae, she oAen acts as her daughter's pro- 
curess, and leaches her iiuiumerabte tricks, by which 
lo gain the upper band over her husband, and todrein 
bis purse. The influence of the wife's mother is also 
scarcely less feared when she only enjoys occasional 
f)|^xirt unities of .seeing her daughter : hence it is hekl 
more prudent for a man to marry a female who has 
^either mother nor any near relations of her own 

I* AmoDf; the pesMats of Upper Ejiypt, the lelations noil 
ACijaaliilaiiCBs of (be btidej^Dooi and bride meet logeth^r on 
tbe day aftfrthe mBTriage: and while ■ numbn of the men 
dap tSrlrbandB, aa an accoiDiiuniinieDt to a tambuurine, Dt 
fm, -Mad any other inMiuinentii that can be procured, the 
gndu dances tiefoii! them lui a 9h(-rt lime. She hat a bead- 
teii reaching to her heels, and a piiutt^d cation hundkcicfaief 
eSmpleteh. cove ring bet fate, and wears, eitctnally, the moit 
Mntrkabfa of her bridal gannaata (mentiondd by Bunkhardt, 
in'the place beCore rcfeind lo, and, in some paiti of KKypt, 
lumg Drer tbe door of a peaaant's houw after mania^o)^ 
Otiar women, similarly reiled, and dr«iied in Iheir best, or 
borrowed, clothes, coutinua Uio dance about ' — ' "■ 


a^tii uid Bome wives are even protiibited 

9uy female tViendi but (hose who are relatii 
fausWiit : thuy HTB very few, however, upon whotn 
Buch sevsre reBtricLioiis are impoeeil, ' 

For i, \>eraoii who has become familiar with mab 
Moos'lim society ia Cairo, wiltkout murrying, it il 
not so difficult aa might be imagined by a stTanger ts 
obtain, ilirectiy and indirectly, correct and am^ 
iafurmatjuu reBpnctiiig tbe uuiiditiou and habits of 
the women. Many hiubaiujs of tlie middle elaese^ 
and Rome of Ibc hierher ordets, i'reely talk of Iba 
st&irs of the hbttrerm with one who profegsea U 
agree with thtmi in tlieir general moral senUmeiit^ 
if tlwy have luit to converse through the mediooi ot 
an inlerp refer. 

Though the women have a particular portion at 
t]» hoase allptled ta them, the wiva, in general, ait 
luit to be regarded us prisoners ; for they are usuaUjt 
at liberty to go out and pay visits, as well as to recein 
female visiterti, almost as oiteii as they plea,se. TtH 
^BiVea, indeed, being Bubservlent to tlie wives, as wfH 
w tD their m:isl«r, or, if subject to the master onlyi , 
h^ing under uit authority almost unlimited, haiB not' 
that liberty. One of the chief objects uf the mastec. 
in appropriating a distinct suite of apartments to hit 
women, is to prevent thetir being Been by the rnald 
domestics and other men wilJiout being covered in' 
tltc mamier prescribed by their religion. TbefoUD«l9 
ing words uf the Ckoor-o'ii ^ow the necessity vaifi 
which a Mohhammadau woman is placed of ixp^ 
ccaling whatever is attractive in her person or aUiiy 
fVom alt men, e&cepting certain r^laliona Bii4 HUtt^ 
other persons. "Aodspeakuntothehelievingwomwi 
that tliey TestFuin their eyes, and preserve thelf 
modesty, and discover not tiieir ornaments, ev!^ 
what [necessarily] u{ipeaa'th thereof: and let then] 
throw (heir veils over their hosonii, and not show 



ornotnentH, unless to their huNbnnds. or Ih^lr 
llmst ur tlieir husliBtidV fatlieri;, or their sons, or 
mda' i^oiis, or their brothers, or tlieir 
na, or their sisters' son*, or their women, 
those [captives] which their rig^ht hanils shall pos- 
I, or unto suoh men as atteiid [ihem] and liave 
need [of vromen], or unto children:" " uiid let 
not niake a noiie with their feet, that their 
lamsnta which they hifle may [thcrehy] be An- 
eredV The lust piiswijre allndei to the practJue 
'ti knocking; together the ariltleta which the Arab 
tfomta in the time of tlte Prophet used to mar ; 
■ which ara still worn by maiij women in Egypt. 
must here trsnscrilK two notes of an eminent 
Sgyptian comnieiilator on the Ckoor-u'n, in illiialrii' 
ttoH of the ttbovo extract, and inserted in BhIo's t( mib- 
ktian> This I do, because they would convey an 
IS idea nf modern customs with regard to the 
n, or nun-ttdmiftgion, of certain pereoni into 
)|b« hhvee'm. The first is on the above words " or 
ifilrir women," which it thus exploina—" That is, mich 
Mn« of the Mohhammndan rcUi^on : it being: rea- 
med by Bome iintawfiil, or, at least, indecent, for 
ffoman who is U true believer lo lini.'Uver herself 
Aire (Hie who is an infidel ; because the latter will 
tAly refrain fivm describing her to the men : but 
Itin HHpposc all women in general are here ex- 
bwd; for, in this particular, doctors differ," In 
lypt, and 1 believe in every other Mohhammadan 
mtiy, tt in not now conBidered improper for any 
ttiaot whether independent, or n aerMtnt, or a 
v», M Christian, m Jewess, a Mons'lim'eh, or a 
pxt, to enter a Mnos'lim's hharee'm. — Tl)e second 
(he notes above alluded tn is on the words " or 
ise captives;" and is as follows: "Slaves of 


not slaves, tb' 

either eex are included in this exception, 
some think, domestic servatils who are not slaves, tfc; 
those of a dilferciit nation. It is related that Mo^ 
hain'mad once made a present of d man-slave to of 
daugrhler Pa'timeh; and, when be brought him tt 
her, she had on a garment which was so scanty, (hi 
she WHS obliged to leave either her head or her fei 
nncovered: and that the Prophet, seeing heriii groi 
coniiision on that account, told her, she need 14 
under no concern, for that there was none presdj 
but her father and her slave." Among the Anbs n 
the Desert this mHy still be the ca»e; but in E^yptf 
have never heard of an instance of an adult mtif 
slave being allowed to see the hharee'm of a. reapet^ 
able man, whether he belonged to that liharee'in 4> 
not; and am assured that it is never permitted. PeA' 
haps the reason why the nian-sla\-e of a wonrHki 
allowed this privilege by the Ckoor-a'n is, because t!t 
cannot become hts lawful wife as long as he 
nues her slave : but this is a poor re 
him access to the hharee'm in such 
It is remarkable that, in the vente of the Ckooi^ 
above quoted, uncles are not mentioned as privile 
to see their nieces unveiled : some think that t 
are not admissible, and for this reasoik, kst -t 
should describe the persons of their nieces to tl 
sons ; for it is regarded as highly improper ibr a au^ 
to describe the features or person of a lemale (as W 
say, that she has large eyes, a straif^ht nose, amltt' 
mouth, &c.) to one of his own sex, by whom it is ilif- 
lawtiil for her to be seen, though it is not considerdl' 
indecorons to describe her in general terms, as,»r 
instance, to say "she is a sweet girl, and set 
kohhl and hhen'na." 

It may be mentioned here, as a general rule, thsl 
a man is allowed to see unveiled only his own wivei 
and female slaves and those females whom h* ia 

for gruitinl 
e of sode% 


'^ n womnti ti 

■^p^fiQtedabybw, Irom marrjiugiun account of tbeir 
^teiug niiliin ccrtoio liegrees of cunsaiig^uiiuty ur l*a- 
jnily conneiiou, oi huvjng given liiin sutk, or liaving 
J^en Buckled by llie sama nurse as himself*. The 
jjugh antiquity of the >cil has been ulluded to iu the 
' ' chiiptec of this work, li has also been meor 
that it is cansidered luure uece5)>ary,in £^ypl, 
ti tu eoTcr the upp«r and buck part of her 
her i'acR ; nnd more requisite fur her lo 
^pTi^til ber faue Ihun inuat Other parts of her persou ; 
1^ instance, a feniiile whu i:[uiiiot be persuaded to 
noreil hei f^e in the prei>enae of men, trill think it 
^ui little shame lo display the whole of her bosom, cr 
Jtx greater part of her le;^- There are, it is true, 
^any women amuiig the lower classes ia this country 
iWhp coneiantly appear iti public iviih unveiled face.; 
iIhil they are almost conslrained to do an by tlie nant 
Af a boor'cko' (or fa^-veil), and ihe dithcully ul'sd- 
JOBling the tai'hhab (or head-veil), of which scarcely 
Jttkj woman is destitute, ao as lo supply tlie jilace of 
^^w forrserj particularly when both their hands are 
ypQCt^ed in holding some burden which they are car- 
- jfiag i^u the head. When a respectable woman is, 
fiOity chance, seen with her head or tUce uncovered, 
ji; B nan who is not entitled lo enjoy that privilese, 
la quickly assumes or adjusts her tarhhati, and often 
JtHlairaa " O my misJcjrtunet !" or " O my sorrow J !" 
Odotives of coquetry, however, frequently induce an 
Jp^rptlan wumuu (o expose her face before a mau 
Jfbqa she thinks that she may appear to do so unin- 
«Atianally< OI tliut she may be supposed not to see 
JP^ A-man may also occasionally enjoy opporluui- 

il Laws. Euaucht an 



ties of xeeing the face of an Egyptian \ady,tfn 
really thinks bfreelf unobsaived ; saiiietiiii|U.t|t.,B)t 
0|ifn lattice, and somelim^s on a houKe-lup. tAsM 
small houses in Cairo have nv apartment. (Mi ittw 
ground-floor for the recejjtioa o! muie risiteis. wttP 
iberefore asoend to an upper room 1 but as they,^ 
up slairH, they exclaim, several tinnes, " dt'tao'rjj' 
('■pprmissioii!"), or '■' ya! Saltir !" (" O Prplpf 
tor!" that is " O protecting God 1"), " 

similar fjaculatinii, in order to vrarn anj woiqap 
may happen to be in the way, to retire, w -t^i. 
herwif; which ahe does by drawing a purt o£ 
tar'hhah before her face, so as to leave, ai lOMt, 
only one eye visible. To such an absurd pitch do,l^ 
Moos'lims carry their feeling of the saciednesp.jf 
women, that entrance into the IJimba of some femt' 
is denied to men ; as, fur instance, the tombs of.i 
Prophet's wives and other females of his foini^i 
the hurial-ground of El-Mede^neh; into v^h 
women are freely admitted : and a man and wps] 
they never bury in the saiue vault, unless a .y 
separate the bodies. Yet there, among the 
tians, a few persons who are much less particulw, 
this respect: such is one of my Moos'lim frie? 
here, who generally allows me to see his mMJt) 
when I call upon him. She is a widow, (rf.B.b( 
fifty years of age; but, being very fat, and not;lpf 
inftso old, she calls herself forty. She usually;Ui^ 
to the door of the apartment of the hhareatUi 
which I am received (there being no lowef ^i^ 
ment in the house for nule visiters}, fUid sit? tl 
upon the floor, but will never enter the room. , 
casionally, and as if by accident, site shows rne 
whole of her face, with plenty of kohhl round 
eyes ; and doea not attempt to cuiic^^l h«r tUat^QU 
emeralds, and other ornaments ; but rather the i 
verse. The wife, however, I am never permitt 

THB HUAREe'M. 247 

WsAF; 1houg;h nnw I was ailnired to talk to her, in 
the presence (if Iwr husband, tdnnrt ihe coraer of a 
pasSSpe St the lop of the •itairs, 

t believe thai, in t^ypt, the women are geue- 
r&lly under leiis restraint than in any other country of 
'the Turkish Empire; so tfaal it is not uncooiraon 
to see temales or the lower orriers flirting' and jesting 
with men in public, tuid men laying iheii ii^nds 
upon liiem very free^. Still it might be imagined 
th&t the women of the higher and middle clasaes ieel 
'ibemselves severely {qvpreBSed, und are much diecott' 
"tented with the stale of seclusion to which they are 
subjected: but this is not commonly the mae; on 
'Che contrary, itn Egyptian wife who is uttsehed to 
'lier husband is apt to thinh, if he allow her unuBitat 
' Mljerty, that he neglects her, and does not sufficieaUy 
-bve her; and to envy those wives who are kepi and 
"watched with greater strictness. 
'' It IS not very common For an Egyptian to have 
"tnort than one wife, or a concubine slave ; though ti.e 
'law allows him /out wives (us 1 have before sttU«d), 
"■tfnd^ according lo the opinion of some, as many con- 
''^cubine slaves as he may choose. But, though b man 
^'Watricl himself to a single wife, he may change as 
'"often as he desires ; and there are certainly not many 
^''persons in Cairo who have not divorced one wife, if 
"'ihey have been long married. The husband may, 
'^irtienever he pleases, say to his wife "Thou art 
"•divorced*;" if it be his wish, whether reasonable, or 
'itOt.ahe must return to her parents or friends. This 
"•liAliility to an unmerited divorcement is the Bource of 
"''iiiore uneasiness to many wives than all the oUier 
'■'troubles to which they are exposed; as they may 
' 'thcTeby be reduced to a stale of great destitutiim ; 
''iNtt to others, who hope to better their condiltwi) it 


i*, of course, exactly the reiprse. I hiive 
in n ftirmer uhapler", thot a tnan may diftPh.'e 'hi 
vrifo twice, and esch time reffeire her &^in 'AiflHMl 
an;' ceremony; but thiit he cannot le*;^lly take ta# 
again after a third diwreenntilshe ha?q been mMriA' 
iind divorced by another man. The ennsequetkiA 
of a triple divorce conveyed in one ceiitenee + vfcttll 
Battle, unless the man and his wife a^ree tt» inft' 
Ihe law, or the tbrniei' deny his having pronoui 
the sentence ; iti which latter oase, the woman naff 
have much difficulty to enforce bis compliance WflS 
the law, if she be inclined to do so. 

In ilUiKlTatlon of this subject, I may mention^ 
ceiie in which on acqu^intanee of mine 
OS B witness of the ient«nue of divn 
sitting; in a cofffee-shop with two other mefl, one flf 
whom had just been irritated by something that Ml 
wife had said or done. After a short converHtliall 
upon Ibis affair, the angry husband sent for his wifiSf 
and, fts soon as she came, said to her " TbcH tff 
trebly diTorued :" then, addressing his two 'CnV 
ponioHB, he added " You, my brothers, are wltnesMtiS 
Shortly after, however, he repented of this act, ai 
wished to tuke back hi^ divorced wile ; but she' t^^— 
fused to return to him, and appealed to the SterW 
^I'iah (or Lew of Ood). The case was triedabttaf 
Mahh'kem'eh. The woman, who was the plainliBf 
staled Ih'it the defendant was her husbnnd ; diat IhC 
had pronounced against her the sentence of n t , 
divorce; attd tbat he now wished her to retwniilf 
himi and live with him as his wife, contrary to tl 
law, and consequently in a slate of sin. The Aita 
fendant denied that he had divorced her. '' HaA 
' sard the judgv to the plaintiff. ' 


' On Iha Kelih-ion and Imw. 

THK HBARFE/m. 249 

I Imve here two wilnessea." These 
were the men wlio were present in the coH'ee-shop 
when Ihe senlence of divorce was pronounced. They 
were desired lo give their evidence ; and staled that 
the derendaiit divorced his Mit'e, by a. triple sentence, 
in their presence. The defendant averred that she 
whom he divorced in the coffee-shop was another wife 
of hick. The plaintiif declared that he bad no other 
vife; but the judy>: observed to her that it was inv 
possible she could know that ; and asked the witnesses 
what was the name of the woman whom the defend- 
ant divorced in their preseoee. They answered that 
Uiey were ignorant of her name. They were then 
Mked if they could swear that the plaintit)' was the 
womaO'who was divorced before them. Their reply 
WB3, that they could not swear lo a woman whom 
Uiey had never seen unveiled. Under these circum- 
etances, the judge thought it right to dismiss the 
case; and the woman was obliged to return to her 
husband. She might have demanded that he should 
produce the woman whom he professed to have 
divorced in the coflee-shop ; but he woiikl easily have 
fbuid a woman to play the part he required ; as it 
would not have been necessary for her to show a 
marriage-cerlilicBte ; marriages being almost always 
performed in Egypt without any written contract, and 
sometunee even without witnesses. 

It not unfrequenlly happens, thai, when a man 
who has divorced his wile the third time wishes to 
take her ag^a (she herself consenting to their rt~ 
iHiion, and there being no witnesses to the sentence 
of, divorce), he does so without conforming with the 
ofensive law before mentioned. It is also a common 
CHfitom for a man under similar circumstances to em- 
ploy a person lo marry the divorced woman on the 
GondiiioD of his resigning her, the day after their 
union, to him, hsr former husband, whose wife she 


in, of course, esnctly lli'' 
in n fiirmer diapler*. ' 
wil'o twite, ami eRcli 'h. 
■nj ceremony; but tli i: 
again afW dlHrdtiin- 
Biiil divorced by nn.i! 
ftf a triple divoree ix)n>- 
name, unless thK man 
the Inw, or the fbrmn 
the iwntenee ; in wbi'i 
have muDh dlffinilty t 
the law, if«he beimln 
In illustTBtioii ol' III 
cuse in wlucb an act^n 
BB n wilnesa of thp 
sitting In a cotfee^boi 
whom had just been i. 
wife had said or don' 
upon litis ufHAtt the ^iti 
and, as soon as ahr ■ 
trebly divorced :'" 111.-. 
paiiioiiR, he aililetl " \ ■ 
Shortly after, however, 
wished to take baek I 
fuaed to return to bii . 
^I'lah (or Lew of (;. 
Mflhh'kem'eli 'ri>,. . 
staled Ih3t ili.' '. . 

him, and h\i' > 

laUr, aitd i:i>r.-. 
fendont denii. . 
you witnesai^ 

f is inti 
lopel hi 

..111 of ms 
,- (>|- Eg) 

Tlie Tui 
[ly; whi 


ir ii U nttlawfuJ fat a woe 
r tivrii flnve ; thoug'li alie 
I fArM mairy liiin. 
ilvixl l^ tier uccc^tiii^ 
Imok thia siuve 
8 thLtt Ihe latt 
Rbean a inuuslalihil'l for Ittm 

ivilc, Mkrihis procsi 
ft has agtun accDrnpllBhed ) 
I her Ibrmcr husbai 
nii^d IVoin htm, by tlie 
'eifdeha, atxiut half: 

9 ul' Uiis leciiity ur di' 
v eaailj imnj^ined. There 

y who, in the course of len 

I many as- twenty, thirty, or 

I not t~Bi advanced in asie 

a doxeii or inoce men mic- 

d of man wlio have been in 

IV wita almost every niunth. 

igh possessed of very little 

He, iroin anioDg the feinalBB of 

R the streets ol' Cairo, a liandsome 

roed woman who will coueeni to 

a dowry of uLoul len sbiilliigs; 

B her, he need not give her more 

t sum to roatutaln her during her 

U is but juBt, however, to odd, that 

is generally regarded as very disg^raoor 

V pRrentH in tlie middle or liighlte 

a a daughter in marr" ~ 

d many wives. _ 

' ' 'i albo attended with very injmir 

iTuiMin ihe morals oi' the husband and the 

more rare unioiiff the higher and middle 

n it it< among the lower ordera \ and it is 

J her ' 


r Ittm I 



[igain becomea, by a second contmel; though tlil»to 
[ilailily coiiUary lo the spirit of the law. A poor ana 
(^ncral)y u very ugly person, and oflen nnc wtui k 
bllud) is usually i:|iosen to perfurm tiiis offiix. II* 
i» lermeil u MoostaMiU'l, or MahkaClii. It is often 
the cfise tiiat the man thus employed is so pltanl 
wilh the beauty of the wumun to whom he is ioiw- 
dtioetl I'll these lerms, or with ber ncbea, thut Mb fe- 
fuMH to gWe her iiji ; aud the law cannot compel hini' 
to dlturoe her, unless he ttat unjuslly towards btr M 
her husband t which of course he takes ^ood aate 
not U) do. But a person may employ a moostahhil'l 
without running this risk. It is the cuslom of msay' 
wealthy Turks, and of some of the people «^ Egyji^ 
to make Use of a niave, generBlly a black, their awa' 
projieriy, to oKidste in thin character. Sometitneii|i< 
slave is purchased fur this purpose i or if the person 
who requires him for such a service be acquainted 
with a slave-dealer, he asks from the latter a pressDt 
of a fikve; signifying that he will give him back 
again. The uglier the slave, the belter. The TurkI' 
generally choose one not arrived at puberty; wbielt 
the tenets of their sect allow. As soon as the wonuuii 
Itns accomplished her 'eifdeh (or the period during' 
which she Is obliged to wait before she can man^' 
agvin), the husband who divorced her, having pi«>i 
viously obtained her consent to what he is uboutM 
do, introduces the sluvc to her, and asks her if riw 
will be married to him. She replies that she Willi 
She is accordingly wedded to the slave, in the pn^ 
sence of witnesses; and a dowry is given to her, M' 
make the niarriage perfectly legal. The ahve ixm-' 
summatca the marriage ; and thus becomeB dW' 
tvoman's legitimate husband. Immedietely after, br 
on the I'lillowiiig morning, her former husband pre»' 
r-ciits this slave to her ae her own pri)|«rty, and the' 
, Ihnt she aoaepis him, her marriuge yrUb 

THE HHARB^y. 331 

les ilissolTed ; lor it is uuiawful for a woman 
to be tke will! ai' her own »1uvh! thcpug:h slie maj 
emanujiate a slave, and t/ien inarry liim. Ab soriii 
as her marriiigB is disserved by liej- ucct^tiiig the 
icift of the slave, atie may give bnok lliis uluve lu her 
huaband : but it Beldom huppentt Uiat the lattn wtll 
bUow a person who has been a muuat&hhil'l for him 
to remain in his house. The wile, after this proceed- 
ing, tnuf, aa soon as she has a|i;sjn acconiplislioii har 
Wdeb, *btti!ocnQ reuniiud to lier furiner husbuiirl, 
ftfler haling' bren separatcil I'mtn biin, by tlie neceii- 
atf of her fulfilting two 'eii'dehR, about half a year, 
or perhfips more. 

The depraviRg eU'ects at' tliis tncilily a( divorce 
upoD both seneB may be ensily imagined. There are 
mOBf men in this country who, in the course of ten 
yean, have married as many us twenty, thirty, or 
mora wives ; and women not far odvanaed in af^ 
who have been wives to el doxeii or more iiieji aue- 
cisslrely. i have hea.rd of men who have been id 
the habit of marrying a new wife almost every month. 
A peison may do this though posaeBsed of very little 
pnperty : he may choose, from among the females of 
tbe lower orders in the streets of Cairo, a iiundsome 
yoBnp. widow or divorced woman who will consent to 
bacume hia wife far a dowry of ubout ten shilliags; 
Afid when lie divorces ber, he need not give her more 
than double that sum lo maintain ber dtuiiig liar 
Atniiu^ 'ed'deh. It is but just, however, to add, thai 
BaA conduct i>^ generally refrorded as very diagrace- 
falt «ndthat Jew parents in tlie middle or higher 
uIWMs will give a daughter in marriage (i> a man 
who boa divorced many wives. 

'Polygamy, whidi is also attended with very Jnju- 
rioaa ellects uiun the morals of the husband and tiie 
vrives^ is more rare among tlie liigher and middle 
cllBWB than it ib among tlie lower orders i and it is 


■not verjr cominon ainon^ the kuer. 
limy iudulfre him^lf with two or niore 
whom may be able, by some ait or uccupatwii, B'l't 
to provide her uwn subsistence ; but motit. peraMtC 
thC' middle and bij^f r ordeis bic detdred 
BO by tite coiiEuleratian of the expense and 
which they would iocur. A maa bavini" » wijk . ^ 
b&i the misfortune to be barren, uid being U»Mii^ 
nttached to her to divorca her, is sometime* indUMl 
to take a eecood trife, merely in the hope of ol 
inp; offspring ; and, Irom the same muUve, he 
tftke a ihird, and a fourth ; but tickle psssioo i 
mo^t evident and common motive both to poljf^aaf 
and repeated divorces. They are comparatively 
few who gratify this passion by the former pradieit 
I believe not more than one husband aJnoD^ Vrteatf 
has two wives, ^ 

When there are two or more wives belon^ag M 
one mall, the first (that is, the one first nuuTM4) 
generally enjoys the highest rank ; and is called " 
great lady*." Hence it otlen huppens that, whOf*. 
man who has already oae wife wishes la marry, Mi 
other girl or woman, the father of the latteri,i>r.,tiD|t 
female herself who la sought in marriage, wiU:.IH( 
cmtsent to the union unless the first wife W piH 
tiUDsly divorced. The women, .of course, do |ioL,b|1( 
ftme of a man's marrying more timn one 
Moit wen of wealth, or of moderate circuin«ljt 
uid even many men of the lower orders, if they- 
Iwo or more wives, have, for eai:h, a separate boiue. 
■n* wife has, or can oblige her husband to give li^ 
a particular description of lodgingt, which is ejQla 
a separate house, or a suite ol' apartments (cooaftipf 
flf a nam in which to sleep and pass the ifKf,a 
khchen, and a latrina) that are, or may be 


i^BE buasee'm nii 

MpMila ftod shtU out from any otlier apartments in 
the lame house. A fellow-wife is called dooi'rah'. 
'VUe t\ii»m]s nt' doiVralis are ol^en talked of: tor tt 
^*y be lULturaliy toterred, that, when Iwu wives shore 
'Itw attfectioo and attentions of tlie same innu, tbejr 
^ not ulwaya on terms of amity with eoub other; 
the samn is g«iier^y the ca.-ie wiiti a wife and 
I eoncubtne elave Uvia^ in the i^ame houae, aiid uuder 
Mrailar circtimstauces t- If tlie chief hidy be barren, 
' an inferior, either wife or slave, bear a cliild to 
huGband or muster, it commonly results that the 
- woman beccunes a favourite of the man, and 
the chief wife or mistress is "despised in h«r 
t^M," as Abraham's wife was in the eyes of Ha{^ 
Ml the same accouDt t- ^t therefore not very unfre- 
ViHinly happens that the first wife loses her rank aud 
jwivileges; another becomes the chief lady, and, being 
feff'Ikvourite of her husband, is treated by her rival 
ill' rivals, and by all -the members and visiters of the 
ji^hree'in, with the same desiree of outward respect 
irUdl (he first wife previously enjoyed : but some- 

KleS the poisoned cup is employed to remove hor. 
(lAferMice f^ivcn to a second wife is often the cause 
ftf'this 'firet's being: registejed as na'skixeh%, either 
Mf tier tiusbaud'a or her own applic-alion at the Mafafa'- 
Yet many instances are knownnf neglected 
■having; with exemplary and unfeigned sub- 
to their husband, In such cases, and with 
InMible good nature towurds the favourite ||. 

(. Thu has ]ii/ea eijilxineil in the 3d cblp 
I nfgnJerali'themiiBt be^iiiful or » 



inDtverjrconunon araoii^ the latUs. 

loaf iudu]ge himseil' with two or 

whom may be able, by some art c 

to provide her own Gubeistenoe ; 

the middle and liigher orders arc deterred 

GO by the cousider^ion of ilie expense and 

'wtiicli they mould incur. A nuii) hivini^a 

has tlie injafortUDe lo be bairea, and b«itig i 

Attached to her to divorce her, ia sumetimei-i 

lo take u second wife, merely ia liie hop* of 

ing otfGpring ; aod, from the same motivB, lie. ai| 

take a third, and a fourth ; but fickle pnasina is lU 

nost evident and CDmnuin motive both to polfgSMf 

and repeated divorces. They are comparatively vaf 

ftw who gratify this passion by the former practioft 

I believe not more than one husbuid aniimg ' 

has tvfo vrives. 

When there are two ur more wives belnngingW 
one. man, the first (that is, the one first married) 
generally enjoys the highest rank ; and is called 
great lady*." Hence it often happens that. wb«B* 
man who has aheady one wife wishes to marry sA 
other g'irl or woman, the father uf the latter,. or tlw 
female herself who is liougbt in marriage, wtll,iiat 
consent h> the union unless the first wife be. {Ma 
viouely divorced. The women, pf course, ilo Rotni^ 
prove of a man's marrying more thiui one wftr 
Hwt men of wealth, or of moderate drcum^Ua 
and even many men of the lower orders, if they' fa 
two or more wives, have, for each, a separate boi 
TTie wife has, or can oblige her husband to gi-re'l 
a parliculur description of lodgingt, which is eit 
a separate house, or a suite of apartments (counl 
of a room in which to sleep and pass tha dqs4 
kitchen, and a latruia) tlial are, nr may be taa^" 

,,„f &fnll ti-MtUr'tt/i. t CallHl ™h'*» rt<<«» <| 


Mpuate imd stuit ant trom uiy otlier s.purtmmls in 
the Muue house. A lellou-wile if called doot'rah'. 
The quarrels of door'nlia ore often lalketi ot': for it 
may be tialtirally inferred, thai, wben twu wives share 
She »tr«ctioD and ntleutiDOB of the stune man, Uicf 
ne not ulways on terms of unity with each ot^er; 
BRd the samfi is generally the case vith a wilie and 
B eenccbiDe Blave liviDg;in the suite house, and under 
Mtnilar cirmimstaucesi-- Jf the chief kdy be barren, 
«>d an inferior, either wife or slave, bear a child to 
bn husband or master, it commonly results that the 
.lMt«r tromait becomes n favourite of the man, and 
thU the cbief wile or mistress is " despiited in her 
cyee," B« Abraham's wife wils in the eyes of Hog'ar 
on the same account X. It therefore not very unfre- 
queiidy happens that the first wife k»es her rank and 
privileges; another becomes the chief lady, and, being 
Uifl'fkvDurite nl' her husband, is treated by her rival 
tiCTivials, and by all -the members and visiters of the 
hfcBref/m, with the same dc^ee of outward respect 
*vhi^ the first wife previously enjoyed : but some- 
tilnee the poisoned cup is employed to remove her. 
A- preference given to a second wife is olten the cause 
if" thie 'first's being registered as na!sliizeh§, either 
tffflker husband's or berown apptiuationat theMahh'* 
iMWeh. Yet many instances are known of nej^olad 
trhCfs behavins; with exemplary anil unfeigned sub- 
mls^Ofl to their husband, in such cases, and with 
ftukUe good nature towards tlie favourite ||, 

'j^C.qininaDljiLbus proauuDceil, fjr ilur'ra/i ; otigiiislly, pRr> 
~~ by-wuv of^ puu; ludoor'rafi is a comaxoa aame lut n 


(^fnielbw enjo'ins a huiUind who hai two or maiis wives t« 
bjttfatljr, InpAitial to iiuna in evoiy raajilict ; but compliuice 
jg^k^ .UH(aUa,.iii ll^is imUia, iu raru, 


Some wives have female slnves who arefl — _^^ 
property, generally purchased for tliem, or prcseii' 
to tliem, before marriage. These cannot be I 
husband's coneubines without t'leir mistress's penri 
sion, which is sometimes grunted (as it was lU I 
case of Hagar, Sarah's bondwoman) ; bulveo'i 
dom. Often, Ihe wife will not even allow her reriii 
slave or slaves to appear unveiled in the presence 
her husband. Should such a skve, without the b 
miijsion of her mistress, become the concubine dn 
husband, and bcur him a child, the child is a sift' 
unless, prior lo its birtli, the mother be sold, ( 
sented, lo the father. 

The white female slaves are mostly in the pp 
session of wealthy Turks, The concubine slaves 
the houses ol' Egyptians of the higher and m" 
dasses are, generally, Abyssinians, of a deep b 
or bronze compleiLion. In iheir features as we^ 
their complexions they appear an inlermediate n 
betweeu the negroes and white people : but the i 
ference between them and either of the above-iPC 
lioned races is coni^iderablc. They themselves, tut 
ever, think that they ditfer so little from the wl" 
people, that ihey cannot be persuaded lo act as b 
vants, »ilh due obedience, to their masler's wiv 
and the black (or negro) slave-girl feels exactly 
the same manner townrds the Abyssinian; bu( 
perfectly willing lo serve the white ladies. I shoi 
here meiition, that the slaves who are lemied Ab 
siniane are uot from tlie counliy properly called Ab 

U, of ceutse.for b limi;, hiii gceatesl fnvoutUej 1]ut, in i 
(if nut m(wt} cases, thii laKling favourite » not the moitl^ 
■onie. The lore of a MooiliTn, thurelare, ia nut always m 
UDnual; uoi doei the mlative coudition atid comjoit «C 
wile, or of each of hii wi^es, invariablj' depend to mUc 
his caiicice, oi her own penunul charma, bi an hci' gei 
conduct uid dispotnliou. 


siniBiinit from the neighbouring territories of tha 
Gallaa. Most of them are hiuidsome. The averuge 
price of one of these girls is from ten to fifteen 
pounds sterling, if moderately handsome ; but this is 
only about half the Hum that used to be given for one 
a few years ago. They are much esteemed bj the 
voluptuaries of Egypt ; but are of delicate consti- 
tution : many of them die, in this country, of con- 
Boniption. The price of a white skve-girl is usually 
from treble to tentbld that of un Abyssinian ; and 
the price of a. black gir! about half or two-thinis, or 
considerably more if well instrueted in Ihe art of 
cookery. The black slaves are generally employed 
as menials *. 

Almost all of the slaves become converts to the 
Mohhamm&dan faith ; but, in general, they are little 
instructed in the rites of their new religion ; and still 
kss in its doctrines. Most of the white female slaves 
wtio ware in Egypt during tny former visit |o this 
country were Greeks ; vast numbers of that unfortu- 
nate people having been made prisoners by the Turkish 
and Egyptian army under Ibmhee'm Ba'sha; and 
many of them, males and females, including even 
iofanls scarcely able to walk, sent to Egypt to be sold. 
latterly, ftom the impoverishment of the higher 
classes in this country, the demand for white slaves 
has been small. A few, some of whom undergo a 
t^I^ of preparatory education (being instructed in 
miuic or other accomplishments, at Constantinople), 
are brought from Chercassia and Georgia. The 
white slaves, being often th^ only female companions, 
and sometimes the wives, of the Turkish grandees, 
and Ijeing generally preferred by them before the free 
hdjes of Egypt, hold a higher rank than the latter 

* nie white rcmab alave is called Ga'riyeh Bcg'da;tiie 
^^a^nUo, Ga'rigeh Hhalauhtt'^th; and the block, Gi^rii/dl 


iD common opinion. They are richly dress«d,| 
umed with valuable omamenls, indulged, frequen 
with almost every luxury Ih&l coii be procured, i 

when it is not their lot In wait upon otbers, may, 
some cases, be happy; ns lateiy has been jrO! 
since the lerminatiou of the war in Greece, by ml 
females of that cDuntry, captivet^ iu ^y{ri 
hharee'ms, refusing their olfered liberty, which ail 
these cannot be supposed lo have done from 
norance of the stale of their parents and other r 
tions, or the fear of e\posing themselves to pow 
But, though some of them are undoubtedly happy, 
least for a time, their number is comparatively sn 
most are fated lo wait upon more favoured fellow- 
soners, or upon Turkish ladies, or to receive tb» 
welcome caresses of a wealthy dotard, or of a o 
who has impaired his body and mind by excema 
every kind ; aud, when their master or mistress' 
comes lired of them, or dies, are sold again (if ti 
have not bums diitdren),or emancipated, and man 
to some person in humble life, who can afford Ui 
but few of the comforts to which they have been' 
customed. The female slaves in the houses of p 
sons of the middle classes iu S^ypt 
more comfortably circumstanced than those Jift 
hharee'tns of the wealthy: if concubines, they nre^l 
most cases, without rivals to disturb their peaces ■»] 
if menials, their service is light, and they are uai 
less restraint. Often, indeed, if mutual attachrad ., 
subsist between her and her master, the situatimntf' 
a concubine slave is mure fortunate than that' of'f*' 
wife ; for the latter may be cast otF by her husbAtodj 
in a moment of anger, by an irrevocable sentenced 
divtiTce, and reduced to a state of poverty; whcnb 
a man very seldom dismisses a female slave witbMit' 
providing for her in such a manner that, if she havt^ 
' not been used to luxuries, she sufi^B but littll, tf i^ 


aO) l>y the chan^ ; this he gcnenilly does by emEui- 
.cipatin^ her, giving her a dgwry, and marryiup; her 
4o some persoM of boiiesC reputation ; or by present- 
jng her to a friend, I have already mentioned, that 
B master cannot sell a slave who has home him a 
ehili]; and that she is entitled to her freedom on his 
death. It oilea happens that Ruch a slave, ininie- 
-diately after tlic birlh of her child, rs emBUcipated, 
and becomes her master's wil'e : when she has be- 
et!, she can no longer kwfully supply Ibe place 
■of a wife unless he marry her. Many persons con- 
sider it dis^acefol even to sell a female slave who 
■has beeD long in their service. Most of the Abyesi- 
■n»n and black slave-girls are abominably cornipleil 
■by the Geila'bs, or slave'traders, of Upper Egypt and 
tKnbia, by whom they are brought from their native 
eountries : there are very few of the age of eight or 
.nine years who have not suHered brutal violence; 
isnd so severely do these cliildren, particularly the 
lAbyasii^ns, and boys as welt as girls, feel the treat- 
hient which they endure from the Gella'bs, that many 
. instances occur of their drowuiug themselves during 
*tho voyage down the Nile*. The female slaves of 
■jtSrery class are somewhat dearer than the males of 
(4he Bame o^e. Those who have not had the small- 
I tjpat are usually sold for less than the others. Three 
'>^yB' trial is geuerally allo\ved to the purchaser ■ 
jdunng which time, the girl remains in his, or sorrie 
Vfriend'a, hharee'm ; and the women make their report 
Ato-faim. Snoring, grinding the teeth, or talking during 
liBlcfp, are commonly considered suflicient reasons for 
lireturning her to the dealer. — The dresses of the 
iijfemale slaves are similar to those of the Egyptian 



The female servants, who are Egyptian girls qr 
women, are those to whom the lowest occupittiooi 
are allotted. They generally veil their faces in tba 
presence of their masters, with the head-veil; drawing 
a part of tliis before the lace, so that they leave onlj 
one eye and one hand at liberty to see and perfonqi 
what ihey have to do. When a male visiter is «h- 
ceived by the master of a house In un apartment c^ 
tbe hharee'm (the females of the family luiving' beep 
sent into another apartment on the occasion), he ia 
usually, or often, waited upon by a female servant^ 
who is always veiled. 

Such are the relative conditions of the various 
classes in the hharee'm. A short account of their 
usual habits and employments must he added. 

The wivea, as well as the female slaves, are nqt 
only often debarred from the privilege of eating- with, 
the master of the family, but also required to 
upon him when he dines or sups, or even takes his 
pipe and coffee in the hharee'm. They frequently 
serve him as menials; fill and light his pipe, make 
coffee for him, and prepare his food, or, at leas^ 
certain dainty dishes ; and, if I might judge tVom mj 
own experience, I should say that most of them an 
excellent uooks ; for, when a dish has been recomr 
mended to me because made by the wife of my host, 
I have generally found it especially good. The wivef 
of men of the higher and middle classes make a great 
study of pleasing and faadnaCing their husbands by 
unremitted attentions, and by varimis arts. Thete 
>»quetry is exhibited, even in their ordinary gait, 
when they go abroad, by a peculiar twisting of tha 
body*. In the presence of the husband, they tn 
usually under more or less restraint ; and hence th^ 
are better pleased when his visits, during the day, are 
* Tbe motion btit deacdlicil tbey tenn skmi'g. 


_ ■ , y frequent or long: in hia absence, they often 
ladu^ in Qoi»>y meiriment. 

Tht diet of the women is similar lo that of the 
men, but more frugal ; and Iheir manner of eatiof is 
the same. Many of tbem are allowed to enjoy the 
liHUry of smoking; fortius habit is not considered 
tmbecominif in a. female, however high her rank; 
the odour of the tobacco which ihey use lieins; very 
'delicate. Their pipes are generally more slender 
than those of the men, and more ornamented; and 
the mouth-piece is sometimes partly composed of coral, 
in the place of amber. They generally make use of 
perhimes, such as mush, civet, fie. ; and oflen, also, 
of cosmetic, and particularly of several preparations 
'v^ch they eat or drink with the view of acquiring 
what they esteem a proper degree of plumpness • : one 
of these prepiiraliona is extremely disgusting ; being 
chiefly composed of mashed heetles-f. Many of them 
afito have a hiibit of chewing frankincense!, and 
bbdanum §, which impart a perfume to the breath. 
the habit of IVequent ablutions renders them cleanly 
in person. They spend but little time in the opera- 
fioiis of the toilet; and, after having dressed them- 
selves in the morning, seldom change their clothes 
dnring the day. Their hwr is generally braided in 
the bath ; and not undone afterwanls for several days. 

The care of their children is the primary occupa- 
tion of the ladies of Egypt : they are also charged 

• The Egyptians funtike Ihu Mugh'iab'eei, nnil some othei 
people or AlVicu, anil of thu Esat) do not (^neially uJiaiie 
v«|ijr fat women. In h» iDvo-gouf^. the ^p" 

' "t It wuiUi) Beem that theie inaecta were eftten by the 3ewa 
(nh IwivUiciKi xi- 22) ; but we eBiinot flupjidite that thvy de- 
livtHl Ulis cubIuid from Ihe EgypliuUB, who ivgarded the buctle 


witli the superintendence of domestic a.lTair3 
most f^inilics, the husband alone attends tbl^ 
household expenses. Their leisure-hours are mdstti 
^KDt in working; with the needle ; particularly in 
embroidering handkerchiefs, head-veils, &c., upD!n''k 
frame called mcn'seg, with coloured silks and gc^. 
Many women, even in the houses of the wealth^, 
replenish their private purses by ornamenting luina- 
kerchiefs anil other things in this manner, and em- 
ploying a delMleh (or female broker) lo take the'iil 
to the mej-ket, or lo other hharee'ms, for sale. Thfa 
visit of one hharee'm to another often occupies nearly 
a whole day. Eating, smoking, drinking coSte and 
sherbet, ^ssiping, and displaying their finery, are 
suSicieDt amusements to the company. On su^b 


ns, the iiiBsler of the house is never allowed 
enter the hharee'm, unless on squip jiartiuiil&r uiici 
Uimvoidable business; and in this ease, he mnsl'givc 
n<ilice of his approach, and lei the \i»ilers have suf- 
ficient time to veil theniaclves, ur to retire to an 
atyoining room. Being thu?i under no fear of his 
sudden intrusion, and being naturally of a lively aiid 
an unreserved disposition, they indulge in eiisy gaiety, 
and not uurrequently in youthful frolic. When (heir 
usual subjects of conversation are exhausted, some- 
times one of the party entertains tlie rest with the 
jecilfll of some wonderful or facetious tale. The 
"Egyptian ladies are very seldom inslrueted either ih 
■ ,niu^ic or dancing; but they take great delight in 
the performances of professional musicians and public 
dancers; and often amuse themselves and iheir 
guests, in the absence of better peribrmers and better 
instruments, by beating the dar'abool^/itk (which ia 
A kind nf drum) and the ta'r (or tambourine*); 
though seldom in houses so situated that many p^ 
sengers mit^ht hear the sounds' of festivity. On the 
Weasion of any threat rejoicing among the women 
(such as takes place on account of the birth of a sdti, 
or the celebnition of a drcumeision, or a wedding, 
&c:^,'Awa'lim (or professional female sinffcrs) are 
4>tlen iotrodueed; but not for the mere arausemenl 
orihc Hoinen, on aimmon occasions, in any respect' 
able funsily ; for this would be considered indecorau!i. 
The GhawJzer. (or public dancing-girls), who exhibit 
iB'Jlie streets with unveiled faces, are very seldom 
admitted into a hharee'm ; but on such occasions as 
those alwve-mentioued, they often perform in front of 
the house, or in the court ; though, by many persons, 
even t&is is not deemed strictly proper. The Ala'- 

DnNriptioas and eogruiDf^ or^.thtx) iailinnHpti will 
be giiMi in uisther chapter, in the lecond volume. 


tejpeh (or male musjcians) are uever hired excluuvdy 
for ihe amusement of the nomeii i but chiefly for thi^ 
of the men : the; always perform in the asiieinbly of 
the latter: their concert, however, is distioctly tieard 
by the inmates of the hharee'm ". 

When the women of the higher or middle clasMt 
go out to pay a visit, or for any other pmpoRe, thej 
generally ride upon asses. They sit astride, upoD a 
very high and broad saddle, which is covered with a 
amall carpet ; and each is attended by a man on one 
or on each side. Generally, all the women of a 
hharee'm ride out togeUiet; one behind another. 
Mounted as above described, they present a very 
singular appearance. Being raised so high above 
the back of the AAowws'rt 'fl'/tfe(or the "high aes" — 
for HO the animal which they ride, furnished with the 
high saddle, is commonly called J), they seem very 
insecurely seated; but I believe this is not really (he 
case: the asa in well girthed, and sure-lboted ; ud 
proceeds with a slow, ambling pace, and very easy 
motion. The ladies of the highest rank, as well 
as those of the middling classes, ride asses, thus 
equipped: they are very seldom seeji upon mules or 
horses. The asses are generally hired. When a lady 
cannot procure a hhomit'r 'a'lee, she rides one of the 
asses equipped for the use of the men ; but has a 
trggddeh (or prayer-carpet) placed over its aaddlej 
and tiie inferior members of the hharee'm, and females 
of the middle orders, ol^n do the same. LadlK 
never walk abroad, unless they have to go but a ''iwf 
short distance. They have a slow and shuffling gai^ 
owing 10 the difficulty of retaining the slippers upon 
their feet; and, in walking, they always hold the 

• The performances of the A'lo.'tee'yeh, 'Awa'lim, and 
Gbawi'iec, will be described ia the Becooil Toluuie. 
t TTiui commonly ptonnunced, for hhtToa'r. 
/ II ia a)so cflllecf AAamo'f mooJ^Ill'lf«'seTAMi). 



U^ydt (or male muHicians) are never hired excluBiTtdf 
for ttie aniusement of the women i but chief); for tKit 
of the men; they always perform in the assembly of 
the latter: their concert, however, is dietinctly t 
by the inmalea of the hharee'ni ". 

When the womea of the higher or cniddltt <je»« 
^1 out to pay u visit, or for any other jmrpose, thqf 
generally ride upon asses. They sit astride, upon a 
very high and broad saddle, which is covered with a 
small carpet ; and euch is attended by a man oil one 
or on each side. Generally, all the women of s 
hharee'm ride out together i one belkind another. 
Mounted as above described, they present a verjF, 
singular appearance. Being raised so high above 
the back of the hhomi^r t 'a^'fe (or the " high aas"— 
for Eo the animal which they ride, fiirnished with the 
high saddle, is commonly called!), they seem 
insecurely sealed; but I believe this is not really the 
case: the ass is well girthed, and Eure-foo(«d; Bud 
proceed! with a slow, ambling pace, and very eon 
motion. The ladies of the highest mnk, as ymt 
as those of the middling classes, ride asaes, thiH 
equipped: they are very seldom seen tipim muleaor 
horses, The aaaes are generally hired. When a lady 
CBiiaot procure a hhoma'r 'a'lee, she rides one of the 
asses equipped for the use of the men ; but has a 
»rggaldek (or prayer-carpet) placed ovei' its saddle; 
anddw inferior members of the hharee'm, and feiiH4t 
of the middle orders, olten do the same. Ladijh 
never walk abroad, unless they have to go but a w^ 
short distance. Tliey have a slow and shuffling goi^ 
owing to the difficulty of retiunJng th« slippers upon, 
their feet; and, in walking, they always hold the 

• The rutformances uf Ibe A'la'tee'yeh, '.A.wa'lim, 
Ghawa'nee, »ill be described in the second volurao. 
t Thus commonly pranounced, for hhcma'r, 
\ It Ja alflo called hhoma'r moog/itt'tet (covered ass). 

■■■■ . "^ '»1^ 

/ r-.f. j.-fv i: 

' ' : >-■; '.{fi '-rt 

!.■ ■ '\i.?V 

■■■1 '' 


■ • ■ • . ii: I 

. . : '•' W.i 



front edges of Uie hhal/arsh in the monocr repre- 
sented in the engravini>; opposili; page 51 iu this 
volume. Whether walking or riding, they are re- 
garded with much respect in piibliu: no well-bred 
man stareii at them ; but rather directs his eyes 
another way. They are never seen abroad at night, 
if not L-ompelled to go out or return at thut time by 
some pressing and extraordinary necessity : it is llieir 
UHual rule to return from paying a visit before sunset. 
The ladies of the hiQ;her orders never go to a shop, 
but send for whatever they want; and there are 
numerous della'lehs who have access to the hharee'ms, 
and briDg all kinds of ornaments, articles of female 
apparel, &c., for sale. Nor do these ladies, in 
general, visit the public bath, unless invited to ac- 
company thither some of their friends ; for most of 
Ihem have baths in their own houses. 


Domestic Life — coptiiiued. 

The (lomeslic life of Ihe loiter orders will be t 
subject of the present chapter. In most respect%i§ 
ia 80 simple, that, in comparison with the life pf.ll ' 
middle and higher classes, of which we have j 
been tikking a view, it olPers but little to our naLicC 

The lower orders in Egypt, with the exceptioiL ^ 
a very small proportion, diieflv residing in the Iw^ 
towns, consist of Fella'hhee'n (or A^iculturirtuS 
Moat of those in the irreat towns, and a few in I' 
Bmaller towns and some of the villages, are pet^ I 
tradesmen or arCiHcers, or obtain their livelihood us 
servantH, or by various labours. lu all cases, their 
earnings are very small ; barely sufficient, in general, 
and sometimes insufficient, to supply <hem and tbeic 
families with the cheapest necessaries of life. 

Their food chiefly consists of bread (made of millet 
or of maize), milk, new cheese, eggs, small sailed 
i^sh*, cncumhers and melons and gourds of a great 
variety of kinds, onions and leeks -)-, beans, chick-peHS, 
lupins, the fruit of tht^ black egg-plant, lentils, &c, 
dales (both fresh and dried), and pickles. Most of 
the vegetables they eat in a crude state. When tlie 
maize (or Indian corn) is nearly ripe, many ears of 
it are plucked, and toasted or baked, and eaten thus 
t^ the peasants. Rice is loo dear (o be an article of 
common food for the fella'tdiee'n ; and flesh-nieul ihey 

very flvlrlotn taste, 'i'lipre is one luxury, however, 
which most ol' ihem enjoy; aud ihat is, smoking the 
clieaf totmcco ol' their country, merely dried, alid 
broken up. It is of a pale, greetiisli colour, when 
dried ; oad of a mild flavour. Though all the arUcles 
of food menlioued ahove are extremely cheap, there 
are miiny pour persons who oflen have nulhin^ nitb 
which to season their coarse bread but the mixture 
called doorVckah, described in a former chapter. It 
is surprising to observe how simple and pour is Uie 
-diet cd^ the Egyptian peasantry, nnd yet how robust 
mnd healthy most ol' them are, and how severe is the 
labour nhich they can undergo. 

The women of the lowfr orders ecldum pass a life 
uf inactivity. Some of them are even condemned lo 
greater drudgery thuu the men. Their cbii^f occupa- 
tiotia are the preparing of the husband's food, fetching 
Wkter (which ihey carry in a large vesBel on tlie 
tmd), spinning cotton, linen, or woollen yam, and 
maluDg the fuel culled gePUh, which is composed of 
the dang of cattle, kneaded with chopped straw, and 
fimned into round flat cakes : these they stick upon 
the walls or roof^ of their houses, or upon the apround, 
to dry in the sun ; and then use fur healing their 
Otene, and for other purixiseK. They are in a stale 
of much greater subjection to their husbands than is 
Ibe case among the superior classes. Not always is 
a poor woman allowed to eat with her husband. 
When she goes out wilb him, she generally walks 
behind him ; and if there be anything for either of 
diem ta carry, it is usually borne by the wife; unless 
it be merely a pipe or a stick. Some women, in the 
towns, keep shops ; and sell bread, vegetables, &c. 
■od thus contribute as much as their husbands, or 
4ve& more than Ae latter, to the support of their 
fiunilics. When a poor Egyptian is desirous of marry 
ing, the chief object of his consideratimi is the dowry 

Kb modern BSTPTIAKS. 

which is usuoHy from abont twenty ri^c^iv^oitRii 

shillings) to four limes that nmount, if torn ' 
Only of money; and rather less if, as is (^ 
throng'hoiit a g:rent part of Kgypt, it compriae-o 
articles of clothing' : if he can nlibrd to g-lve the dowr); 
he seldom hesitates to marry ; for a little additional 
exertion will enable hiiti lo snpport a wife and two oi 
three children. At the age of live or sin y«ars,.tha 
children become of ubc tti lend the flocks and faenAcf. 
and at a more advanced age, until they macry^they 
assist their fathers in the operations of agricuWraB 
The poor i a Egypt have often to depend eutiiety u 
their sons for support in ^eir old age; but maii^ 
parents are deprived of theae aids, and consequeptlf 
reduced to beggary, or almost to starvation, A 
months ago, the Ba'shn, during his voyage fnJifi 
Alexandria to this city (Cairo), happening to land ol 
a village on the bank of the Nile, a pour man of Ite 
place ran up to him. and grasped his sleeve so tiyhtl)^ 
that the surrounding attendants could not maJLe biat 
quit his hold ; he complained that, although he hi ' 
been once in very comfortable circumstances, he b 
been reduced to niter destitution by having his an 
taken from him in his old age as recruits ftw thp 
army. The Ba'sha (who generally pays attenlioa to 
pereonal applications) relieved him ; but it wke Igy 
ordering that Ihe richest man in the village should 
give Idm a cow. 

A young family, however, is aometimes a 
■Jjbrtable burden to poor parents. Hence, 
a very rare occurrence, in Kgypl, for children to be 
publicly carried about for sale, by their mothers or 
by women employed by the fathers : but this vaiy 
Getdom happens except in cases of great distreaB. 
Wlicn a mother dies, leaving oSfe or more children 
unweaned, and the father and other sorviving i 
tiuns are so poor as not to be able to procure a 

THE LOnsa ORDERS. 269 

Brn^lnr mode or disposing of Ibe child or 
obildren is ollen reRorled to ; or cometimeaiiin in&at 
lid at the door ol" a mosque, generally wlien toe 
congregBtion is assembled to perlbrin tlie noon -prayers 
ofFriduy; and in this case it usually happens llMt 
some miinber of the congregaliou, on coming otit 
of the mosque, and seeing the poor foundling;, is, 
moved with pity, and takes it home to rear in his 
fsmily, not as a i^ave. but aa mi adopted child i uf, 
if not, it is taken under the care of some person until 
an adoptive father or mother be found for it. A 
■faort time ago, a woman olfered for sule, to tJie 
mistress of a family with whom u friend of mine is 
■cqtntinted in this city, a child a few days old, wliicli 
she professed to have tiniud at the door of a mosque. 
tPhe lady said that she would take the child, to rear it 
for the sake of God, and in the hope that her ows 
«hild, an only one, might be spared to h? r as a reward 
im her charity; and handed, to tlie woman who 
brought the infant, ten piasters (than equivalent to ft 
Uttle more than two shilling) : but the offered remu- 
teeraliou was rejected. Tliis shows tiiat infants are 
.eomelimes made mere objects of traffic ; and a^jne 
Tpersons who purchase them may make them their 
islaves, and sell iLem again, I have been iufurmed, 
Jiy a slave-dealer (und his assertion has been con- 
tfirmcd to me by other persons}, that, young Egyptian 
girls are sometimes sold as slaves from other couii- 
i-tpes> either by a parent or by some other relation. 
3 'slave'ilealer here alltided to said, that se>^^ral 
wueh gifbhad been commilled to him for sale; and 
iby their own consent ; ihey were taught to e^p^ct 
yrich dresses, and great luxuries ; and were instrucltrd 
•■to say, that they had been brought from their p^ 
i>country when only three or four years of age, and 
-that they consequently were ignorunt of their native 
t^JoDgiiage, and could speaAi Doly AiaUc. 


It oHen happens, too, that a, I'ella'tih in a H 
^at poverty ia induced, by the oflFer of a i _ 
money, lo place his son in a situation far worse lhf(t 
that of ordinary slavery. Wlten a certain nuniber ^ 
recruits are required from a village, the sheykh of 4yt 
village often adopts the plitn that ^¥es him the lea|g 
trouble to obtain them, which is, lo take the sons^ 
those persons who are possessed of most properl| 
Under such circumstances, u father, rather than pa| 
with his sun, generally offers, to one of his poOTM 
fellow- villagers, a sum eijuivalent to one oriwopoun^ 
sterling, lo procure a son of the latter as a suDBtiti^ 
for his own ; and usually succeeds ; though the Jo; 
of of&pring prevails among; the Egyptians as muc 
as filial piety ; and most parents have a great hcoQ 
of parting with their ehildren, particularly if takq 
for recruits, as is proved fay the means to which t' 
have recourse for the prevention of such aj 
rence. There is now (in 1834) seldom to I 
in any of the villages, an able-bodied youth or yoaJB 
man who ha.s not had one or more of his teeth broke 
out (that he may not be able to bite a cartridge, or, 
finger cut olf, or an eye pulled out or blinded,,^ 
prevent his being taken for a recruit. Old woi 
and others make a regular trade of going about A 
village lo village, to perform these operations u. 
the boys; and the parents themselves are sometim 
the operators. Bui, from what has been said befix 
it appears that it is not always affection alone U; 
prompts the parents to have recourse to such e 
pedienls to prevent their being deprived of the 
children. , 

The Fella'lihee'n of Egypt cannot be justly tepn 
sented in a very favourable light with regard to tl**^" 
domestic and social condition and manners, in i 
worst points of view, they resemble their Bed'av 
ivithout posaessmg many of the virtues f 


'<he inhabitants of the desert, ualess in an inferior 
degree ; and the customs which they have inherited 
' from their Ibrefalhcrs olYen have u ver j baneful eflect 
upon their domestic state. It has before been men- 
tioned that they are descended from various Anb 
inbes who have settled in Egypt at different periods; 
-tud that the distinction of tribes is still preserved by 
ihe inhabitants of the villages throughout this caunr 
try. In the course of years, (he descendants of each 
tribe of settlers have become divided into numerous 
branches, and these minor tribes have distinctive ap- 
pellations, which have also often been given lo the 
.viQage or villages or district which they inhabit. 
Those who have been longest established in Egypt 
'have retained less of ite<l'awee manners, and have 
more inlHnged the purity of their race by inter- 
Dianiages with Copt proselytes to the Mohham- 
madan faith, or with tlie descendants of such per- 
sons : hence, they are otien despised by the tribes 
more lately settled In this country, who frequently, ia 
contempt, term the former " Fella'hhee'n," while they 
arrogste to themselves the appellation of " Arabs" or 
" Beo'awees." The latter, whenever they please, 
take the daughters of the former in marriage, but 
will not ^ve their own daughters in return ; and if 
tone of them be killed by a person of the inferior 
tribe, they kill two, three, or even four, in blood- 
revenge. The prevalence of the barbarous Bed'awee 
law of blood-revenge among the inhabitants of the 
"viSages of Egypt has been mentioned in a former 
chapter: the homicide, or any person descended from 
hiro, or from his great- grandfather's father, is killed 
by any of such I'elations of the person whom he has 
. alnin ; and when the lioniidde happens to be of one 
tribe, and the person killed of another, often a petty 
.war breaks forth between these two tribes, and is 
sometimes continued, or occasionally renewed, during 


i-, aui 


a period of several years. The same ia also frequentlyj 
the result of a. trifling injury comniiUwi by a memb* 
of one tribe upon a person of another. In maiqr 
iDEtances, Ihe blood-revenge is takeii a century cUr 
more after the commiKii^ion of the act nhieh has occ«> 
sioned it ; when the feud, for that time, has li 
dormant, and perhaps is remembered by scarci 
more than one individual. Two tribes in Lowef 
Egypt, which are called Sa'ad and Hhart^m, ar4 
moat uotorious for these petty wars and feuds; 
hence their names are commonly, applied to any 
persons or parlies at enmity with each other. 
aBtonishing that, in the present day, such acts (i 
if committed in a town or city in Egypt, would -~^— 
punished by the death of, perhaps, more than ohe'i^ 
the persons concerned) should be allowed. So^h' 
other particulars respecting blood-revenge, and ' fBi 
consequences, have been stated in the chapter abotlft 
alluded (o. The avenging of blood is allowed by (Nk 
Ckoor-a'n; but moderation and justice are enjointa. 
in its execution ; and the petty wars which it so oflcB 
occasions in the present age are in opposition td'a! 
precept of the Prophet, who said, " If two Moo^ims, 
contend with their swords, the slayer and the slain 
will be in (he fire [of Hell]." ' 

The Fella'hhee^n of Egypt resemble the Bed'aweii. 
in other respects. When a Fella'hhah is ibund '(o 
have been unfaithlul to her husband, in general^te, 
or her brother, throws her into the Nile, with a s^one 
tied to her neck ; or cuts her in pieces, and, tb^n 

'throws her remains into the river. In most instaiiei^ 
also, a father or brother punishes in the same maaner 
an unmarried daughter or^sisier who has been guiiij 
of incontinence. These reUitionB are considered W 
disgraced than the husband by the Crime of the 
woman ; and are often despised if they do not tfaui 

punish her. ■■''• 

■ woman ; 

I punish I 

Chaptbr viir. 
Common Usaoes of Societv. 


( Moos'liras are exlremely formal and regular 
I their social manners ; though geaerall; very easy 
I their demean our, and free in their coDversntiuQ. 
Several of their most cummon us&g'es are founded 
upon precepts of their religion, and distinguish them 
in society from all other people. Amnng iheae a 
their custom of greeting each other with the salutation 
of "Peace be on you"!" to which the proper and 
general reply is '*' On you be peace, and the mercy uf 
^Gpii, and his bl^ssingst!" This salutation is never 
to ]je addressed by a Moos'lim to a person whom 
he knows to be of another religion | ; nor vice verna. 
The giving it, by one Moos'lim to another, is a duty; 
but one that may be omitted without sin : llie retUrO- 
iug it is absolutely obligatoiy: thelbrmerisaiOOnfirA 
ordinance; and the latter, /tirrf. Should a Moos'lim, 
however, tlius salute, by mistake, a person not of the 
' si^me faith, the tatter should not return it } aild the 

■•" E.-W/flWa VV^ooin, or Sela'iaom 'alty'kom, «, »Ul- 

. ' ■{'Altj/'JuiomBa-i-K/a'inaiitea-rBhli'ina'eo-ila'In'aiefiaraia'lMli, 
, oiroeraly '^/ej'iowiiti-ii/a'Di-COn you lis peace!) ; but Win 
. Iquger Uliitatiou U moce cammDnly used, in uccoidance with 

in liyuaclion in the Ckooi-a'n, chap. i< 
1 Very Tew Mc '" ' ' " " ' ' 

-I Kgypt do 10. A Europatn itn- 
fel'lBT, BoldiiKuisedbyTuikiBli liresi, ofrca rancisa (hatha is 
rifgoeetBdwiih iliii aalutaUoa wiicu it is really iateiid«>^ 
Uoub'lim B.[teadaaU 

a period of severhit years. The same is also frequent^ 
the result of a trifling injury commitled by a inembeC 
of one tribe upon u persou of unoLher. In maiS 
instances, the blood -revenge is taken a century at 
more afler the commisftion of (he act which has occal 
sioned it ; when the feud, for that time, has lay 
dormant, and perhaps is remembered by i 
more than one. individual. Two tribes in Lonw 
Egypt, which are called St^ad and Hhart^Tti, aiiS 
most notorious for these petty wars and feuds ; aoA 
hence their names ore commonly. appHed to any lim 
persons or parties at enmity with each other. It't 
BstonishiDg that, in the present day, such acts (whiol 
if committed in a town or city in Egypt, woulil n 
pnnished by the death of, perhaps, more than brie-B 
the persons concerned) shoulil be allowed. Sorn 
oilier particulars respecting blood- revenge, and IB. 
consequences, have been staled in ttie chapter abom 
alluded to. The avenging of blood is allowed by t^ 
Ckoor-a'n ; but moderation and justice are enjoinu 
iu its execution ; and the petty wars which it so Oft^ 
occasions in the present age are in opposition tO Ik 
precept of the Prophet, who said, " If two MocH^Thnt 
contend with their swords, the slayer and the sl^Bi. 
will be in (he fire [of Hell]." '' 

The Fella'hhee'n of Egypt resemble the Bed'aWSAl 
in other respects. When a Fella'hhah is found ta 
have been unfaithful to her husband, in general^'lfe, 
or her brother, llirows her into tlie Nile, with a sjonft 
tied to her neck; or cuts lier in pieces, and, tligu 
■'throws her remains into the river. In most instaitce% 
also, a father or brother punishes in the samemanBer 
an unmarried daughter or sister who has been gtdl^ 
of incontinence. These relations are cbnsidelreil' W 
more disgraced than the husband by the erime of IbB 
woman ; und are often despised if they do oot ' 
punish her. 




The Moos'Iims are eKtrerady forraal and Mgiilat 
in their social monners ; ttiough generally very easy 
i|i their demeaoour, and Tree in their conversation. 
'Severn] of their most eommun uaa^res are founded 
-.uputi precepts of their religion, and distinguish them 
, in society from all other people. Among these m 
their custom of greeting; each other with the salutation 
,pf " Peace be on you ' !" to which the proper and 
general reply is -" On you be peace, and the mercy of 
jCrqd, and his blessings t !" This salutation is never 
to be addressed hy a Moos'lim to a person whoiti 
he knows to be of another religion J ; nor vice rersfi, 
'foe giving it, by one Moos'lim to another, is a duty ; 
but one that may be omitted without sin: llie retura- 
iDg it is absolutely obligatoiy : the former is a soon nth 
OXdjn^nce; and the ]atter,/urrf. Should a Moo^Hm, 
, bowever, thus salute, by mistake, a person not of (he 
a^e faith, the latter should not return itj arid the 

I 'alty'kBm, at, M- 

'""» Ei-tcIa'mi.0 'a/ry'iooin, I 

I'lmnsrely.'^/fyiount fj-M/o'w(Oa you be peocB !) ; but ths 
ylp^er uliiialion is mure commuDly used, \a Hccorilacice with 
an. i'njuQttion in the Ckooi-a'a, chap. iy. ver. 88. 

% VAry few MoDilims in K^ypt i)a no. A EuiopskD tru' 

'ffcHer, sot ilisRuiaed by Tutkinh litres, ufieii fanciia that be is 

Bi|g»etBd,wilh thiii satutatioB hUbii it. in really iiitendEdiw.^ 

Uooalim BLleadaot. 


former, on discovering his mistake, generally rerobs 
hii salutation: so also he sometimes does ira Moo^ 
Urn refuse to return tiis salutation ; usnall; sajiDg 
" Peace be on us, and on [all] the right wonlilppea 
of God," 

The chief rules respecting salutation, 
by the Prophet, and geiiei'ally observed by e 
Moos'lims, are as follow. — The person riding i 
first salute him who is on foot; and he wlio pasi 
by, the persou or persons who are sitting down .4 
Btaiiding Btill; and a small party, or one of sudl,j 
party, should give the salutation to a large party; u 
the young, to the aged*'. As it is sulbcient fiir m 
party to gwf., so is it, also, for one only to refvTi 
the salutation. It is required, too, that a Moos'lil 
when he enters a house, should salute the people ( 
that house ; and thut he should do the same when b 
leaves it. He should always salute first, and t' 
talk. — But, to the above rules, there are some excq 
tions. For instance, in a crowded city, it is 
sary (indeed it is hardly possible) to salute many ) 
those whom one may pass ; nor on a road where ai{ 
meets numerous passeugerB. Yet it is usual &t 
wealthy or well-dressed person, or a venerable sheyki 
or any person of distinction, to salute another v/b 
appears to be a man of rank, wealth, or learninj 
even lu a crowded street. Among pohte people, it i 
customary for him who gives or returns the satuiq 
tion to place his right baud upon his breast, at it 
same time i or to touch his lips, and then bis fori 
bead, or turban, with the same hand. This actic 
is called teymee'nek. The latter mode of leyme/nd 
which is the more respectful, is oflen performed to \ 
persou of superior rank, not only at first, with tb 

* Herodolus B[iealiB of the respect paid in Kgjpt !<■ Ik 
urad, and uf tbe pulita lalutatwua of the Egyptians to etdt 


sela'm (orsnlultttion of "Peace be on you"), but also, 
frequently during a Fonversatioii, and in Ihe lalier 
uaae, wittiout ihe sela'm. 

A person of ihe lower oi'dei's, on approaching a 
superior, parlicularly If the latter be a Tuik, tloes 
not always give the seln'm, but only pertbmis this 
tefmee'neh ; and he shows hi« re^jiect lo u. man of 
high rank by bending down his hand to the ground, 
and then putting it lo his lips and Ibrehead, without 
pronouncing- the sela'm. It is a L-ommon custom, 
also. Tor a man to kiss the hand of a superior (grn»- 
rallj on the back only, bnt sometimes on the back 
and trout), and then to put it to his forehead, in order 
to pay him particular res])ecl; but in most cases, the 
latie.r does nut allow this ; and only touches ihe hand 
that 18 extended towards his : the other person, then, 
merely jiuts his own hund to his lips and forehead. 
To lestity abject submission, in cravinjf pardon for an 
offence, or interceding for unother person, or beg^ng' 
any favour of a superior, not unlrequently the feet 
are kissed instead of the hand. The son kisses the 
hand of the father ; the wile, that of her husband; 
and ibe slave, and oflen the free servant, that of the 
m^ler. The slaves and servants of a grandee kiss 
Iheir lord's sleeve, or the skirt of his clotlung. 

"When particular friends salute each other; they 
Join their right hands, and then each kisses his own 
hand, and puts it to his lips and forehead, or his 
fcrehead only, or his breast; or merely places it on 
Us breast, without kissing it ; if after a long absence, 
nhd on some other occasions, they embrace each 
other; each falling upon the other's neck, and kissing 
Wip on the right side of the face or neck, and then 
upon the left. Another mode of salutation is very 
commonly practised among the lower orders, when 
two friends or at-quiiiutances meet after a journey; 
Joiiung their right iiauds, each of them compliments 




(he other on liia siifMr, and expresses bis 
hiH welfare, bj- i-ppeutlng, alternately, many times, llt> 
words sef^nia't and trfyibci^n*: in comtnenfaTIjt 
tliis ceremony, which i» often continued fax ii«arh> 
minule before they proi.-«d to make any panjciS 
iiifjuiries, they join their hands in the same mdlndf 
as is usually pmctised by us; and at each ultemadw 
of the two expressions above-mentioned, they chaun 
the position of the hands : in repeating tiie SMOB 
wonl, each of the two persoiB turns his fingei^ ir4 
the thumb of the other; and in repeating the fi^ 
word again, the former position is resumed. 

Iii'poliie society, various other foima! sahttatfofltf 
and eomplinients follow the seym, To most at 
these, there are particular replies ; or two or m«t 
different forms of reply may he used in some CB!ul^ 
httt to return any that custom has not preactfbra 
wocld be wnsidered as a proof of ignorance or fliF 
gurity. When a person auks his friend "HOW"* 
jDur heahht?" the latter replies "Praise te '^ 
God I \ " and it is only by the tone of voice ii 
he makes this answer that the intiuirer ca, 
whether lie be well or ill. When one greets 
nther vrith "iWyihft'n," the usual reply is "I 
bless thee5,''or "Ood presen-e thee ||." A frieoil'i 
aequaintance, on meeting another whom he ha* 
seen for several days, or for a longer period, gt 
ratty sajs. after the sela'm, " Thou hast mtide-ui, 
solate by iby absence from usf ;" and 
answered " May (Jod not make [us] desolate by 
absence ••." The ordinary set compliments 

ilng, ' 


i M'luKveba'rii l^t voaba' 

congiahllale yvu on jour Barely" ■a4'V 
Ei- hhaa'don Mia.'^ 




itroiu, lh«t a doicn vVf* 

.iirice for Ikie nientwn vf 

iliiiost evtrry day. 

^ in ilie bouM.' of auoihcr, |i> 

I .]ii\ oilier iiurpose, he never eutera 

I'lU is expressly forbidden by (be 

i iiai^culurly, il' be have tu uBueod 

;iaitineat; iu ivbicb case, bv sbould 

mil mit lur perEiiisBion, or annouiK^e his approach, n 

he gitea up stairs, in ^ maimer which I have UaU 

occasion to describe in u former cbapler -f. SliouU 

tut find no person below, he generally claps his bajids, 

at the dour, or in ibe court ; and wails for a servuit 

to coiue down to him ; or for permiiision to be giveu 

^^j to seat himseif in a inwer apartment, or to 

J .- nij wppcT room. Oh enteritig the room in 

master of the house is seated, he gives the 
'TIlc master returns the salutation ; and 
ih^ vi^terwilh courteousness and atlabilily. 
superiors} or equals, be rises; and to tlie 
fm$f, and otlen to the latter also, be yields the most 
.^qounible place, which is a comer of the deewa'u ; 
ftjia that corner wbicb is to the right of a person 
^^^ the upper end of the room, lliis end of the 
flpom is called the nidr; :xad the whoke of the seal 
|il)t(^ .ektends along it is more honourable than 
those which extend along the sides; each of wbicb is 
^ loiters inferior iu rank to the master 
■-■ I seat themselves at the upper end 
I III so by him; and when eo invited, 
. .-ii; the offereil honour. His equals ail 
i:rQsa-legged, or wilb one knee raised; 
[ .ud reclti^ against the cusluoDS: bis inferiors (fiot, 
« leist) oflen sit tipoa tbeir heels; or take their 

at iLei 

7. t Ch»p. ,L 

e who are ■bote bini r 
lileniiy Mput4lioa. 

1 effin 


upon the edge of the dcewa'ii ; or, if v»y ntttA 
nealli him in grade, Keat themselves upon the in^ 
or caqiet. In t-trict etiquette, Ihe ^'isjte^ should nM, 
Bt flrel, suffer his httnda to appear, when entering the 
nom, or when sealed ; but Khould let the sleeveB fU 
over them ; and when he lias taken his place cm the 
deewa'n, he should not stretch out t\is legs, nor e«n 
itUow liis feet to be seen: but these rules are nnt 
ofUn attended to, exeeptini^ tu the houses of tba 
great. Various forniHl compliments and salutctiiM 
are given and returned afler the HeU'm ; and eomeof 
them, paj^lcularly the expressioiiB of " tei'jribetfti'' 
and "eyah hha'l'koom," are repeated several tine* 
during the same interview. 

Sometimes the visiter's own servant attends hU 
with his pipe: the former lakes his tobacco-purse out 
of hia bosom, and gives it to the servant, who SMS 
it up and returns it after having filled the pipBi W 
after the termination of the visit : otherwise, a 
of the host brings a pipe for the visiter, and 
hi* master ; and next, a cup of coffee ' 
each • ! for " tobacco without coHee," say the Ai 
" is like meat without salt." On receiving the [dp^' 
and the coffee, the visiter salutes the master of tfe^ 
house with the teymee'oeh, which the latl«r returasf 
and the same is done on returning the cup io^uf 
servant. The master of the house also salutes hfv 
guest in the same manner, if the latter be not mi 
beneath him in rank, on receiving and returning 
own cup of coffee. The sulgects of eoiiversation 
gcoeTBlly the news of the day, the slate of trade, As 
prices of provisions, and sometimes religion ftntf 
science. Facetious stories are often related ; and,' 
very frequently, persons in the best society tell lalei,' 

• The visiter, if superior, 
tha mattei of lb« house, lec 


sod quote proverLs. of liie most indecent nature, 
III good society, people suldom talk of each ot)ier'8 
hhuree'ms ; but iatimatt! IViends, and many persooB 
who do aoL strictly observe the rules of good breed- 
ing, very ol^n do so, and in a manner not always 
delicate. Genteel people iatiuire respecting each 
(iiiier'.s '' houseii," ta af^certaiu whether their wives 
and fajnilies are well, — Visits uot unfrequently occupy 
several hours ; Kud sometimes (especially lliose q( 
hharee'ms), nearly a whole day. The pipes are re- 
plenisbed, or replaced by others, as often as is aec«s- 
Bary ; for however long a visiter may slay, he ^ne- 
f»Uy continues »uoking during the whole time; and 
eometimes coif'ee is brought again, or sherbet. The 
manner in which the coHee and sherbet ure served 
has been before described. A person receives the 
same compliment alter prinking a glass of sherbet as 
fifler taking a draught of water' ; and replies to it 
'n the same manner. 

< Ib the houses of the rich, it used to be a ccinmon 
EMlnB) to sprinkle the guest, before he rose to take 
m leave, with rose or orange-Hower water ; and to 
feifuffle him with the emoke ol' some odoriferous 
Mnfastance ; but of lale years, this practice has become 
fujrequent. The scent-bottle, which is called ckooiri' 
om, is of plain or gilt silver, or fine brass, or 
la, or glass ; and has a cover pierced with a smatl 
(, The perfuming-vessel, or mWkka^ah, is g«- 
fSerally of one or the other of the metata ebovo 
tfnenlioneil : the receptacle for the burning charcoal 
'is lined, or half jillecl, with gypsum-plaster; and its 
tcover is pierced with Bpertures for the emission ot 
.Wie smoke. The mib'khar'ah is used last : it is pre- 
. Muled by a servant to the visiter or master, who 
wafts the smoke towards his face, beerd, &c., with 

* Mentioned in chaji. t 




hia riirlit hund. Somelimes it is opened, to emit tlit 
emoke more freely. The substante most comnion(|f 
used in the mib'kliBi'ali is oloes-wood ', or benzoin ft 
or cBscarilla-btirkl. The wnnd ia moistened befbw' 
it ta placed upon the btirninn^ coals. Amben^sf , 
is also used for ihe same purpose ; but very rsrel^ 
and only in the houaes of persons of ftreat weBllhf 
as it is eitlremely costly. As soon as the visilerhtt 
been perfumed, he takes his leave ; giving the seWinf 
which is returned to him, and paying end recernti^ 
other set compliments. If he be a person of mucH 
higher rank than the master of the bouse, the lattef 
not only rises, but also accompanies him to the1o|i 
f the stairs, and then commends hitn to the care cf 


It is usual for b persnn, after pajing a vifiit of 
ceremony, and oa some other occasions, previously 
to his leaving the give b small itresent (tno 
or three piasten, or more, ftct^irdtn^ to circum- 
Btanceii) lo one, or to several, of the EerVanU ; and 
if his horst or mule or.kss be waiting ibr him at the 
door, one of lite sepvsnts ffoes mil witli him, to 
adjuat histlress^ben hemouiils: this officious person 
particularly cnpects u present. When money Is thus 
given to a man's Mtvaoie, it is considweil rncnmbent 
upon their uiasUr (u do eKacCly the same nlien he 
returns the visit. 

Friends very often send presents to each other, 
merely for the B&ke of complying with common .cus- 
tom. When a person celebrates any private festiVjIy, 
h« generally receives preBCrtls from most 'of his 
friends ; and it is a universal rule that he should 
repay the donor by a similar gift, or one of the same 
vaJue, on a similar occasion. It is common for the 
receiver of a present, on such an event, even lo M- 
presS lo the giver hia hope that he may have to 
repay it on the ocuasion of a like festivity. AM 
■duiowledginent accompanied hy such an alhisfbQ 
.to the acquitment nf the obligation impoAeil by fht 
gift, wbieh would be offensive to a trenerous 'Eii- 
li^teui, is, in this country, esteemed polite. The 
pMsent tBgenerailywrappedmanembroidered hatid- 
^rchiief, nbich is returned, itith a trifling peniniflry 
gratiti cation, lo the bearer. Fmit, laid opdn lettie^ 
pad aweelmeets and other dainties, placed in a d^li 
or Ott a tray, and covered with a rich handkeTChJrf ot* 
naftkin^ are common presents. Very iVe^uentl;', A 
present is given by a person to a superior with the 
wew of obtaining sometliing more valuable in return,' 
>lu3 is often done by a servant to his master ; and* 
the gift is seldom rehised ; but often paid for imitte^' 
diately in lasnxji more than equivalent. IClsTgene- 
R 3 


. ti=,fir.i.ii 

— ..osttvcd by n 
^ _ . .k vi cemnony ; ui ' 
r«wt rvligious festival 
' (.lilies. Oi)iera» 

. Libserted ul liieM ' 

j)resetii ereiiemllj 
■• rejecting (iiagnwc 

•• tkich are observeli 
•.iiiiis of ceremonJoK 

I llie ordinory intw- 
Wben » mao hap- 

.. lo God t ! " Each 
. excepted) lUensajB 

■ a. ; I " lo whu'lilllC 
jiiide us und guide 
.-iient in words of» 

I ■, he puis the I 
il ilien says "I seejc 
R-eursed||! " buLhS 
iis it is une whiA 
. IS believed tbat thft' 
::» u gaping mai)lb» 

~, It is more commw 

. iliflt of the p^e3^nt. 
vardon of. GodftW 

'l-hham'doo r^f^^ ' 

coMMOK oiiLGKe or sociETv. ss; 

Grort*!''' When a man has just betn sh&ved, or 
tif«n lo the bath, when he han just peHbrmedtht 
aUuiion preparatory to prayer, when he hna been 
Hnyiiig' hi9 prayers, or <1u1il^ any other meritorious 
act, uhen he has just risen I'rom sleep, when be has 
purchased or put on any new article of dress, and oa 
many other oucaitiona, th^re are particular eDinpiji- 
meiils to be paid to hlin, and pnrticular replies for liim 
to make. 

It is a rule with the Moos'lims to honour the right 
hand and foot above (be left : to use the right baii^ 
for all honoumble purposes; and the left, fiw aetions 
which, though necessary, are unclean ; to put on and 
Itake off' the rig;ht shoe before the left ; and to put the 
right fiwt first over the thrcsbold of a door. 

The Egyptians are extremely courteous to Mict 
other, and have a peculiar grace and dii^ity in their 
tnanner of salutation and their ^neral demeanour, 
•combined with easiness of address, which seem na- 
.-toral to them ; being observable even in the peafanis. 
''Fhe middle and higher classes* of townspeople pride 
'^MOiselves upon their politeness and elegance Of 
tnanners, and their wit, and fluency of speech; and 
■Wlh some justice : but they are not less free in their 
■tanvei^ation than their less accomplished j«How- 
"Btoanttymen. Affability is a general characteristic of 
'ttie' Egyptians of all classes. It is common f« 
"strafBgers, eten in a shop, aller mutual salutation, to 
^trter Into conversation with each other with as mtieh 
'freedom us if they were old acquaintances; atid fir 
'one- who has a pipe to offer it to another who his 
'VAne ; find it is not unusual, nor is it generally con- 
sidered unpolite, for persons in a first, casual meeting, 
to ask each other's names, professions or trades, end 
places of abode. Lasting acquaintances are often 


formed on such occasions. In the middle and hifj^ 
ranks of Escyptian society, it is very seldom thita 
man is heard to say anything ofFenciiye to the feel- 
ings of another in his company ; and the most profli- 
gate never venture to utter an expression meant to 
cast ridicule upon sincere religion: most perBOU, 
however, in every classi, are otherwise more or kn 
licentious in their conversation, and extremely fond flf 
joking. They are generally very lively and dr^mttie 
in their talk ; but scarcely ever noisy in their" birth. 
They seldom indulge in loud laughter ; exprestinff 
their enjoyment of anything ludicroua by v^Mritow 
an exclamation. 

;-■■ .f 

I • '" 

y . 
'■ I 


The metropolis of Egypt maintainn the reputation 
by which it has been distinguished for many ten- 
turiea, of being the best school of Arabic literature, 
and of Mobbammadan theology and jurisprudence. 
Polite knowiedge has much declined among the Arabs 
universally ; but least in Cairo : consequently, the fame 
of the professors of this city still remains unriralled ; 
and its great mosque, the A/har, continues to attract 
innumerable studentBfrom every quarter of the Moo^- 
lim world. 

The Arabic spoken by the middle and higher classes 
in Cairo is generally inferior, in point of grammatical 
correctness and pronunciation, to the dialects of the 
Bed'awees of Arabia, and of the inhabitants of the 
towns in their immediate vicinity; but much to be 
preferred to those of Syria ; and still more, to those of 
the Western Arabs, The most remarkable peculiarities 
in the pronunciation of the people of Egypt are the 
following :— The fifth letter of the alphabet is pro- 
nounced by the natives of Cairo, and throughout the 
greater part of Egypt, as g in give ; while, in most 
parts of Arabia, and in Syria and other countries, 
it receives the sound of j in joy : but it is worthy of 
remark, that, in a part of southern Arabia, where, it 
ia said, Arabic was first spoken, the former sound Is 
given to this letter. In those parts of Egypt where 
this pronunciation of the fifth letletpievai\&,\'BRWMMi, 


of krm'ie/i (which is produced b; a suddea eous 

gf the VDJw after a tulal suppresEion) is given totl|e 

twMity-firet letter, esceplins oy the better instnicted, 

I who give lo this letWr its Inie sound, which I r^re- 

seat bj ck. In other parts of Egypt, the pronuodft- 

lion of the litVh letter is the same as that of J il 

jog, or nearly so; and the twenty-first letter is pw 

DOunwd aa g in givf. By all the Egyptian^ in 

onmnion with niost other people who speitk tlu 

Arabic language, the third and fourth letters of l!)B 

' alphabet ure pronounced alike, as our.l; Knd.tM 

eighth and ninth, as our d. — Of the peculiarities il 

the tiraclvre of the Kgyptiun diulett of Arabic, Oi» 

most remarkable ate, the unneliation of the letttf 

»hetm in negative phrases, in the same manner asuf 

word " T»s" is used in French ; asttta' yerdtigli, fqt 

I maf yefda, " he will not consent"; ma' ho^A 

i ttfyilt, for tin' ftoJa tefyib, " it is not good " ; tU 

I pkcing the demonstrative pronoun after the word.lo 

' which it relutes; as el-beyt rfi/, " this houae"( a^. 

I a fi«quent unnecessary use of the diminutive fpn& 

in adjectives; aBsooghe/gir, for sogfte^rj *' smail"^ 

' ekooTtiyib, for ckare^fi, " near." 

' ^ There is not so much difference between the Kte^ 

I vary 6.nApopvlttr dialects of Arabic as some Europe^ 
Otientaliats have supposed. The latter may be A 
Dcribed as the literary dialect simplijied, principal 
I by the omission of the final vowels and other te ' 
Il mlnations which distinguish the diiTerent cases < 
I noutis and some of the persona of verbs. Nit"' 
I there so great a, difference between the dialects i 
I Arabic spoken in different countries as some person 
whotiave not held interconrsewith the inhabitants i 
lUch countries, have imagined : they resemble eai 
oilltr more than the dialects of some of the diSere'il 
j MWUtiM in England. The Arnhic language a.bouiufe 
^"Si^ sifOonymeai and, oC^ ler of Trards irl^ 

BOUKS, &c. S8T 

t iljBonymous, one is in common use in one ooun- 
try, and auothec elsewhere. Thiu, the E^'pti&n ciiJb 
nilk leUeit ; the Syrian calls it hluUei^h : the word 
tVen ii used in Syria to denote a particular prepant- 
tioa of sour milk. A^din, bread is called in Egypt 
■%j»A ; and in uther Arab oouulries. khooVz ; and 
many examples of a eimilar kind might be adduced, 
• — The pronunciation of Egfypt has more s<^neasthan 
th&lof Syria and most other countrieij in which Arabic 
is spoken. 

The literature of the Arabs Is very comprehensive ; 
'Init the number of their books in more remarkable 
than the variety. Tlie relative uumber of the books" T 
which treat of rejigiuu and jurisprudence may be i 
slated to be abgut oue-lburth : neitt in number are 
works on grammar, rhetoric, and various branches of 
philology : tite ttiird in the scale of proportiou ore 
those on history (chiefly that of tbe Arab nation), 
and on gec^rapby : the fourth, poetical compositions. 
Works on medicine, chy in i«try, the mathematics, nlgc- 
bra, and various other sciences, &c., are comparatively 
very few. 

There are, tn Cairo, many large libraries; most of 
which arc attached to mosques, and consist, for the 
greater part, of works on theolo|^y and jurisprudence, 
and philology. Several rich mercliants, and others, 
have also gtiod libraries. The booitsellers of Cairo 
axe, I am informed, only eight in number* ^ and their 
shoj^ are but ill stocked. Whenever u valuable book 
comes into the possession of one of these persons, he 
goM round witii it to his regular customers ; and is 
almost sure of flndiug a purchaser. The leaves of the 
books are seldom sewed together ; but they are uaually 
enclosed in a cover bound with leather; and mostly 

■ Tom* are nativea. Tberu are bIbo b fewTudiifb bi»I^ 



Iwve, also, an outer case (called tt/rf) or paalebatri 
OJid leaUier. Five sheets, or double leaves, are cam> 
munly [ilrured together, one within another; cwn- 
pOHJng wbut is tailed a kamit. The leaves are llffi 
arranged, in small parcels, withoot beiii? sewed,-)! 
order that one buck may be of use to a ninnber rf 
persons at die same time ; each takintf a karra's. TV 
books are laid flat, one upon another; and tlie name 
is wriUen upon the front of the outer case, or upon tte 
edge of the leuves. The paper is thick and glazed : il 
is moBlly impurted from Veiuce, and glazed in Egyp^ 

The ink is very thick and gummy. Reeds are sse^ 
instead of pens ; and they suit the Aralnc dttiiicUf 
much better. The Arab, in writing, places the jpapu 
upon his knee, or upon the palm of his lefl baii^«c 
upon what is called a miViifirfA, composed afadoiCB 
ot more pieces of paper attached together at the fcnr 

■ Tha latter consLit of the reed (ciaf an), the mickieia, lb* 
peakoifa (>ieit'iAHf ), the <Juu>a'yrA,thcmu'/ar'aA,llien>('iw<I'r4 
(upon vhich the Svc articles bi'fljre meuliouedlie},uvI lb* 
KJMon {mictu^i), whichj «Uh thw eheutti, ue ^Bccd ifw 
the uppei boub. 


airiMniaiK) (Membliii^ a thm book, n4ucli be rest* 
on ilk kncu. Uis ink nml ^icns are cntitained in n 
receptacle calkil daaa'ytky menlitmed in ttie firel 
c^#(>Ur of tlib MDrk, iQ^uitifr with tile penknife, 
Hljdt»n ivwj iii'itniineat \mkhil'ta) upon which tho 
pen ia luid lo bo nibbed, lie rules tai<! pajx-t by Isj^' 
iiigi iiiider it a piece of pasteboard with rtririgB' 
Mjiijned '•ltd glued nuross it (called ^ miliar' ahy.' 
and blishtly presHiiig' il over ciich string. ScisMra 
are uicludeil aruong ttie appacatns of n writer i they 
tuxwed fur cuttiim llu: )Kip(.>r; & turn edge betng' 
cnnsidered aa unbecoming, in Cairo there are many \ 
persons who ubtiiintbeif livelihood "bycopving: manu- \ 
scripts. The ^icpense of writing a karn/s of twenty { 
pages, quarto ^iie, with about twenty-five lines to a j 
pai^, in an ordbary hand, is about three planters (or / 
a tittle mors than sevenpence of our monej^j but [ 
more if iA tui elegant hand ; and about douUe the t 
ettm iPwith Ibe vowel points, Sc, I 

*#^te(jypt, and particularly in i(s metropolis, those 
youlfl* or men who purpose to devote themselveB to 
religious emiiloytnenta, or to any of the learned pfCf 
fessions, mdllly pursue a uiurse of study in the gri^ut 
mosque El'Aj^har; haling previously learned noUiing 
more than to read, and, perhaps, to write, and to re- 
cite the Ckoor-a'n. The Az'har, wbieh is regarded aa 
ti^ncincipal university * of the East, is an extensive 
Vj^jing. surrounding a large, square court. On one 

'■■•'^eAl'hlr ia nut caUed a 
jMety; ^t b Ii'f^nrili^cl BS smh 

Itu^itmi^mtity ef the lunu. u. K.^un:, ur •^■^^^•^.•i .» ud 
^(rtihV tJlugfat nilhin i(a wsJli. Its name hm bocD Irnas-- 
laltd, by Eumpi-on fiavcllers, ■■ the Mosuue of Flowera;" as 
^urtijt. hud bwi cuUed Cb'ru' tl-^Ja'r, mslead of Ef- 
"*^*''^- 'Jar, which is ita (jroper appellation, bjiiI aignifius , 
tiVM usque," It is the Grst with tespect tu Iha 
TviiidiL^uu, as well aa in size, of all the moaituea 


aide of tb^e court, the Eide towards Mek'lceb, »ttt 
cliief plac« of prayer ; a spanoan portico ; an eachtf' 
llio other three sides are smaller porticoes, dividedinlB 
B nuuibfr ol' apartmentB. called riwe^ctf, tuii it 
which if destjued for the use of na,tivesof apartioill 
country, or of u particular province of Egypt. < T!H 
buildiDg is situated in the heart ot' the metropotisTl 
iR not remarkahk in point of architecture, and' JM 
surroi mded by houses that very little of tt ia MeB a 
t*nial[y, The student!) arc called mooga'tdn^nf 
Kacii riwa'ck ha« a library for the use of its m«ialMl( 
and from these books, and the lectures of ttufi 
fessors, the students acquire their leaj'iiin^. T 
refrular subjects of litudy are grammatical inf 
aiid syntaKt, rhetoric J, versificatioo §, logic |j, tl 
I'W ii 1i^ exposition of the Ckoor-a'n "•, the ' 
dilions of the Prophet tti ttie complete science J 
jurisprudence, or rather of religious, moral, civil, ti 
criminal law {}, which is chiefly founded an the Ck« 
a'n and the Traditions; together with arithmetuS 
as far as it is useful in matters of law. Lectures m 
also given on algebra ||||, and on the calculations t 
the Mohhummadan calendar, the times of pi^l 
&c. ^% DiBerent books are read by students i 
ditferent sects. Most of the students, being italtiv 
of Cairo, are of the Sha'te'ee sect; and always .tl 
Sheykh, or head of the mosque, is of this sect, itiui 
of the students pay for the instruction they recei^ 
being mostly of the poorer classes. Most of tiw 
who ore strangers, having riwa'cks ajipropriatad-' 
them, receive a daily allowance of food, providedftB 
flmda chiefly arising from the rents of houses \ 

' In the iJngi 


queathed for their mnintenance. Tboee of Caifo and 
its nei(rhbour)iood used to receive a simiiur allowance ; 
but this they no longer «iijoy, eKcepthig during the 
monlh of Rum'adii'n: for the present Bti'shaol' Egypt 
has taken posseiiBifln of all the cultivable livnd which 
belonged to the moaques ; and thus the Az'har has 
lost the greater portion of the properly which it poB- 
Bcssed : iiotliiiif; but the expenses of ucceseary repairs, 
and the salarieH of its principal officers, ore provided 
for by the governmeot. The profesBOrB, also, receive 
no salarieH. Unless they inherit property) or have 
relations tn maintain them, they have no regular 
-means of subsistence but teaching in private houses, 
■cnpyiug books, &C. ; but they somelimes receive pre- 
sents from Ihe wealthy. Any person who is compe- 
'tent to the task may become a professor by leave of 
"the Sheykh of the mosque. Ihe students moitly 
'obtain Iheir livelihood by the same means as the pro- 
fMBors ; or by reciting the Ckoor-a'n in private 
, JKnwes, and at the tombs and other places. When 
vufiiciently advanced in their studies, some of them 
'iibwome cka'dees, moof'tees, ima'ms of mosque!i, or 
, floboolmasters, in their native villages or towns, or in 
VCairo: oriiers enter into trade: some remain all their 
riifetime studying in the Az'har; and as^re to be 
jntnked among the higher 'Ool'amo. Since Ihe con- 
Ascation of the lands which belonged to the Ax'har, 
',fbii number of that class of students to whom no 
endowed riwa'ck is appropriated has very much 
decreased. The number of students, including' all 
iclasses excepting the blind, is (as I am informed 
iy one of the professors) about one thousand five 
hundred *. 

• Many persoiiB say that iLei 
tliMa tbouB&iid I athecs. nut mat 
laiias iBty muck at ilifiL-reat line 

. le» than J 

uuiJ: It ■ 


There ia a chapel (called Za'ioij/el e __ 
theChapet ol'theBliutl),a(ljiu.'eut to the easlera aWB 
of the Az'har, uiid one of the depeudeucies oFuil: 
mosque, where at present about three hundred gUlf 
blind men, most »i' whom are students, lu^ wf 
teined, trom funds becjueathed for that purpMfi 
These blind men often conduct themselves in a, not 
rehelliuuB and viitient manner ; they are noturiqw^ 
such cundutt, and for their fanaticism. A. w^ 
time ago, a European traveller entering the ^^iBB 
and bis presence there being- busv.ed about, the ^iqp 
men eagerly inquired " Where is the infidel ?" a^lb^ 
"'We will kill him ;" and gropitig about at the aasn 
time to feel and lay hold of him: they were iJw 0«)|f 
persons who Eeemed desirous of showing any ?$•• 
lence to the intruder. Before the accession or.UB 
present Ba'sha, they olien behaved in a very <^ 
rageouK manner whenever they considered themaelxts 
(^pressed, or scanted in their allowance of foo^! 
they wuuld.on these wcasions, take a few guide^gv 
about with staves, seize tlie turbans of passengers ti^ 
the streets, and plunder the shops. The most ewe- 
lirated of the present prolessors in the A^'har,.^ 
nheykh El-Ckoowey'sinee*, who is himself bitw^', 
being appointed, a few years ago, Sheykh w,.^ 
Za'wiyet el-'Omya'n, as soon as he entered, uppK 
his office, caused every one of the blind men tlier«^' 
be flogged i hut they rose against him, bound ih>Pr 
and inHicted upon him a flogging far more sey^ 
ihaa that which they had themselves endured] aiid' 
obliged him to give up his office. ,, 

Learning was iu a much more llourishmg; sfjif^ 
in Cairo before the entrance uf the French arii|.^,ti>|Bii 
it has been in later years. It sufiereil severely. fcpfO 

:: Sliej'kli of tlM 


'Un^ bx'osion ; not tbriHig'h direct oppression, but iii 
coiisequence of the panic which ihiK event occusiuned, 
and the troubles by which it wci» rollowed. fielbre 
that period, a sheylth who had studied in the Aa'har, 
if he had only two boys, fons of u moderately rich 
fella'bb, to educate, lived in luxury: his two pupils 
served him, cleaned his house, prepared bis food, aiid, 
'Uiough they partook of it nilh him, were his menial 
'attendants at every time but that oi' eatiiig;: they 
, followed him whenever he went out; ciirried bis 
'ehoes (and often kissed them when they took them 
''ioff) on his entering a mosque ; and in every case 
treated him with the honour due to a prince, He 
'was then di>:tiiiguished by an ample dress, and the 
'Wge forma! turban called a. moock'lifh; and as he 
'passed along the street, whether on foot or mounted 
"on all ass or mtde, passengers oflen pressed towards 
'liim to implore a short ejaculatory prayer on Uieir 
^liehalf i and he who succeeded in oblaininj^ this wish 
'Ibdieved himself especially blessed; if he passed by a. 
■•praidc riding, the latter was obliged (o dismount i if 
^Tie went to a butcher, to procure some meat (for he 
'found it best to do so, aikd not to send another), the 
'inilcher refused to make any charge ; but kisBud his 
'liaiid, and received as an honour aud a blessing; 
•Nwhatever he chose to give. — The condition of a wtin 
Hof this profession is now so fallen, that it is with 
'Uifiiciilty he can obtain a scanty subsistence, unless 
'yoSSessed of extraordinary lalenU 
"*' The Moos'Iim 'ool'ama are certainly much fettered 
In the pursuit of some of the paths of learning by 
'^^ir^r^^on; and superstition sometimes deddes a 
•){Witot' which has been controverted for centuries. 
"'iieu'e is one singular means of settling a contention 
on any point of faith, science, or fact, of which I 
iWust giv* MiMtojioe. The following anecdote wn.?. 
related t^dj^^^^ma'ui of tbe \a.\& ^wiVte^ <>$v>a. 


There ia a chapel (culled Zolviiyet 
the Chapel of the Blind), adjacent to tl; 
of the Az'har, aiid one of the depend 
mosque, where at present iibout three 
blind men, most w whom are stude 
tained, trom tiinds bequeathed for 
These blind men ofien conduct ttiems 
rebellions and violent manner : they aj 
such couduct, and for their fanatici 
lime ago, a European traveller enteri 
and bis presence there being buxzed a 
men eagerly inquired " Where is the ii 
"We will kill him;" and groping a.bc 
lime to feel and lay hold of him : the] 
persons who seemed desirous of she 
lence to the intruder. Before the ai 
present Ba'sha, they olieu behaved i 
rogeous manner whenever they considf 
o|)preased, or scanted in their allow 
they v«uu)d,oji these occasions, take a 
about with staves, seize the turbans tA 
the streets, and plunder tUe shops. 1 
braled of the present professors in tl 
aheykh El-Ckoowey'sinee*, who ia 
being appointed, a few years ago, 
Zft'wiyet el-'Oniya'n, as soon as he 
his office, caused every one of the bliii 
be flogged ; but they rose o^'ainst h: 
and inflicted upon him a flogging ft that which they had themselves 
obliged liim to give up his office. 

Learning was in a much more fli 
in Cairo before the entrance of the Fri 
it hux been in later years. It suHerei 

f Since this nas « 

1 lie hDH hec 


' «»lc 

' *v &,, 



Rbeylih EI-MuI/dpe) : I wrote it in AraWc, at lus die* 
tation, and Bball here trauskte his woids. The 
sheybh Mohham'miid El-Bahei' (a learned man,,, 
whom the vul^r regard as a lot'/'ee, or especiri, 
favourite of heaTen) Was attending the lecturee of 
llie sheykh El-Emee'r El-Kebee'r (sheykh of tli*^ 
sect of the Ma'likees), when (lie professor read, fhjm 
the Gu'me' es-Saghee'r* of Es-Soojoo'tee, this say-, 
jcg of the Prophet "Veriljr El-Hhas'un and & 
Hhose^'ii are the two words of the youths of HXf^ 
jwople of ParmliRe, ill Paradise," and prot-eeded to_ 
remark, in his lecture, aAer having given a sumiauTn 
olthe history of El-Hhas'an and EI-Hhoae/n, thO,^ 
as to the commoii opinion of tlie people of Must (or 
Cairo) respecting: the head of El-Hhose/ii, holding' 
it to be in the famous Mesh'hed in this cfty (the , 
mosque of the Hhas'aney'n), it was without fouud^,^ 
tion ; not ijeing establislied by any credible authority, 
"I was aRfected," says Mohham'mad Ei-Bahrt,| 
"with excessive grief, by this remarli; since I }»•. 
lieved what is believed by people of inlegrily and of 
intuition, that the noble head was in this Mesh'hed;" 
and I entertained no doubt of it: but I would liotl 
oppose the sheykh El-Emes^r, on account of his bigti 
reputation and extensive knowled^. The lecture 
terminated, and I went away, weeping; and when 
night overshiided the earth, I rose upon my feet, pi^y-"' 
ing, and humbly supplicating ray Lord, and betakiii#l 
myself to his most noble apostle (God favour im} 
preserve him !), begging that I might see him in my* 
sleep, tind that he would inform me in my sleM at 
the truth of Uie matter concerning the place of Hit 
noble head. And I dreamed that I was walking on' 
the way to visit the celebrated Mesh'hed El- 
Hhose/nee in Musr, and that 1 approadied tte" 

* A celebtBled collection of the Tradlliona of the Prt^hrf. ' 

ekool/beh*, and savf in it a spreudiiig light, which 
filled it ; and 1 entered iu duor, oud round a shereeT 
standing by the dour ; und 1 salulod hiiii, and he re- 
turned my salutation, and said lo me 'Salute the 
Apostle of Ocxl (God iavour and preserve him 1) ;' 
and 1 lonked towards the ckib'lehtt &nd savr the 
Prophet (God favour and preserve him !) sitting npou 
a throne, and a man standing on his rig'ht, and 
another man standing ou tiis letl: and I raised my 
voice, saying ' Blessing and jjesce be on thee, O 
Apostle of God I' and I repeated this several times, 
weeping as I did it : and I hevtxA the Apostle of God 
(Qod favour and preserve him!) nay tome 'Approach, 
O my son ! O Mohham'mad '.' Then the first man 
look me, and conducted me towards the Prophet 
(God favour and preserve hiu. 1) and pluced me be- 
fore his noble hands ; and I saluted him, and he re- 
turned my salutalJon, and sdd lo me ' God recom- 
pense thee for thy visit to llie head of El-Hhosey'n 
my son.' I said 'O Apostle of God, is the head of 
Et-Hhosey'n here?' He answered ' Yea, it is here.' 
And I became cheerful: p^rief fled frbm me; and 
my heart was strenglliened. Then 1 said ' O Apostle 
of God, I will relate to thee what my sheykh and 
my preceptor El-Emee'r huth alBrmed in his lec- 
ture : and I repeated to hiro th^ words of tlie 
sheykh: and lie (God fitvour and preserve hith!) 

..Jeaked down, and then raised his head, and said 
'The copyists are excuBcd.'- 1 avifoke from my sleep 

— joyfiri— and happy : but t found that much remained 
of the night ; ami I became impatient of its length ; 
longing for the morn to shiue, that 1 might go to 
the sheykh, and relate to him the dream, in the hope 

which iiiurks <he direction 



that he mi^i^t l>efieve me. When the mwfl^ 
prayed, niid neBt to the house uf the shejltli'; I 
found the duorthut: 1 knuckcil it violent!;; an^'( 
|iovier ciune in ulurm, asking 'Who is that?' "^ 
when he knen me, for he hod known my atx»de'ji 
the Hhoykh,he opened the iloorto me: if it had be 
another person, he would have beaten him. 
tered the court of the bouse, aitd began to calFt 
'My maslerl Myniasterl' The aheykh awok'e,a 
asked ' Who is that ? ' 1 answered ' It is I, thy pirj 
Mohharn'mad El-Bahci' ': The sheykhwas In wn 
der at my coining al tliis time, anil exclaimed ' tici 
absolole glory ! What is this ? What i 
thinking that some great event hod happened aina 
the people. He then said lo me ' Wait while I ^"^ 
I did nut sit down until the sheykh came Soil 
the hall ; when he said to me ' Come up .-' aiifl 
went up, and neither saluted him, nor kismH.*! 
hand, trom the elTect of tlie lireani which t o 
Been ; but swd ' The head of El-Hhose/n is in''i 
well-known Mesh'hed f n Musr : there is no dddW 
it.' The shejkh said ' Wliat proof have you of thi 
If it be a true record, adduce it,' I said 'Fnjri 
book, I have none.' The sheykb said * Host 11 
seen avbion?' I replied 'Yea;' and I related' 
to him ; and informed him that the Apogtle of S 
(God favour and preserve him !) had acquainted I 
that the man who waa standing by the ddor^ 
'Al'ee the son of AVoo Ta'lib, and that he w&dfl 
on the right of the Prophet, by the throne, 'v 
Atfoo Bckr, and that he on his left was OmV 'i 
son of El-Khatla'b ; and that they had come to ^^_^ 
the head of the Ima'm El-Uhosey'n. The sltej 
rose, and took me by the hant!, and said '1ct\ 
go and visit the Mesh'hed El-Hhose/nee '; and wlw 
he entered the ckoob'beh, he said ' Peace be OM the^ 
O aou tjf the daughter of tlie Apostle of God ! 


ittit iliftt the noble head is here, hy reoeon or Ibe 
\iaivn which this person has seen ; for the viaioii of,- 
the Prophet is true ; rfnce he hath said ' Whoso 
Eeetli mc in his sleep seetli me truly ; for Satan can- 
not assume the simiHtude of my form.' Then the 
eheylili said to me 'Thou hast believed, and 1 have 
believed: for these lights are not illusive.'" — The 
above-quoted tradition of the Prophet has often oc(.-a^ I 
EioQcd otlier points of dispute to be settled in Che \ 
same manner, by a dream ; and when the dreamer '| 
is a person of reputation, no one ventures lo couieud |' 
against him. 

The remark made at t!ic com me nee men t of this 
chapter implies that there are, in the present day, 
many Icanied men in the metroixilis of Egypt ; unil 
Uiere are some also in other tftwns of this cottntry. 
One of the most celebrated of the modern 'Oul'ants 
of Cwro is the sheykh Hhas'an El-'Atta'r, who b th« 
present sheykh of the Az'har *. In theology and 
JuriBprudcnte, he is not so deeply versed as (ome of 
jiis. coatemporaries, particularly the sheykh El- 
Cltoowey' since, whom i liave before mentioned ; but 
he is eminently accomplished in polite literature t' 
He is (he author of an " In'sha," or an excellent col- 
^ction of Arabic letters, on various subjects, which 
' are intended as models of epistolary style. This 
' ^work ha^ been printed at 13oo lu'(4k. In mentioiiiiig 
its author, I fulfil a promise which he condescended 
t(> ask of me ; supposing^ that I should pubUsh, m 
; j»y own cowntry, some account of the people of Cairo, 
^e desired me to state that 1 was acquainted with 
tiin, and to ^ive my opinion of his acquirements. — • 
The sheykh Mohham'mad Shiha'b is also deservedly 

^v * Knra the above was wfltlcii, ibh emintnt scholar hai 
f 'Urn <l-a^aL 


«eMbmted u an eccomplished Arabic sclioliit, vai 
elei;nnt poel. His &Hkbility nnil wit attract tc 
liuiise, every *vening, a fi-w friends, whose pleoatirH) 
(>it ihthf FHxuiiuiie, I soiitetiines participate. We an 
received in a small, but very comfortable mom : each 
of UK lakes his own pj{ie ; and coliee alone is pn^ ' 
MWled lo us: the sheykli's conversation is the mnt 
delightful banquet llwt he i^an oflfev us,— There ■*■ 
bIbu several other persons in Cairo who enjoy a 
■iderabic reputation as philologists and poets.-^ 
flbeykh 'Abd Er-Rahhma'u bl-Gebur'iee, anothsr 
modern author, and a native of Cairo, particnfari/ 
deserves ts be mentioned, as having writteli n ve^ 
excellent history of the events wHch have tdteti 
place in Egypt since the comBiencement of ths 
twelfth century of the Flight". Hedied in 1885, ot- 
1830, soon ntler my first ajrival in Cairo. H^ 
family was of Ijl-Oebui't (also called Ez-Zey'la*), » 
pn)vinc£ of Abyssinia, bordering on the ocean. TlW 
Hebuf'tees (or natives of that country) are MaoJ- 
llms. They have a riwu'ck (or apartmeni appro- 
(iriiLied to such of them aR wish to study) in flie 
Ai'hnri and thet« is a similar praviBion for them at 
Mek'keh, and aleo at El-Medet/neh. 

The vVorks of (he ancient Arab poets were but im- 
perfectly understood (in consetjuence of niany vTords 
contained in thenf having become obsolele) between 
two and three centuries, only, atler the introduction 
(if the Molihammadan faith: it must not therefere 
he inferred, from what has been said in the preced- 
ttig paragraph, tliat persons able to explain the most 
dinleull pMsegcs of the early Arab autttors arv now 
•0 be Jbaud in Cairo, or elsewhere. There are, how- 
ever, many in Egypt who are deeply versed in Arabic 

', rhetoric, ami polite litenture ; tliuugli Uie 
GcicDces mostly pursued in ihls cuiiilry ar« tUtulc^j 
anil jurispruileuotf. Fov of Uii- 'uuI'ulhii uI' EgviH are 
well Dcquiuuted with tlic hiiitory of ihoii owu ukLlon ; 
mucb Iws with Uist urotlicj people- 

The Uterary auquiremcnis of thnac wlio do not 
belong to tbc claewa wtin make literature llicir pro- 
fession are uf a. vpry iul'i-rior kind. Muiiy iif (be 
wenUliy ttudesp«u)ile unr wi'll lastnu.'tcd in llie orU 
of readmg and wrllin^; ; tnit few of tttem devote much 
lime Ui the pursuit of Ilt«rature. Those who U»vc 
cfimniitiod to memory the whole, or considerable por- 
tions, of the Ckoor-a'n, and ean recite two or llirco 
celcbruted rAttn'r/ffcAx (or shorl poems), or introduce, 
now and tlieii, on apposilv (|uotaticin in convtnMtion, 
are considered accomplished peraoiiH. Many of the 
tradesmen of Cairo can neither read nor write, or 
i-an imly read ; and are obliged to have recourse to a 
ftirnd to write their aouuuls, letters, fu:. : but theiic 
persons generally cast accounts, and make iiitricute 
enluulatiouN, mentally, with surprising rapidity and 

It ia a very prevalent notion among the Christians 
of Europe, that the Mooe'Iims arc enemies to altnoKt 
Epcry branch of knowledge. This is on erroneous 
idea; but it is true that their studies, in the present 
age, are confined within very narrow liniiiK. Very 
few of them study medicine, chymiatry (for our first 
knowledge of wluch we are indebted to the Arabii), 
(he mathematics, or astronomy. The Egyptian me- 
dical and surgical practitioners are mostly barbers, 
jniserably ignorant of the sciences which they proless, 
uul uil^kiUnl in their practice; partly in consequence 
.qftheir being prohibited by then- religion from avail- 
ing themselves of the advantage of dissecthig human 
' '■ Bnt a number of young men, natives of 


Egypt) arc now receiving European inslructiuu in 
medicine, anatomj, surgery, and utber sciences, for 
the servite of liie gowrnnient. Many of the Egyp- 
tians, in illness, neglect medical aid; placing t^ir 
whole reliance on Providence or charms. Alchypiy, 
is more studied iu this country than pure ch^mistry-^ 
and astrol(^y, more than astronomy. The astriil^, 
and quadrant are iJmosi the only astronomical, \fi- 
^tniments used in Egypt. Telescopes are rarely s^sek 
■ here; and the magnetic needle is seldom emplp^., 
excepting to discover the direction ofMek'tet; foa 
which purpose, conyenienl little compasses (Ga|}e4 
ckiblf^yfhs), showing the direction of the ckiHlet,^ 
various large towns in different countries, are cJij- 
Btructcd, mostly at Dimya't: many of these have,^ 
dial, which shnws the lime uf the 'usr at di^^gl 
places and different seasons. Those person^ ip 
Egypt who profess to have considerable knowledge 61 
astronomy are generally blind to the true prin^plb 
of the science : to say that the earth revolves rftuii^ i 
the sun, they consider absolute heresy. Pure aetni- ' 
nomythey make chiefly subservient lo Iheir compii- 
talions of the calendar. 

The Mohhammadan year consists of twelve IiiiK 
months; tlK names of which are prononnced bjU 
Egyptians in the following manner : — 

1. Mohhav'ram. 
'. 8. SQf'ar. 
, 8. Babee'a el-Ow'wa!. 
4. Habee'a «t-Ta'nee. 
' 5. Gooma'd el-Ow'wa!, or Gooma'da-1 -00*13. " 

6. Gooma'd et-Ta'nee, or Gooraa'du-t-Ta,'myelii.','J 1 

7. Reg'eb. 

8. Shaaba'n. 
i Hum'ada'n. 


11. Zoo-l-Cka'!Mleli,or Ei-Cka'iideh. 

12. Zon-l-Hheg'geh, or El-Hlieg'g^eh '. 

EtLch of these months retrogrades through all ihe 
Afferent seasons of the solar year in the period of 
flbotit thirty-three years and a half: foriscquently, 
they are only used for fixing Uie anniversaries (if 
moBl reIiy:ious festivals, and for the ilates of historical 
events, letters, &c^ and not in mailers relatingf to 
astronomy or the seasons. In the latler eases, the 
Coptic months ore still in general use. 

With their modern names, 1 give the correspond- 
ing periods of cur talendar. 
1 . Too't commences on the lOthor 1 Ithof Scplember. 
'2. Bii'beb .... 10th or 11th of Ucl^iber. 

3. Ha'too'r ... 9th or lOlh of November. 

4. Kavah'k Cvu!g. Kiya'k) Oth or lOth of December 

5. Too'beh . . . Hlh or yth of .January. 

6. Amshee'r . . . 7lh or 9th of Fcbrunry. 

7. Baramha't , . . 9lh of Mareh, 

8. Burmoo'deh . . 8th of April, 
ft. Beshen's ... 8th of May. 

10, Ba-oo'neh . . 7th of June. 

lI.Ebee'b .... 7lhofJuly. 
12. Mis'ra .... 6th of AugusL 

* It it the general opinioa arou[Cliraao1asere,lbat (ba first 
day of the Mohhammiulan era of " the Flight" (in Arahlc, 
eUH^'ra&f or, as it la proauunced by moat of the Kgypthms^ 
tl-Hig'rtk)tiaa Frirl.y, lh« 16th of July, A.D. 622r W it 
miiit be remarked, that the Arahs jjiecerally commepce each 
manlh un the night an whidi, or ou tlui eve of vrhicb, the 
new, moun ii^actually aeea ; and this ju^t ii, in must UHW, 
the veirahdjliut (ametRnei and in Bome places, thu third, 
after the true period of the new muon : if, liovover. the niuuu 
is not seen on the sEconil nt tliiid night, the Duullt \% cum- 
menied on Ihe lattrr. Tbu new inoon of July, A.U. 622. hup- 
pencil between 5 andB o'clock in the mominu of tile I4th; 
tberBfore the IGtb was moat probably Ihe liTDi day of the eiB. 


The Eiya'ni eii-Nes'ee (Intercalai^ days) five or 
siv liajs, complele the year. 

These montlus, it will 1>e obwrveil, are of thirty 
c9ays each. Five iuterculary days are added at the 
etid oi' three sueceesive years ; and six ul the end of 
the founli year. The Coptic leap-year immetliatel]' 
precedes oors: therefore the Coptic year bejpns on 
the llth of September only when il is the uext ofler 
tlieir leap-year ; or when our iiesi eusiiing year is t 
leap-year; and, consequently, after the foUoiring 
February, the corresponding days of the Coptio and 
our months will be the same as in cither years. XUf 
Copts be^n their reckoning from the era of DiodU' 
lian. A.D. 284. 

In Egypt, and other Moos'lim countries, ftonk 
sunset tu sunset is reckoned as the civil day ; the 
iii^ht being classed with the day v/hich foUotO it: 
thus the night before Friday is called the niglit if 
Friday! Sunset is twelve o'clock : un hour aflei 
sunset, one o'clock : two hours, two o'clock; and BO 
on to twelve : after twelve o'clock in the morning, Ibe 
hours ate again named otie, two, three, and so Otl*. 
The Egyptians wind up, and, if necessary, set thdf 
watches at sunset; or rather a few minutes Bfter)) 
generally when they hear the call to evenings prayori' 
Their watches, according to this system of reckonib^ 
i'rom siuiuel, tu be always quite correct, should be 
set every evening ; ns the days vary in length. 

The following Table shows the times of MohlUUn- 
msdan prayerti with the apparent European timtXif 

* Consequi^iilty, the time of udod acconliiii; tu Hubhtknw 
madBD KekOLiiiig. on any imrticular day, aublnieted fimo 
twelve fCivct the apparent tima uf sunBttl, on that day, «»> 
cardinu tu Eunpeau inckaaiag. 

+ The poriuds o( the 'esh'e, ilaybreak, nnd 'lur are 
givro aeconliiig la tlie rccltoniai' must cummoaly (Ullomtt 
ID Egyiil. (EiOB the chapter un reliffiun and lows.) Mo. T. 
dcnotis MoblwmiuBilaii Time : £ur. T., EarnpeBD Titae. 

sanset, ia and near the latitude of Curo, 
mcnccment of each zodiacul month. 



-. . 





""■ m' 

"I" I; 





I'i 7 

Jul, M 1 M„ tl 



1 ao 

8 30 

5 7 

a« 1 Apr. an 




II ai 


9 4 

Oca. SB F-b. 18 







11 18 

nor. it Jin. VI 


1 u 






6 * 





A pocket ulinaimt is itiiiiuully prjn1«d at the go- 
vemnie Ill-press at Bot/la'ck ", ll comprises the 
period of u saiar year, com men dug and terminuting 
with the vernal eijuinox ; ami gives, for every diiy, 
the day of the week, and of the MnhhamniadBn, Cop- 
tic, Syrian, and Europeao months; together with the 
eaa's plaw iu tlie i^odiac, and the time of sunrise, 
jtoon, and the 'asr. It is prefuced with a summary 
of the principal eras aud feast-dsyB of the Moo^lima, 
Copts, and others; and remarks and notices relating 
to tlie seasons. Subjuined to it is a calendar contain- 
ing physical, agricultural, and other notices for every 
day in the year; mentioning eclipses, &c.; aud com- 
I priatng much matter suited lo the supersdtioos of the. 
people. It is the work of Yahli'ya Kfcn'dee, origin- 
ally a Clu'istian priest of Syria ; but now a Moo^Um. 
Of geography, the Egyptians in general, and, with 
very few exceptions, the best instructed among them. 


The Eiya'm en-Nes'ee {Intercalary days) firt or 
sitL days, lumjilele the yenr. 

These montha, it will be obwrved, aw of tW«j 
days each. Five interculary duys ixte ndded al the 
end of three successive years ; and six at the end i^ 
the fourth year. The Coptic leap-yeur immedlBtelT 
precedes ours: therefore the Coptic year begins oB 
the 1 1 th of September only when it is the next afW 
their leap-year ; or when our next ensuing year is ft 
leap-year; Btid, consequently, alter the fbUomnl 
February, the corresponding days of the Coptiv son 
OUT months will be the same as ia other years. tM 
Copts begin their reckoning from the era of Diocla 
tiuD, A.D. 284. 

lu Egypt, and other Moos'lim countries, frod 
sunset to sunset is reckoned as the civil day; Qiil 
uighl being classed with the day which /o/(oim it: 
thus the night before Friday in called the nigfat if. 
Friday. Sunset is twelve o'clock: au hour afler 
sunset, one o'clock : two hours, two o'clock; atid N 
on to twelve : after twelve o'clock in the morning', tin 
hours are again named one, two, three, and so ott^> 
The Egyptians wind up, and, if necessary, set thd( 
watches at sunset; or rather a few minutes after 
j^nerally when they hear the call to evening- prajei 
Their watches, according to this system of reckDiuA| 
from sunset, to be always quite correct, should i 
set every evening; as the days vary in length. 

The (allowing Table shows the times of MohhUm 
madan prayer f, with the apparent European ti 

e gives the qiparent iim« uf aunBel, on that day, m 
cording to £uK>pesii luckuaing- 

t The peiiuifa of the 'nhi, daybreak, and 'ast are bei 
^iven aceanlitt); 1o the reckuniug must commonly Ibllaned 
m Egypt. (See tho chapter on religiun and Um.) Mo.K. 
ilenotea MobbammadaD Time; £ui. T>, EuKi^ea,u 'Hme. 



¥ silin«(, in and Qear lite lulilude of Cairo, at lb« com- 

mcncetnenl dl' L-»i'h /.ndlai'ul inunlh. 








Eur. T. 

Uu. T. 

Ma. T, 


Mo. T. 

July m M., 11 





» 7 


Aug. S3 j Apr.SU 

11 1 



8 it 


9 1 

jtcf, an Uu,!!! 


e 4 

1 M 

10 14 


• M 

OtL M P.V. 18 




11 19 



Hdt.U J.II. go 

1! (P 


1 «l 


6 u 


, Dm- SI 


6 . 


18 1» 



A pocket nlinaiiHi; is aimunlly prinled at the go- 
vern me nl-preas at BtM/la'ck*. It ciimprisea tlic 
period of u solar year, i:[)r[iinenclug: anil termitiatitig 
Mfitli the venial equinox ; uiiil gives, fur every day, 
the day of the week,und uf tbe Mohhammudaii, Cop- 
tic, Syrian, and European muTittis; together whh the 
sun's plau: iu the Kodiac, and the time of Hunrise, 
nuou, and the 'osr. Jt is prefaced with a aummary 
of the principal eras and feast-days of the Moos/lima, 
Copts, and others; and remarks and noticea celatiiig 
to tbe sea-sons. Subjoined to it is a calendar conttun- 
ing physii^ul, agricLiItural, and other notices tor every 
day in the jear ; meDtioning eclipses, &c.; aud com- 
prising much matter suited to the superstitions of the 
people. It is the work of Yahh'ya Efen'dee, origin- 
ally a Christian priest of Syria ; but now a Moos'hm. 

Of geography, the Egyptians in geueral, and, with 
very few excepiiorus, the best instructeii among them, 

hunilrod bogk« hsvit ixna printed tt thii 

of Ihtfm iut the uae of the miUtw^ , TiwA. «* 

« ui UiB goyetnment. 


have scarcely any knowledge : having no good maps, 
they are almost wholly ignorant of the relatiTe situa- 
tions of the several gretit countries of Europe. Some 
few of the learned venture to assert that the earth is 
a globe ; but they are imposed by a great majority of 
the 'Ool'ama. The common opinion of all classes of ■ 
Moos'lims is, that the earth i» an almost plaue ex- 
panse, surrounded by the ocean, which, they say, is 
encompassed by a chain of moucitains calleil Cka'f. 

Such being the state of science among the modem ■ 
Ep;ypti&ns, the reader mil not be surprised at final^| 
the present chapter followed bj a long account t^. 
their superslitious , a kuowledge of which is neces- 
sary to enable him to understand their character ah^ 
to make due altowances fur many of its faults Wt\ 
may hope for, imil, indeed, rta^ioniibl} expect, a \ 
great improvement m the intelleciual and moral s' 
of this people, in (onseijuence of the inlroduLtion rt ^^ 
European sciences, b) which thtir present ruler ha^ 
in some degree, mode tinicnils fui his ■ [^ireasi^e 
sway ; but it is not f robabk Uiat tlub hope wiU Tie > 
soon lealized to any considerable cvteat 


The Araljs arc a very superstillous people ; ami none 
of Ihem ue more so than those of Kgy])[. Muiiy 
<£ their superstiliuns form & purl of thcjr religion ; 
being santtioiied by Uie Cltoor-u'o ; aud the most 
pronuuent of these is the belief in Gimi, or Genii — in 
the singular, Giiinei-. 

The Ginu are 8^d to be of prendamile origin, aa 
intermediate dass of beings between angels and 
men,, created of (ire, and capable of assuniiug tile 
forms and materiBl fabric of men, brutes, and mon- 
sters, nnd of bceomiug invisible nt pleasure. They 
eat and drink, propagate their species (like, or hi 
conjunction with, huniiLn beings), and are subject to 

' death; though they generally live many centuries. 

' Their principal abode is in the chain of mountains 
called Ckiif, whiuh are believed to encompass the 
whole earth; as mentioned ut the close of the pre- 
ceding chapter. Some are believers in El-lsla'm ■ 
others are infidels. Of both these classes, the Arabs 
stand in great ane ; and for the former, they en- 
tertain a high degree of respect, it is a common 
ouBtom of this people, on pouring water, Src. on the 
ground, to eKclaim, or mutter, defito</r ; that is, to 
ssk the permission, or crai'e the pardon, of any gin'- 
nee that may chance to be there : for the ginn are 
supposed to pervade both the soh'd matter of the 
earth and Ihe. lirmaraent. They are also believed lo 
inhabit rivers, ruined houses, wells, baths, ovens, and 

r V 

' even the latrMia : hence, perxons, wlien they^^^^B 
the latter place, and when they let down a bucket 
into a well, or light a fire, and on other occasions,, 
soy, " Permission!'' or "Pennissinn ye blessed"! "^^ 
which words, in the case of entering the latrina, Ihey, 
HOmetiinea preface with a prayer for God's protection,' 
against rU evil spirits ; but in doing this, some per- 
sons are careful not to mention the name of God] 
after they liave entered (deeming it improper in 
such a place), and only say, " I seek refuge *lthi 
Thte from the evil (that is Sftttin) and the evil ones.**. 
These customs preseitt a. commentary on llie Slorj!. 
ill " the Thousand and one Nights," in which a Mtr-' 
chant is described us having killed a ^n'nee by. 
thn)wing aside the stone of a date which he had ' 
just eaten. In the same story, and in others of the' 
same collection, a gin'nee is represented uh approach- 
ing in a whirlwind of sand or duKt ; and it is tlie 
general belief of the Arabs of Egypt, that the ro'-, 
ba'ah, or whirlwind which raises the sand or dust ih 
the form of a pillaj- of prodigious height, and whieU' 
is GO otlen seen sweepiiig acrosa the fieids and de^^ 
iierts of this country, is caused by the flight of one 
these beings; or, in other words, tiial the giiilii 
" rides in the whirlwind." A charm is usually uttered 
by tlie Egyptians to avert the zo'ba'ah, When It' 
seems to lie approaching them : some of them ex- 
claim, " Iron, thou unluckyf! " ; as genii arc Bui>-' 
posed to have a great dread of that metal : others en-' 

(dcavour to drive away the monster by exclaiming,^ 
"Goil is most great J!". What we call a "falBng" 
star" (and which the Arabs term shiha'li) is com!-'' 
munly believed to be a dart thrown by Ood id an : 
evil pn'nee; and the Esypii ana, when they see it,' 
'"'~. "May God transfix the enemy of th» 

• CMfiHiV, or Deflco'r ya' movta'rnire'a. 
litt'd yd' mttluK/m- X Allu'lioo aViar. 

ftift* ! ", The evil giu'DWs ai* commonly rermei) 
'Efree It. The exisienoe of 'efVee'ts must he belleTed 
by the Moos'lim on accninit of tlie occurrence, in the 
Ckoor-a'n, of tliese words, " An 'efree't from mtion? 
the ginii unswercd" (-chap, xsvii. ver. 39); which 
words Sale translates "A terrible penius answered." 
They are generally believed lo dife from the other 
g;inD in being; very powerful, and tdwsys malicioUB; 
but to be, in other respects, of a similar nature. 

Connected with the liistory of the ginn are many 
fables not ackDonledged by the Ckoor-a'n, and there- 
fore not credited by the sober Moos'linis, but only by 
the lesa iDstmcled. The. latter believe thai the earth 
was inhabited, before the time of Adam, by a race 
of beings differing from ourselves in form, and much 
more powerful; and that forty (or, according to 
some, seventy-two) prieadamite kings, each of whom 
bore the name of Sooleyina'n (or Solomon), succes- 
sively governed this people. The last t>f these 
Sooleymo'ns was named Gn'n fl/n Oa'n ; and from 
him, it is said, the ginn (who are also called gr^n) 
derive their name. Flence, some believe the ginn 
to be the same with the prceadainile race here men- 
tioned : but others assert that they (the ginn) were 
a distinct class of beings, and bmnght into subjection 
by the other race. 

Gin'iieea are believed olten to assume, or perpe- 
tually to wear, the shapes of cats, dogs, and other 
brute animals. The sheykh Khalee'l El-Meda'- 
bighee, one of the most celebrated of tlie 'ool'ama of 
Egypt, and author of several wurks on various 
sciences, who died, at a very advanced age, during 
the period of my former visit lo this country, used to 
relate the following anecdote. He had, said he, a 
£iv(turile black cat, wluch tdways slept at the foot of 

* Sak'amAlldhfn 'aJee' ed-idtn. 



even the latrim ■ hence, persons, when Lliey enUr 
the tatter place, and vheii they let down a bucket, 
into a well, or light a fire, and on other occasion*, 
say, " PermisaioD !'' or "Permission ye blessed"!"; 
which words, in the case of wilering the latrina, Ihey 
sometimes preface with a prayer for God's proteelioBj- 
against all evil spirits ; but in doing this, some per- 
sons are careful not to mention the name of God! 
after they have entered (deeming it improper in' 
such a place), and only soy, "J seek refiig* *ltlj-. 
Thee from the evil (that is Saian) and the evil ones.". 
These customs present a commentary on the storj*!! 
in "the Thousand and one Nights," in which a mer- 
chant is described as having killed a gin'nee bj* 
throwing aside the stone of u date which he had 
jusi eaten. In the same story, and in olliers of ilie. 
same collection, a gin'nee is represented as approach- 
ing in a whirlwind of sand or dust; and ii is tile' 
general belief of the Arabs of Egypt, that the i(/- ' 
ba'ah, or whirlwiud which raises the sund or dust itf 
the form of a pillar of prodigious height, and which 
is so often seen sweeping across the fields and de- 
serts of tbis country, is caused by the flight of one of ' 
these beings; or, in other word?, that the ginned' 
'■ rides in the whirlwind." A charm is usuully uttered' 
by the Egyptians to avert the zo'ba'ah, when it* 
seems to be approaching them : some of them eX-' 
claim, " Iron, thou unluckyf ! " ; as genii are ^i^' 
posed to have a great dread of that metiii : others eti^^ 
deavour to drive away the monster by excluimihgj' 
"God is most great J!". What we call a "falling* 
star " (and which the Arabs term nhiha'li) is com-' 
mouly believed to be a dart thrown by Gt)d al bA 
evil gin'nee ; and the Egyptians, when they sm It,'"' 
exclaim, "May God transfix the enemy of Ih* 

• Dtslvo'r, or Drllee'r ya' moolia'rakte'n. 
f ffAadtt'd I/a' KUiMm. \ rflWhwttJ^W, 

OEKII 3or 

ftith*! ". The evil gin'net^s are commonly lermed 
'EfrKt: The e»isleiioe of 'efrte'te must be beUeved 
by the Mous'lim on uecoimt of the occiiirence, in the 
Ckoor-o'ii, of ihese words, " An 'efree't from amonp 
the ginn answered" (fliap. xMiii. ver. 39); which 
words Sale iranalales "A terrible eenius answered," 
They are g;enera11y believed io differ from the other 
ginn in being very powerful, and always malicioini; 
but to be, in oilier respeuts, of u Rimilar nature. 

Connected with the history of the ginn are many 
fables not acknowledged by the Ckoor-a'n, and there- 
fore not credited by the sober Moos'lims, but only by 
Uie less instructed. The. latter believe that the earth 
was inhabited, before the time of Adam, by a race 
of beings difTcring from ourselves in form, and much 
more powerful; and that forty (or, accordlnu; to 
ttome, seventy-two) prsadamite kings, each of whom 
bore the name of Sooleyma'n (or Solomon), 9lic»B- 
aively governed this people. The last of these 
Sooleyma'ns was named Ga'n Il/n Oa'n ; and from 
him, it is said, the giun (who are also called gr^it) 
derive their name. Hence, some believe the ginn 
to be the Bame with the pra3adamite race here men- 
tioned: but others assert ihat they (the ginn) were 
a distinct class of beinirs, aud brought into subjection 
by the other race. 

Gin'nees are believed often to assume, or perpe- 
tually to wear, the shapes of cats, di^, and other 
brute aninmls. The sheykh Khalee'l El-Meda'- 
bighee, one of the most celebrated of the 'ool'aina of 
Egypt, and author of several works on various 
Hciencea, who died, at a very advanced ege, during 
the period of my former visit to this country, used to 
relate the following anecdote. He had, said he, a 
favourite black cat, wliich always slept at (he foot of 

• Sah'amAUa'kftt 


his muHjuihi-curtEuii. Once, at miduight, he heard 

iL knocking ut the door of his bouse ; and his ou 
went, aud opened the banging shutter of his window, 
and called, " Who is there ? " A voice replied, "i 
am such & one " (mentioning a strange name) "tfaa 
gin'uee: opeji the door." "The lock," said ifaf 
sheykh's cat, "has had the name [of Qud]-pMF 
nounced upon if." — " Then throw me down," s^ 
the otlier, " two cakes of bread." — " The bread-t 
ket," answered the cat at the window, " has had 
name pronounced upon it." " Well," said the 
"at least give me a drink of water.'' But be n] 
answered tliat the waler-jur had been secured ia ll 
same manner; and usbed what he was to do, seeiti 
that he was likely to die of hunger aud thirst: A 
aheykh's eat told tiim to go to the door of the as 
hou»e ; and went there aim himself, and opened ^ 
door, and soon alter returned. Next morning, tb 
sheykh deviated from a habit which he had coi 
stonily observed: lie gave, to the cat, half of tl 
fatee'reh upon which he breakfasted, instead rfii 
little morsel, which he was wont to give ; and.afU 
wards said, " :ny cat, thou kuowest thai I aui 
poor man: bring me, then.a littlegold-." upon^td 
words, the cat immediately disappeared, and tie si 
it no more. — Ridiculous as stories of this ilti] 
really are, it is impossible, without relating one n 
more, to convey a just notion of the opinions of tj 
people whom I am attempting to describe. ' < 

It is commonly affirmed, that malicious or di 
* It is a custom of miiiy Touck'nIiB (or leaj-ued tmd Jevc 
pCTBOnt), and some others, to aay the biimii'iah (In Iheini 
at' Qoil, Ibe CompaBiioniite, tbc Merciful) on kicking! g. ^ 
coTciioK lireiid, laying duwa their clothes at iiig])i, s4ul,l 
nther occasiuus; and this, th«y beliEvc, protectii Ibiiir fi| 
iBttj ftom genii. Tha thintf over which the hisminahll 
■LKii prommnced il teraieo muoiem'nits (for BiMifm'k 

GBNIt. 309 

tmfteB geoii very often ftation themselves on (he 
rod's, or at the wiiidons, of houses in Cairo, nnd other 
towns of Eifypt, and throw bricks and stones down 
into the streets and courts, A few days jig;o, I wn» 
told of a cat^e of this kind, whii-h hud akrined the 
people in the printip:il street of the metropolis fur a 
whole week ; mnny brieks havings been thrown down 
Grom some ill' the houses every day during this 
pertod; but nobody killed or wounded. I went to 
the scene of these pretended pranks of the g'enii, to 
witness them, and to tnake inquiries on the sobject; 
bat on mf arrival there 1 was told that the rfgm 
(that ia, tlie throwing) had ceased. I found no one 
who denied the throwing down of the bricks, or 
doubled that it was the work of g«nii ; und the 
graieral remark, on mentioning the subject, was '* God 
avert jrom lis their evil doings ! " 

One of my friends observed to me, on this occa- 
sion, that he had met willi some Englishmen who 
disbelieved in the existence of genii ; bat he concluded 
that they had never witnessed a public performance, 
though common in their country, of which he had 
j.since heard, called koonied'yek (or comedy) ; by 
.which term be meant to include all theatrical p^r- 
turmances. Addressing one of his countrymen, and 
appealing to me for the cunfirmation of his words, 
he then said — " An Algerine, a short time ago, gave 
nie on account of a spectacle of this kind which he 
had seen iu London." — Here his countryman intCT' 
ruptiid him, by asking, "Is not £ngiand in Lon- 
.don? or is Lomion a town in England?'' — My 
f'riaid, with diffidence, and looking to me, answered 
that London was the metropolis of England ; and 
■then resumed the subject of the theatre. — "The 
liimse," said he, " in which the spectacle was ex- 
hibited cannot be descrLLed : it was of u round form, 
with many benches on ttie floor, uud uluseta all 


rouiiil, in rows, one abu\t) another, in whiob pBofk I 
or ihe higher clasi^eK sat; uiitl there was a ha§i I 
Bquare aperture, closed with a curtahi. When >l>e | 
house waa Cull of p«iiple, who puid ini^ sunw of 
money to be admitted, it suddenly became \iij 
dailt: it was at ui^tit ; aaA the house had bw 
Ug^hted up with a greuL many lamps; but IheMW 
came almost entirely exiingufshed, all at the mum 
time, without being touched by any body. Tlieti, 
the great curtain wus drawn up: they heard the 
roaring of the sea imd wind ; und indistinctly fvr- 
ceived, through the gloom, the waves rising ami 
foaming, and lashing tlie shore. Presently, a tre- 
mendous peal of thunder was heard ; after a flash of 
lightning had dearly shown to the spectators the 
plated sea: and then there fell a heavy ahuwcf of 
real rain. Soon after, Ihe day broke; the i *"" 
came more plainly visible ; and two ships we: 
in the distance : they approached, aud fought c 
other, firing their cannons; and a variety of 
extraordinary scenes were aflerwarda exhiUtiJ 
"Now it is evident," added my friend, "(hat H 
wonders must have been the works of genii, 
least performed by their assistance."— He could i 
he convinced of his error by my esplanaiions 4 
these phenomena. 

During llie month of Rum'ada'n, the genii, i 
said, are confined in prison ; and hence, on the ( 
of the festival which follows that month, some ' 
the women of Egypt, with the view of preventl) 
these objects of drcud from entering their hou 
sprinkle salt upon the floors of the aportmei 
saying, as they do ii, "In the name of God, '1 
Compassionate, the Merciful." 

A carious relic of ancient Egyptian superstlti^ 
must here be mentioned. It is believed that «Bd 
quarter in ^<><ro has its pecuhar guardian -gen lafl 

or Ag»thoil»nii><)> wlik'li tius the iarm of a acT- 
pent. , 

TIte ancient tomb^ of .Ei(ypt, arid the dark recessea 
of the iempleK, are commonly believud, by the people 
uf ihiB country, to be iiihabiied ly 'el'i-ee'ts. I found 
,it imposEiliIe to persuade one of my servants to entei 
the Great Pyramid with me, from his having Ibis 
idea. Many of the Arubs ascribe the erection oftbe 
PjTsmidK, and all the moat tilupeiidous remaina ol' 
aatiquity in Egypt, to Ga'ii Xb'n Ga'n, aiul his ser- 
vsnta, the g'Uin ; conceiving it impoasible that they 
I (uiuld have b«ea raised by tnunan bands. 

The teroi 'efree't is commonly uppbed rather to 
I an enl gin'nee tlmri any other being; but the (j;hostE 
,S^ dead persons are also calt°d by this name; and 
many abWd stories are related of them ; and great 
«n< the fears which they inspire. There are Eomo 
jiersonB, however, who Itold them in no degree of 
dread,— I had ocice a humorous cook, who was some- 
,wbat addicted to the intoxicating bhashee'^h: soon 
^er he had entered my service, I heard him, one 
.evening:, muttering and exclaiming, on the stairs, as 
,jf in surprise at some event; and then politely say- 
ing, " But why are you sitting bere in the draught 'i 
—Do me Uie favour to come up into the kitchen, 
and amuse me with your couvcrsiiiiuu a little:" the 
civil address, not being answered, was repeated and 
varied several times; till I called out to t|ie man, and 
;ask£d him to whom he was speaking. " The 'efrce't 
flf 8 Turkish stddier," he replied, "is siiliug on the 
e^irs, smoking' his pipe, and refuses to move: be 
-Ctme up from the well below: pray step and see 
'^m." On ray going to the stairs, and telling the 
ftervant that 1 could see nolbing, be only remarked 
tiutt it was because 1 had a clear conscience. He 
was told, afterwiinls, that (lie house hod long been 
haunted; but a-ssened that he hud not been pre- 



Toundt in tovn, one tkbova another, in which peoi^ 

of the higher classes sal; and there was a lanft 
square aperture, closed wilh n curtain, When tha 
house was full ot' people, who puiil Inrge sums of 
money tu be admitted, il suddenly became i ~ 
dark: it wa& at. uight; and the liouse had \ 
lighted up with a greut ruuiiy lamps ; but these b(^ 
came almost ealireiy extin^iished, all at ttie sat^ 
time, without being touched by any body. Th^ 
the great curtain was drawn up : they heard tUfl 
roaring of the sea and wind; und indistinctly p 
ceived, through the {{loom, the waves risii^ a 
foaming, and lashing the shore. PresenUyi a t 
mendous peal of thunder was heard ; afier a flash 4 
lightning had clearly shown to the spectators Uji 
agitated sea: and then there I'ell a heavy ^ower4| 
real rain. Soon after, the dny broke ; the sea 
came more plainly visible ; and two ships were a 
in the distance: they approached, and fought ei 
other, tiring their cannons; and a variety of oi 
eiLtraordinary scenes were aflerwards exhibilcij 
"Now it is evident," added my friend, "that «m 
wonders must have been the works of genii, or ' 
least performed by their assistance," — He could a 
be convinced of his error by my explanations I 
these phenomena. ' 

During the month of Rum'ada'n, the ^nii, it | 
said, are confined in prison ; and hence, on 
of the festival whicii follows that month, » 
the women of Egypt, with the view of preventiil 
these objects of dread fi-om entei'lng their houM 
sprinkle salt u])on tlie floors of the apartmenti 
saying, as they do il, "In the name of God, tl 
Compassionate, the Merciful." 

A curious relic of ancient Egyptian superstltiil 
must here be mentioned. It is believed that em 
i^uaiter in Cairo has its peculiar guardiun-geiljn 

tthoiJsmuiii whic-ii hus the fnrra of » Hcr- 

The uicieol tombx ot'Egyiit, and the durk reoessea 
. or the li^mplts, ara commniily believed, by the peopla 
of this country, lo be inhuUited by 'efree'ts. I found 
}l impossible to persuade one of nijr servants to entei 
;hc Oreat Pyraniid with use, from hia htiving this 
Jdes. Many of the Amba ascribe tlie erection of the 
Pyramids, and all the most stupendous remains of 
aatic[uJly in Egypt, lo Ga'n iVn Ua'n, and his ser- 
vants, the ginn ; conceiving it impossible that they 
could have been raised by human hands. 

The term 'eti'cc't in cuinnionly applied rather to 
.a.a evil giu'uee than any other being; but the ghostti 
of de^id persons are ultio called by this name ; and 
jaaay abwrd stories are related of them ; and great 
tue the fears which they inspire. There are soma 
persons, however, who hold them in no degree of 
dread.— I had once a humorous cook, who was some- 
what addicted to the intoxicating hhasbet/ah: soon 
after he had entered my service, I heard him, one 
, evening, mutterinjr and exclaiming, on the stairs, as 
jf in surprise at some event; and then politely say- 
ing, " But why are jou sitting here in the draught? 
— Do me the favour to come up into ilie kitchen, 
and amuse me with your conversation a little:" the 
(:ivil address, not being miswpred, was repeated and 
varied several times; till 1 called out to the roan, and 
jOsked him to whom he was speaking. " The efree^t 
of a Turkish soldier," he rephed, "is silting on the 
Btairs, smoking his pipe, and refuses to move i he 
'ctune up from the well below: pray step and »oe 
^m." Oil niy going to the stairs, and telling the 
that I could see nothing, he only remarked 

was because I bad a cktar conseienoe. He 
aflcrwurils, that i Utuse had ious I'tuti 

■ i but a.sseri«l 


viously inl'orniefl of the supposed cause; wM 
the fnct or a Turkish soldier IjavJtig been ini 
*fiM*. My coolt proftsstd to see this 'efree't fr^ 
qnemly aftef. r 

The exiiilence or Oliac/h Ukevdsc obtalna . alowit 
uni^-enBl cietience aiiion^ ihe mOdcni Kg^yptiuiVlP'- 
common whh se%'eral other Eastern n^ooa. T^i^ 
bt^lncrs are toW to appeitr in the forms of various ap|- 
mais, nud in ir.any ' nioiiBtrona shapes; lo KEtEU|^ 
fcuriai-gronnds, oaA other sefjueRtereil spots ; to feu 
upon dead bodies; aiid to kill and devour eW^. 
human creature who has ilie misfortune to fafl itf 
theirway. Hence, the term "ghoo'l" is applied^ ^i 
general, to any cannibal, ^., 

That fancies such as these should exist ill .hm,^ 
inind<iiof a people so ignorauC as those who aee ti^: 
subject of these pa^ea catiaot reasonably excite gis 
BUrprJHe. fint the Egyptians pay & superstitious m 
yerence not to imap;inary beings atone ; Ihey exteiift 
it to cerlain individuals of (heir own species ; ' mt 
ofwn to those who are justly the least eniil'letl' u 
such respect *. An idiot or a fool is viilgyiv rtg 
gardcd by them as a being whose mind iS'S 
hBa.Ven, while his grosser part mingles fimaiig; orclH 
im»r mwtals; consequently, he is coiisidereif iuS 
es)Hrcial favourite of heaven. Whatever enoriht^tS 
a reputed saint may commit (and tliere ai'4 rh'aiiV^ 
utiHj sre constantly infringing precepts of their ^^ 
opon) such acts do not attect iiisl'ame for s^ncfifr 
for th^ are considered as the results of his'sira! 
flftmMxirng faculties, tcin^ -wholly absorbed i(i Sl 
vHian ; so thut his passions are left without cbiltn 
'Jkanlies -who are dangerous lo society are tepC'il 
OHJin^entj but those who arc harmlegaat^'g^d^ 
nJl^Ytf^Nied as saints. Most Of the reputed W^l 

» * As ia Uic a 

»"'■- 'Vit»M. .11 

*6ri9g^' Hr€ either lunaticB or idiots or impostore. 
Some of them so about perfectly naked, and are bo 
higlily venerated, that the nomeii, instead of atuid- 
ing them, soiuetimeit aulTer these wrelclies h> take 
any liberty with them in a public street; and, by the 
'hvef orders, are not cousidered uh disgraeed by nuch 
^tctiona, which, however, arc of very rare occurrence. 
Others are seen clad in a cjook or long coat com- 
^sed of patches of various coloured cloths, which b 
called u dili-k, ad(«ned with numerous striujfs of 
lieads, wearing a ragged turban, ixnd bearing a stftif 
With shreds of cloth of various colours attached to 
Hie top. Some of them eat straw, or a mixture at 
chopped straw and broken glass ; and attract ob- 
Mrvalion by a. variety of absurd actioiis. During 
ih|y first visit to this country, I often met, in the 
etreets of Cairo, a, deformed man, almost naked, with 
long matted hair, and riding upon au ass, led by 
another man. On these occasions, he always 
stopped his be:ist directly before me, so as to inter- 
cept my way, recited the Fa'l'hhah (or opening 
cliupler of tbe Ckoor-a'n), and then held out bis 
liaud for an alms. The first time that he thua 
crossed me, I endeavoured to avoid him ; but a per- 
Boh passing by remonstrated with me, observing that 
tbe man before me was a saint, and that 1 ought to 
rispect him, and comply with bis demand, lest some 
misfortune should befal me. Men of this class are 
supported by alms, which they often receive without 
asking for them. A reputed eaiut is commonly 
ta^\\pa'theyk!t,nuiOTa'bit, or wel'ee. If alTecled with 
luQiLcy ftr idiotcy, or of weak intellect, he is also, and 
mpi;e Jiroperly, termed mtgztx/b, at meslno'b. Wetee 
is, ji^l "appellation correctly given only to an eminent 
alid very devout saint; and signifies "afavourite of 
beaven;" but it is so commonly a^^V\K&\a T^t^w 
preteatied idiots, that some wit \iz& ^va. A % i:>k^ 
roL.1. t 



iaterpreLation. as equivalent to bele^d, which n 
" a fool " or " simpletoti \" reniarking that these ^ 
terms are equivalent both in striiseand in the Ruim 
rical value of the letters tomposiiig them : for VMe 
Ih written wilh \\\e letters wa'oo, la'in, imd ^i ^ 
which the numerical values are G, 30, anci 10| a 
together, 46; am! Iiele^tt is wrille" with fie*, lify 
ye, and da'l, which are 2, 30, 10, und 4, or, a^ 
together, 46. A simpleton is often jestingly ceJJi 

Tlie Moos'Iims of Eg^pl, in common with t 
of other couutries, entei-tain very curious euperstitjc ^^ 
respecting the persona whom they call wel'ees. , 
have often endeavoured to obtain infurmatioit on ^ 
most mysterious of these superstitions ; and ^^ 
generally been answered, "Yon are meddling w'' 
the matters of the taret^ckah" or the religious coiwi 
of the durwee'shes ; but 1 have been freely a{ 
quainted with the general opinions on these suhjecl^ 
and such ace perhaps all that might be required t 
lie staled in a work like the present: I shidl, hof 
ever, also relate what I have been told by leafn; 
persons, and by durwce'shes, in elucidation of Q; 
popular belief. 

In the first place, if a person were to express ; 
doubt as to the exialence of true wel'ees, he wouj 
he branded with infidelity; and the following pass«{j 
of the Ckoor-a'n would be adduced to condemti hiflfi 
" Are not the favourites • of God those upoii whiJB 
no fear shall come, and who shall not be gr!ev^4tS 
This is considered as suflident to prove that tl^re,{| 
a class of jiersons distiu^ished above ordinary \ak 
man beings. The question then suggests itse!^ 
"Who, or of what description, are these persons 7^" 
and we are answered, "They are persons wholly ^IS" 

' In the uriginal, ea'iw'a. cr w/iya'ipluisl of nWir. 
f Chap. X. ve7, 63. 

SAINTS. 319 

" W God, and possessed of extraordinary (kith; 
Knd, according to their deg^ree of fuith, endowed wilh 
the power nf performing miracles"'." 

The most holy of the wel'ees is termed the Ckootb ; 
fer, accoMing to some persons, there are two who 
fiave this title; and &^'\a, accordinff to others, four. 
Jhe term ckootb signifies an asU ; and lience is ap- 
iilled to a wel'ee who rules oyer others : tliey depend- 
ing upon him, and being subservient to liim. For 
the same reason it is applied to temjural rulers, or 
toy person of high alithoritj. The opinion Ihat 
fiiere are four ckootbs, I am told, is a vulgar error, 
bfiginatin^ from the fre^juenl mention of " the four 
likootbs," by which espressiou are meant the founders 
fif the four most celebrated orders of durwee'shes (the 
Bif'a''ee'yeb, Cka'diree'yeh, Ahhmedee'yeh, and Ba- 
ra'himeh) ; each of whom is believed to have been 
the ckootb uf his time. I have also generally been 
tbld, that the opinion of there being two ckootbs is a 
'Vulgar error, founded upon two names, Ckootb el- 
"PhaeMckak (or the Ckootb ol' Truth), and Ckootb 
^Gho's (or the Ckootb of Invocation for help), which 
Jroperly belong to but one person. The term ei- 
Ckootb d-Moolawd'lfe is applied, by those wlio be- 
lieve in but one ckootb, to the one ruling at the pre- 
kiai time; and by those who believe in two, to the 
acting ckootb. The Ckootb who exercises a super- 
jhtehdencc over all other wel'ees (whether or not 
{&ere be another ckootb — for if there be, he is in- 
urior to the former) has, under his authority, we?ce» 
iW different ranks, to perform different offices; JVr- 
'fe^bf, Nache^bs, Bedet/ls-[, &c.; who nre known 

' * A miracle perfunned tiy a ncl'ee is teimed tara'tnek. 
one peifotmtfil liy n prophel, ma'aijtz'eh. 

4 In the pluiol forms, .inga'b oi Noog'aba, Noach'ala, and 


onlv to each other, and perhaps to the rest of tl 
vreYoes, as holding such oRicea. 

The Ckootb, it is said, is oflen seen, hut not knowd 
as such : and the same is said of all who hold t 
thority vmder him. He always has a humble da 
mennour, and mean dreBs ; aud mildly reproves thoa 
whom he finds acting Impiously; particularly iho) 
whil have a false reputation for sanctity. Thougl 
he is unknown to the world, hia favourite station 
are well known ; yet at these places he Ib seldoi 
visible. It is asserted that he is almost const 
seated at Mck'keh, on the roof of the Ka'abeh; 
though never seen there, is always heard at midnighl 
to call twice, " O thou most merciful of those who 
show merey*!" which cry is then repeated fron 
the ma'd'nehs of the temple, by the moo-ed'dina 
but a respectable pilgrim, whom I have just queB 
tloned upon this matter, has confessed lo me tbi 
he himself has witnessed that this cry is made by i 
regular minister of the mosque ; yet that few pilgrim 
know this; he believes, however, that the roof of tl:^ 
Ka'abeh is the chief mwr'kai (or station) of t' 
Ckooth. Another favourite station of this reverei 
aiid unknown person is the gale of Cairo 
Ba'b Zoowey'leb, which Is at the southern extremi^ 
of that part of the metropolis which constituted th 
old city; though now in the heart of the town; fe 
the capital has greatly increased towards the SOUtl 
as it has also towards the west. From Its being 
supposed station of this mysterious being, the Ba* 
Zoowey'leh is commonly calleii " El-Mootau-ifleef* 
One leaf of its great wooden door {which is nevel 
shot), turned back against the eastern side of tm 
iulerior of the gateway, conceals a small vacant spac^ 

* Ya' ar'hhana-r-ra'hhenet'n. 

* For «a'6 EI-Mootmeel'/rc. 

wTiich is said to be tbe place of the CkcWlb MiUi+ 

j)ersoiiB,on iHiititip bj it,ieciLe llie Fa't'hhah, uiid 
some ip^e ilm'* to a lKj,gir"SiO Is geiier illyfeatwl 
there, and wlm is rLguded I'J tliu vulgar as one of 
llie scrvTiils nl tin t Uclb ^ imbtrs of person^ 
aftlitted nilh Uead ithe driM. j mid into ttit iloor, tS 
climinHWJ^ tilt piiii uiid iinMv sutlerers from llie 
(oDlh athe exinct i tooili, i.ul insert it ill i creiii.^ 
<i| the dunr, pr I \ il it: ■jiiihl other Wdj, to iiiaure 
liicir not liLing att lelnd i^ nn In the sime mulatly 
Stime (.uni>ii>i ijidividuak olleii try to peep bebiUil 
Ok. du>r in tliL vain Iiojk. of vatcfling a glitnpsf at 
liie (. kodli; should he liappen to be there, and tl6^ 
it Ihu iiioitHnt iiiMirble tie has aUo many other 
stations, bill ot inferior celi.ljii(j, in Cairo, as wej| 
us one at the tomb of the sejd Alih'mad EI B'edll. 
wee, III Tun'ta; Hnolher at El-Mabtml'leh (wliifclfiV 
as well as Tun'ta, is in the Delta); and otliers'i'n 
other places. He is believed to transport liitasetf 
from Mek'kch to Cairo in an instant; and so also 
from any one place to unuiher. Though he Has' '1 
number of favourite stations, he does ilot abide softl^ 
at lliese^ hut wanders throughout the whole woj-Iilj, 
irniong persons of every religion, whose oppeiiiiiiidk 
(IreGe, and language he assumes; aad distributes' Hi 
m^^nK-ind, cWieiiy thrmigb the ag^ency of t!ie sulw- 
diwte wel'ees, evils and blessings, tlic aiviirdf of' 6^- 
(ihy. When a Cliootb dies, lie is imniedialelj sfic- 
6^A iii his office by anolhcr. ' " 

'Many of tlie Moos'lJms say that Elijah, or Klli^^ 
whom they generally call El-Kliidr, was the CSofiffi 
qf,,hi3, time; and that he invests thf Mieeea^ 
cit;9olbs: for they acl; now ledge thut he has liewl 
died. This paHiculiu in their supcrslitibus n6tWm 
respecting the tXpnlhw, eo'iribjlled \vifii some othet^ 
which I liave before inentioiied, is \et>] txiivowa "mWyi. 
mtnpmed whb what we are lo\d, in ttvt 'ft'WiR, « 




£l(j&hi of his being tmnsporLed from place 'MiplA 
by ilie spirit of God; of his iuvesting CUsha tvjtiv 
his miriunilons iiowers, &nd liia offioes ; e-tiA of titi' 
subjectign of tli other prophets lo hijn ami ii> hU 
immediale Bucceesor*. Some ivel'ees renounce 'I' 
pleasutes of ihe world, and the eoaicty of maiikin 
and, ilk a desert place> ^ve tlientselveji tip to mcditM 
tion u|>on licaven, and prayer.; depending .- ilpofl' 
divine providence for their support: but their rebeBtj 
bflcDmes known; and the Arabs daily bring theM 
food. This, again, reminds uh of the histOEy.iiif 
Elijah; for, in the opinion of some critics, we shoahi 
rend, for the word "ravenB," in the fourth and si"'*^^ 
verses of the eeventaenth chapter of the secood b 
of King^ " Arabs:" " I have commanded the.Jm 
to feed thee" — " And the Aralia brought biq 
brecul.'' &c. . .i 

Certain wel'ees arc said to be commissioned h) 
the Ckootb to perform offices which, according, M 
tlie accounts nf my informants here, are far ftoi( 
being easy. These are tenned As-hka'b ed-Daif-ai 
which is interpreted as signifying " watchmen," A 
" overseers," In illustration of their employm 
the following anecdote was related lo me a few 
ago, — A devout tradesman in this city, ■ whO' 1 
ardently desirous of becoming a wel'ee, appKedl lUij 
person who was generally believed lo belong tQitj^ 
holy doss, and implored the latter ta astiist himj 
obtain the honour of an interview with the.Ckoou 
Tile applicant, alUr having undergone a strict e\ao^ 
nation as lo his motives, was desired to perform| 
ordinary ablution (el-woodoo') very early Ihe.nM 
morning; then to repair to tlie mosque of El-Mw 
ei'yad (at an angle of which is the Ba'b Zoowey'lef; 
or £1-Moolawel'lee, before mentioned), and lo 1^ 

.2, undZKiDEB,)!, 9-r-^O. 

hoUTDfthe firBtpeiwn Whom he should bcb comittg 
out of the f;real door of this mosque- He did M, 
•The first pereon Whu cunie out was an old, venerable- 
looking man ; but ineiiniy clad ; wearing e, brown 
woollen gown (or Maboi/t) ; and this proved to be 
the Ckootb. The candidnte kiSKed his band, and 
cnfrealed to be Udmitled hinnn^ the As-hhft'b ed- 
J>aT'ak. Alter niuch hesitalioii, the pra;r<^r wm 
granted: the CRootb said, " Take charte* of the dis- 
Urict which touststs of the Durb el-Ahtrmar * and ittt 
itnmediate neig;hbourhood ;** and immedialely the 
jtetBon thua addresHed found himself lo he a wel'ee; 
aiid perceived that he whs acquainted with things 
concealed from ordinary mortals ; for a wel'ee is 
said- to be acquainted by God with all secrets neces- 
sary for' him to know. — It ia commonly said of a 
we?ee, that he knows what is secret f, or not discover^ 
aUe by the senses ; which seems plainly contradic- 
tory to what we read in several places in the Cltoei'- 
a'n; that none knoweth what is secret (or hiddeif 
from the seuses) but God: the Moos'hms, however, 
who are seldom at a loss in a discussion, ar^e that 
the 'passages above alluded to, in the Ckoor-a'n, imply 
the knowledge of secreU iti an unrestricted sense ; 
and that God imparts to wel'ees such secrets only aa 
He 'thinks fit. 

The wel'ee above mentioned, as soon as he had en- 
tered upon his office, walked through his district^ 
and seeing a man at a shop, with a jar full of boiled 
beAHs before him, from which he was about to sefvi 
his customers as usual, lack up a large piece of dtotib, 
and. with it, broke the jar. The bean-seller imme- 
diately jdmped up ; seisied hold of a palm-stick that 
lay by his side ; and gave the wef ee a severe beat^ 
iDg: but the holy man complained not; nc* did he 

' A itreet on tbc sDulh oC the Bat Zogirej'Ub. 
t Ya'aimn el-sheyh, '' ' 



u|ter a cry : as soon as he wTui allowed, he sraliea 
awuy. When lie was gone, tbe bean-seller begun lo 
try if he tould gallier up some of tht scallcced t'ou-' 
lents of the jar. A porlion of ihe Jar remuiueij in 
its place; iiiid un looking' jnlo this, he s^vi a, veiio- 
nious serpent in ii, coiltd lound, and dead. In 
horror at lybal he had done, lie esclaimed, "Thei* 
is no Gtreogtb nor power but in God ! I impUtte. 
forgiveness of God, ibc Great! What have I dnitel! 
This man is a wel'ee ; uud lias prevented my sellj^gii 
what would have poisoned my cuKlomeis." — rU^n. 
looked at every pa&seng;er all that d^, iu the hape^l 
seeing again the saint whom he had thus inj^n^jl 
that he might implore his forgiveness ; but hp.SM 
!iim not ; for he was loo much bruised to b^ abJs^ 
walk. On the following day, however, with |)is. i\m, 

still swollen from the blows he had received;! 
weKee limped through his district, and broke a.gnt 
Jar vf milk at a shop not fui' from that of tl)e besM 
seller ; and its owner treated him as tlie beat^^ll^ 
ha4 done the day before ; but while he %!;as'Jb6attj|n 
him, some persons ran up, and stopped lii&-huio£ 
informing him that the person whom he was tbul 
piinishiiig was a wefee, and relating U> hlin .tfa4| 
affiiir tif the sequent that was found in the jar; Ktt 
beans. " (io, and look," said they, "' in your ,idi.f^' 
milk, and you tvill find, at the bottom of it^ KODlMl 
thing either poisonous or uuclean." lie looked ; .^PmJ 
found, in the remains of the jar, a dead Hng^.r Qfc^ 
iHe' tliird day, the wel'ee, with the help of a sMSi% 
htibbfed painfully up the Durb el-Ahh'mar, and] ^||fa 
a'servaut carrying, upon his tiead,,a fiii{>pieT;UAJ|'^^ 
covered with dishes of meat, vegetablcK, ,and. ,&Hi^ 
for (» party tyho were going to take a rf!papt,^H-ilii4i| 
country. He put his sUiir between llie sfmmttt^ 

Tvant immediately Iwgan lo give 
the saini bk severe a thrashing: as he himself expected 
lo receive from his disappointed master fur tliis ucci- 
dent: but several persons soon collected around him; 
and one of these bystanders observed a dog eat part, 
of the contents of one of the dishes, and, a moment 
after, fall down dead : he instantly seized the hand 
of the senant, and informed him of this circum- 
stance, which proved that the man whom he had 
been beating was a wel'ee. Every apology was made 
to the injured saint, with many prayers for his for- 
giveness; but he was so di^usted with his new ofTice, 
that he Implored God and the Ckoolb to release him 
from it; and, in answer to his solicitations, his su- 
pernatural powers were withdrawn, and he tetumed 
to his shop, more contented than before. — This story 
is received as true by the people of Cairo i and Ihere.- 
fore I have inserted it; for, in treating of supersti- 
tions, we have more to do with opinions than with 
facts. I am not sure, indeed, that it is altogether 
false: the supposed stunt might have employed per- 
sons to introduce the dead serpent and dog into the 
\-essels which he broke. I am told that many a per- 
son has obtained the reputation of being a wel'ee by 
artifices of the kind just mentioned. 

There have been many instances, in Egypt, of 
weFees afflicting themselves by austerities similar to 
those which are often practised by devotees in India. 
At the present time there is living, in Cairo, a wcKee 
who has placed an iron collar round his neck, and 
chkined himself lo a wall of his chamber; and it is 
safd that he has been in this state more than thirty 
years: but some persons assert that he has often 
been seen to cover himself over with a blanket, as if 
tn'sleep, and that the blanket has been removed im- 
mediately after,and nobody found beneath it! Stonta 
of this kind are related and belie-vcd \)-3 ■^t?ox\%-«'w>^_ 


in many respecla, are endowed with good seqse;,jS^^ 
to 1aiig;h, or exiivess discredit, on heuriii^ ihem, 
would y;ive great olTence. I was lately tu!d, that, ft J 
certain wel'ee being beheaded, for a crime of whi( 
he was not guilty, his head spoke after it was c 
off* J and. of another decapitated under tiiiiiilar q^ 
cumstauces, that hia blood tniced upon the ground} 
Arabic characters, the fpUiiwiiig declaration of hia; 
noeence — " I am a wel'eu of God ; and have die4 

It is a very remarkable trait in the character 
the people oi' Egypt and other countries of the F 
that Mooa'limE, Christians, and Jews adopt a» 
other's superBtitions, while they abhor the more i 
tional doctrines of each other's faiths. In aicknej 
the Mooslim somethnea employs Christian af 
Jewish priests to pniy for him : (he Christians ^ 
Jews, in the same predicament, often call in Mogi 
lim saints, for the like purp(»«. Many Christioi 
are in the frequent habit of visiting certain Moo^ 
saints here ; kissing their hands ; begging tbe 
prayers, counsels, or prophecies; and givin^f (hej 
money and other presents. 

Though their prophet disclaimed the power of pe 
forming miracles, the Moo^lims attribute lo hi 
many; and several miracles are still, they say, coi 
stantly, or occasionally, performed for his sake, i 
marks of the divine favour and hoiiom-. The \' 
grim^ who have visited El-Medec'neh relate ll 
there is seen, every night, a ray or column of &i; 
liffht, rising from tlie cupola over the grave o£ U 
Prophet to a considerable height, apparently to ^ 
clouds, or, as some say, to Paradise ; but that il| 
obsei'ver loses sight of it when he approaches vei 

SAINTS. 333 

tomb *. This is oiie of the most remarkuble 
oi the miracles nhich are retated as being still wit- 
nessed. On my asking one of the most grave and 
sensible of all ray Mooi/iim friends here, who had 
been on a pilgrimay;^, and visited El-Medee'nch, 
whether this assertion were true, he averred tliat it 
was; that he had seen it every night of his slay in 
that city ; and he remarked that it was a most atrik- 
iog ana impressive proof of God's favour and honour 
for " our lord Mohham'ma<l.'' I did not presume to 
question the truth of what he asserted himself to 
have eeeu ; nor to suggest that the great number of 
lights kept buruing every night in the mosque migbt 
produce this effect ; hut, to judfre whether this migbt 
Be the case, I asked my friend to describe to me the 
Coitstraction of the apartment oftlie tomb, its eupola, 
^ He replied, liiat he did not enter it, nor the 
Ka'abeh at Mek'keh, partly fioin his being in a stale 
of excessire nervous eiciteraent (from his vuueration 
for those holy buildings, but particularly for the 
fUrmer, which almost affected him with a kind of 
ihjateric fit), and partly because, being of the sect of 
the Hhan'afees, he held it improper, after he shoidd 
have stepped ujion such sacred ground, ever again 
to'nin the risk of defiling his feet, by walking bare- 
footed: consequently, he would ha\e been obliged 
always to wear leather socks or mezz witliin bia outer 
tilioes; which, he said, he could not afford to do. — 
Vtx pilgrims also assert, that, in approaching El- 
Medei^neh, trom the distance of three days' journey, 
t}T more, they alwaj's see a flickering lightning, in 
the direction of the sacred city, which they believe to 
proceed from the I'rophet's Uimb. They say, that, 
h(iwever they turn, they always see this hghtning in 


Ihe direclion of El-Medee'neli. There is spnwf^ig 
slriking'ty poetical in tlib and in the fonner GtMt 

A superstitious venerstioii, and honours anautllU^ 
iieii by the Ckoor-uf n or any of the Traditions, ftt 
ptiid, "by all sects of Moo^lims, esceptlog the Wtf' 
Wbee!!, to deceased saints, even more tbao (b tltiili 
who are liring; and more particularly hy Ae Ubw- 
Ilms of Egrypt*. Over the gnives of moiit ot V» 
more celebrated sunts are erected larg^ and hn^ 
some mosques: over that of a saint of less note (m 
who, by a life of sanctity or hypocrisy, lies ao<imre^ 
the reputation of being a wel'ee, or devout sheyf'"* ■* 
constructed a small, square, wlutewashed b ' 

crowned with a cupola. There is generally, _^ , 

over the vault in which the corpse is depositeiL > 
nblimg monument of stone or brick (called turie^bl^ 
or wood (in which case it is called la'bo</l)i-t^^^ 
this is usually covered with silk or linen, with so 
words from the Ckoor-a'n worked upon it, and s 
rouniled by a railing or screen, of wood or broil.j 
Called mvcksod'Tah. Most of the sancluarjeB ,1 
saints in Egypt are tombs ; but there a 
which only contain some inconsiderable relic of,^ 
person to whom they are dedicated ; and there Ore, 
few which are mere cenotaphs. Tlie most sacredi 
«H these sancttiories is the mosque of the Khiu 

* Several supentitioiiB rustomi, obsctred in 
mieeof ina.n; Didiauy BctionB. lesult from thai 
res^KCt for theic pruphet, and their Uinta in 

initancc, un lighlia^ the lamp in the evening, .._ 

Inly nt a hhoii, it in ciibtomary In say, " ClDmnWDiaiBta 
iMin'msd, nnd forget not IhQ eMellvncies of AIW: the , 
t'bh^ for the Prophet, and. for every irel'ee :" soil thei 
MpertthoFii't'lihaU. Itis muaUo My, on P ' ---'-- 
Bx9 muan, " O God favoui our Uird Muhhi 
make (hee ■ hlessed inoun (lir^M " un loitkii 

te»in*Elw, "OUudtav. 

_^^__ __ n wUicb Uie Iteiul of tbe martyr Cl-lihoiwyii, 
the son of the Ima'm 'Afee, and gruiidsou nf the 
Prapliel, is said to be buried. Aniniii!; others but 
little inferior in sanctity, ate tlie mosques of the se\'~ 
yideh Zej'neb (daughter of the Ima'ni 'Al'ee, and 
grand- daughter of the Prouliet,),ilie se/yideh Sekee'- 
nch (daughter of the Inia'ni Ei-tlhoiiey'D), the sey'- 
yld«li Nelee'seU (great-gran d-d aughter of the Imu'tn 
El-Hhas'tai], and the Ima'ni Esli-Sha'fe'ee, already 
mentioned as the author of one of the lour great 
Moo^liin sects, that to which most of the ]H;o|>le of 
Cairo belong. The huildiuga above mentioned, with 
Afi exception of the last two, aie within the nietni- 

eiSst the last but one is in a southern suburb of 
tdro; and the last, in the great southern cemetery. 
' "fhe Egyptians occasionally visit these and other 
'fi&nctuuTies of their saints, either merely with the view 
Xf paying honour to the deceased, and perlbrming 
merhorious acts for the sake of these venerated per- 
sons, vtliich they believe will call down a blessing on 
'tbdnselves, or for the purpose of urging some 
^^ecial petition, as for the restoration of health, or 
_ nr the gift of olfspring, &c. ; in the persuasion that 
1l)je therits of the deceased will insure a, favourable 
Vebeption of the prayers which they offer up in such 
Consecrated places. Tlie generality of the Mao^iuau 
tegvrd their deceased saints us intercessors wilii the 
l^ty; and make votive otlerinp to them. The 
visitor walks round the niueksMK/rah or the moou- 
n^l from lel\ |o right; and recites the Fa't'hhah, 
Wftudibly, or in a very low voice, before its door^ or 
teJW'P «aoh of its four sides. Sometimes 'a longer 
C]tl|Herof the Ckoor-u'u than the iirst (or Fa't'bfaah) 
fa'RCited alWwards ; and sometimes a khul'mck (of 
't^tMion of the whole of the Ckoor-a'n) is pertlirmed 
te'sudt an occasion. These acts of devotion are 
^{ftfieriiUyiKrformeiJ for the sake of "Can WL-a,\.\ '^ftxsai^ 


merit is likewise believed to reflect upon the viaUi 
who makes a recitalion. He usually safs at (he claec 
of Ihis, " [Assert] the absolute glory of thy Lord, itu 
Lord of Mig^hl, eiempiing Him from thai whicb 
tbey [Ihnt ja, tie unbelievers] ascribe to Him^ J 
(iiumely, the having a son, or a purtuker of hiagvdtt I 
head) ; aiid adds, " and peace be on the AposIiMi* I 
and praise be to God, the Lord of all creatures. Cb I 
God, I have transferred the merit of what I howl 
recited front the excellent Ckoor-a'n to the person t|t I 
whom this place is dedicated," or — " to the soul ifrj 
thiawel'ee," Without such a decluralion, or an inU^J 
tion to the same effect, the merit of the recital belona^H 
solely to Ihe peiiton who performs it. Alter this N^H 
cilsl, the visitor, if it be bis desire, offers up an^| 
prayer, tor temporal or spiritual bleHsings; genei^i^H 
using some such form as this — " O (iod, I «Mijnd^| 
thee by the Prophet, aud by him to whom this plal^l 
is dedicated, tu grant me such and such bleis)iigv|^| 
or " My burdens be on God aud on thee, O thouJI^H 
whom this place is dedicated." In doing this, wH^H 
persons face any aide of the muckuoo'rah : but' it bH 
more proper to face the niucksoo'rah and the ckiVl^j^| 
During the prayer, the hands are held as in the pit^l 
vale supplicadous afler the ordiuary prayers of em^H 
day ; and afterwards they are drawn down the iEuj^l 
— Many of the visit ora kiss the tlvutduild of the btawH 
ing, and the walls, windows, njucksoo'rah, &Q. '7iM^| 
rich, and persona in easy circumstances, when. ttui^| 
visit the tomb of a ewnC, distribulc money or bniH^| 
to the poor; and often give money to one or ioai^| 
water-carriers to distribute water to the poor M^H 
thirsty, lor the sake of the saint. There are partiDiilH^| 
days of the week on whieh certaiu (ombs are inoxj^H 
generally vibited: thus, the mosque of the HboMH 
aney'o is mostly visited, by men, on Tuesday^ atwH 
by women, on Saturday : tiiai of the sey'yidehi&^liH 

BUNTS, 387 

neb, on Wednesday: that of the Ima'm Esti-Sba'- 
" ' >e, on Friday. On these occBsioiis, it is a common 
custuir for the inn\e visiLurs lu lake with Ihem sprigs 
of' my/lle : tliey place iconic of Ihe:^ od the nioiiu- 
ment, or on the floor nithiii the muckgac/ruii ; and 
take back the remainder, wliidi tbey diHtrifaute to 
their irieuda. The puur sometimes place klioo'i (or 
polm-leaTeB) ; as moat perwns do upon the tutnbs of 
their iriends and relations. The women of Cairo, 
instead of the rayille or palm^eaves,olten place roses, 
flowers oi' tlie hhen'mi-Uee, jasmine, &c. 

At almoGt every village in Egypt is the (omh of 
isoBie favourite or patron s&int, which is generally 
visited, on a particular day uf the week, by many of 
the inhabitants; chiefly women; someof whom briag 
thither bread, which they leave there for poor travel- 
lers, or any other jjersons. Some also place small 
pieces of money in these Uimbs. These gitU are 
offerings to the sheykh; or given for his sake. 
Another custom common among the peasants is, to 
make votive sacriiiceB at the tombs of their sheykhs. 
Far instance, a man makes a vow {nedr) that, if he 
recover tlrum a sickneER, or obtain a sun or any other 
specif object of desire, he will give, tu a certain 
stieykh (deceased), a gwit, or a lamb, or a sheep, 
&c. : if be altaju his ubject, he sacrifices the animal 
whicii he has vowed at the tomb of the sheykh, and 
makes a feast with its meat tbr any persons who may 
chuose to attend Having given the animal to the 
saint, he thus gives tu the latter the merit of feeding 
^e poor. Little kids are often vowed as future sacri- 
tieea ; and have the right ear slit ; or are marked 
in some otbeiway. It is not nnrammon, too, without 
any definite view but that of obtaining general blesB- 
ingsi, Ui mukc these vows; and sometimes, a peasant 
vows that be>WilI sacrilice, for the i^ake of a saint, a 
calf whicti 111 .{HHtesees, as soon as it is fuU grown 


oik) fatted : it is let looae, by consent of ull'tua , 
hours, to pasture where it will, even in fielcis 
young wheat; uud at lust, after it has been sacri- 
ficed, a public feost is made with its meat. Miiiiyi 
lai^ bull is thus ^iven away. 

Almost every celebrated saint, deceased, is honoured 
by an anniversary birlh-iJay festival, which, is called 
mof^tid, oT, more properly, m(/l!d. On the occosioita 
of such festivals, many persona visit the tomb, bothi 
a duty and as a supimsed means of obtainIn^''%' 
special blessing ; fickees are hired to recite Ok 
Gkoor-a'n, for the sahe of the saiut; foock'nn) Oftm' 
perform xikra; and the people living 
bourhood of the tomb hang lamps before theit 
and devote half the night to such pleasitfes aJt'' 
of smoking, sipping coffee, and Ustei^ng h) 'b 
tellers at the cofiee-shops, or to the recitals of' 
Ckoor-a'n, and the likrs. I have now a clusbel 
lamps hanging before my door, in honour flP 
motflid of a sheykh who is buried near the h6[ " 
which I am living. Even the native Christian^' 
hang up lamps on these occasions. Ttic llei 
often continue several days. The most falnona' 
lids celebrated in Cairo, next to that of the ~ ' 
are those of the Hhas'aney n and the sey'yideh 
neb ; accounts of which will be found in a mibsei]! 
chapter, on the periodical public festivals, 8re. oF' 
people of Egypt, Most of the Egyptians not ottlj' 
pect a blessing lo follow their visiting the Idnali' 
celebrated saint, but they also dread that soine^l 
fortune will befiil them if they neglect this actr'T, 
while I am writing these lines, an aequalnlant* 
inine is sulTering from an illness which he nttrfU 
to his having neglected, for the last twrt '^^irt^'W 
attend the festivals of the sey'd Ahh'mad El-Bet^ 
awee, at Tun ta; this being thc^ period of one^lf thewfl 
■ fesUvals. The tomb of this saint ilttracta aiifiott.iB 

SAINTS. 329 

inaig> 'nsitor^, aC ihe periods of the great annual fes- 
tivals, from the metropolis, iind from various parts nf 
Lionw Egypt, as Mek'keh does pilgrims from the 
whole of the Moos'lim world. Thna mou'lids are 
celebrated in honour of him every year ; one, about 
the lenlh of the Coptic nioiith of Too'beh flTth or 
16th of Janitary) ; the seeoiul, at, or about, the Vernal 
flt^nox*; and the third, or grewt moo'lid, about a 
moath after the Sumriier solstice (or about the mid- 
idle of the Coptic raoiith of Ebee'b), when the NiTe 
hag risen considerably, but thadame of the canals are 
^t yet cut. Eatli lasts one week and a day ; begin- 
ning on a Friday, and ending on the allertioon of 
the next Friday ; and. on each night, there is a dis- 
play ol' fireworks. One week afler each of these, is 
cekibraled the moo'lid of the sevd Ihrahee'm Ed-De- 
, Boo'ckee, at the town of Desoock, on the e:ust bank 
of the western branch of the Nile. The seyd Ibra- 
, hee'tn was u very famous saint ; next in rank to the 
;,Wyd £l-Bed'awee. These moo'lids, both of the seyd 
, £S-fied'anee and of the seyd Ibrahee'm, are great 
f^ils, as well as religious festivals. At the latter, 
njosl of the visitors remain in their boats; and some 
flf\th<! Saadee'yeh durwee'shes of Rashee'd exhibit 
J ibpir, feats with serpents ; some carrying serpents 
.,*(i(b silver rings in their mouths, to prevent their 
^tjng : others partly devouring these reptiles alive. 
, The religions ceremonies at both are merely zikrslf, 
japd f^^eitals of the Ckoor-a'u.— It is customary 

3png the Moos'lims, as it was among the Jews, to 
ijild, whitewash, and decorate, the tombs of their 
, saiUD, and occasionally to put a new covering over 
i.the^luikee'beh or ta'boo't; and many of them do this 

^-■'* GkUad Iho Sitmt il-Krhet'rrh. 
; liiil^iitr. nill be Tally dtsehbed in anoUici chapter, on 
■ " • -lublic teativala, &c., in the setoad volume. 



from the some pharisaic motives vdiich 

Dui-Wet'fhes Are very numproiis in Eg^pt; anl 
«me of them who confine themselves lo rriJgiaaiL 
exercises, and subsist by alms, are mucli respecMdr~ 
this country ; particularly by the lower ordeM. Vi 
rious artifices are employed by persons of this olB 
lo obtain the reputation of superior sanctity, andi 
being endowed with lliepower of performing 
Many of them are regarded as wel'ees, i 

A direct descendant of Ah'oo Bekr, tin fM 
Khalee'feh, having Ihe title of Esh-Shtrylih r^l-Bfffreti 
and regarded as the representative of that priaq 
holds authority over all orders of dumee'shea <fl 
Egypt, The present Sheykh el-Bek'ree, who is bH 
descended from the Prophet, is Naekee'b el-AslH^ 
or chief of the Sheree'fs, — I may here add that th 
second Khalee'feh, 'Om'ar, has likewiie his t 
Bcnlntive, who is the sheykh of the "En'a'nee'yeb.fl 
Owla'd 'Ena'n, an order of durwee'shes so tlatatl 
from one of their celebrated sheykhs, Ibn 'Eti^fl. 
'Osma'n has no representative ; having leil no isatf^; 
The representative of 'Al'ee is called Sheykh c£ 
Sft'dn't, or Sheykh of the Se/yids, or Shererffej' 
tiUe of less importance than that of Naeke^b of til 
Sheree'fs, Each of these three sheykhs is termed tL,,^— 
poffiessor of the segga'deh (or prayer carpet) oFldl 
great ancestor. So also the sheykh of an ortler'fl^ 
durwee'shes is called the possessor of the se^a^ild^ 
irf the founder of the order f. Tbe segga'deh is « ' 
adered as the spiritnal throne. There are tbur^ 
Begga'dehs of durwee'shes in Egypt; which Ore ti 
of four great (wders about lo be mentioned. 

The most celebrated orders of durwee'shes 
lira the iollowing. — 1. TheJb/Wee'ye/iCin ihcBiiigi- 

• See St. Matthew, xiiii. £9. 
f !fbe titla ia ta'hheb legsa'ach. 

itt IHfal'et). TlitE <st&& was fouuded by the kjA 
Allh'maa RiJH"iUi El-Kebee'r. iLs banners, and the 
Aurbaiis ol' ila members, are block ; or the lutler are 
^ a very deep blue woollen atulf, or muslin of a very 
(dark greenish hue. The Rifu"ee durwee'shes are 
celebrated for the perl'onnancc of many wonderfttl 
fesAh*. The 'Jivia'net^yeh, orOwla'd 'Ilwi^n, who 
wre A sect of the RUaees, pretend to thrust iron 
Spikes into their eyes and budies without Bugiaining 
^ny injury ; and in appearance they do this, in suoli 
■t manner as to deceive any person wlio can believe it 
possible for a mnn (o do such things in reality. Tbsy 
-•Iso break lar^ masses of stone on their cheats; 
dtat live coals, g'lass, &c.; and are said to pass swurd« 
^-completely through their bodies, and packing- needles 
.through both their cheeks, without suHering any 
pain, or leaving; any wound: but sueh performances 
ue now seldom witnessed, X am told thut it wiis u 
_ «oininon practice for a durwee'sh of this order lu 
ttuUow out a piece of the trunk of a palm-tree, till it 
^th rags soaked with oil and tar, then set tire In 
^eae contents, and carry the burning mass uiuler 
Jtia arm, in a religious procession (wearing only 

I (drawers); the flames curling over his bare uhest, 

' Jback, and. head, and apparently doing him no injury. 
,ir-The Saadt^yeh, an order founded by the sheykji 

. ,!^a'ad ed-Deen £V-Giba'wee, are another and more 
iCelebauted sett of ihe Rifa"ees. Their banners are 

' fgreen; and their turbans of the same colour, or of 
tiie dark hue of the Rifa"eeB in general. There are 
.^ynany durwee'shes of this order who handle, with 
Impunity, live, venomous serpents, and scorpions; 
and partly devour them. The serpents, however, 
itbey render incapable of doing any injury, by extraet- 
,yig liieir venomous fangs ; and doubtless they also 

• In most of thrirj 
o5 'Egypt are infetioi ti. 



deprive the scorpiouB of their iwison. : Oai^ 
occasions (as, for instance, on that of tht festival of 
thebirlb of the Prophet), tlie Sheykli ol the Saadt^yeb 
rides, on hDreebuck, over the bodiesof a ntimbcrof 
his durwce'shes, and other persons, who thn»v them- 
selves on the ground for the purpose ; awl all Bswn 
that they are not injured by the (r«ad of the liorae', 
This ceremony is called the di/seh. Many Hifi/'M 
and Ss'adee durwee^shea obtain ih«ir UveUb<M)d ^ . 
going about to charm anoy serpents from boiuaa 
Of the feuts of these modem Psylli, an acconnt wS. J 
be given in another chapter. — S. The Cka'dcnt^^^tJ 
«ji order founded by the famoiisseyd 'Abd KimiWdlfl 
El'Geela'nee. Their banners and turbans are m4i^^| 
Most of the Cka.'dirce'yeh of £gypt are fiihi iiniil^B 
these, in religious proces^ous, carry, upon poles,: Ml^| 
of varioutt colours (groea, ycllon', red, white, &c,)j^| 
the bunncra of Ibeir order. — 3. The AhJimede^ytH^ 
or order of the seyd Ahh'mad E!-Bed'awee, whoinjl 
have lately mentioned. This is a very numeraustfndH 
highly respected order. Their banners and turfaa^H 
are red. — The Bei'yoo'medydt (founded by the s^^| 
'Al'ec El-IJeiyoo'mee), the ^u^ar^weifyeh <fowid5B 
by the Bheykh Esh-Shaara'wee), the Sh tn'nu'uMC'gr^H 
(Ibunded by the seyd 'Afee Esh- Shin na' wee}, SmH 
many other orders, are seels of the Ahhrnedae'va^B 
The Shin'na'wee'yeh train an au lo perforoi a 8tRui'M| 
part in the ceremonies of the last day of the nooUH 
of their great patron saint, the seyd Ahh'mad iB^H 
Bed'awee, al Tun'ta : the uss, of its own accqidLCAH 
ters the mosque of the seyd, proceeds to the (Mnla 
and there stands while inidlitudes crowd awUDA<4d| 
and each person who can approach ueax enou^)i<t|H 
it plutks olf some of its hair, to use as a cbaan,.i]alM 

• In the chapter on the pcrioJiciil public festivals, &c., (Wi i 
and othiT performaiiBei oflhe durflee'shea of Cdllo' ifiH- W 
itacnheH laort MJy. ■ ■'■ ■• ■ "* 

= ■ BtlRWKB SHES. *53 

the sichi «f the poor bWLit is as bare as the palm oft 
man's hatirl. 'Iliere (s another «tt of the Ahhrne^ 
dee'weh, called Owia'd Not/kA, all joana: mvn ; who 
wear turlnc/r* (or hig'h caps), with a tufl ol' piccps of 
wiona colonivd doth oh the top, wooden ^wordK, and 
numerous strings of beadn ; and carry a kind of whip 
itaW^ Jireki^teh), a fhich t*ist of corda.~4. The 
Bara!him'h, or Boorka'tnr^peh ,- the order of thfe 
se^d Ibrahei/in Ed-DescKyckee ; whose tnoo'lid has 
been racDtioned ahove. "nieir bnnuers and turbuiiB 
IU« greet), — There are many other classes of dar- 
wM^Ghes; some of whom are seels of one or other of 
Ae »1x«e orders. Among the more celebrated of 
tbetn are the Hhefna'wtifytk, the 'Afafji^yeh, th* 
Dimvrda'thr^yfh, the Nuc/uhatiei^An^yeh, the Bri- 
kreifyeh, and the Leyaeffyek, • 

It itt impossible to become acquainted with all lli{ 
tenets, rules, and ceremonies of the durwee'shea, as 
ihany of them, like those of the freemasons, are not 
to be divulged to the uninitiated- A durwec'sh with 
whom I am acquainted thus described to uie hik 
tnkin^ -the 'ahd, or initiator; covenant ( which is 
near^ the same in all the orders. He was admitted 
byihe sheykh of (he Dimurda'shee'jeh. Having 
first performed the ahlution preparatory to prayer 
(the ivoodoa')i he seated himself upon the ground 
before the sheykh, who was seated in like manlier. 
^nc sheykh and he (the mooTc^d, or candidate) 
lUeii u)a'<ped their right hands together in the maimer, 
ndnch I have described as practised in making th^ 
niMria^con tract : in this altitude, and with their 
hnidH covered by the sleeve of the sheykh, the candJ- 
(fafat! took the co%'enont; repeating, after the sheyth, 
(hfer.fDiJowIng words, commencing with the form of'a 
commoD oath of reiMHlance- " I beg forgiveuesp of 
4^d^ tfe GrtaL" (three limes) ; "than whom there is 
uo other deity; the Living, the Eveclsstmg: 1 tnni 
lo Him with repeulanee, and beg hia grace, an.'i &«- 


(fiveoMs, and eiemption from the fire." IWll 

then said lohiiM, "Dost lliou turn loCkid withrc, 
ance?' He replied, "1 di> liim lo Goil withn^euh 
BJice; iind I return iinio tiod ; nod I um grjeved(fll> 
what I have done [amis^], and I determine .not # 
relapse" — and then repeated, after the sheyktii HI 
beg for the faToiir ofUod, tbe Great, aud tbe lU^* 
Prophet ; aod 1 take as my sheykli and my guil 
unto God (whase name be eKulted), my mnati'i'i 'jti 
Er-Rahhee'in Ed-Diinurda'shee El-Klml'w«t'«e ^ 
Ri&."ce En-Neyawee ; not lo change, nor to, tef{ 
rate; and Uod is our nritness : Liy Uod, tlie GtraAi 
(thie oath was repeated three times) : " there i» tfi 
deity but Gitd" (this also was repeated three timegt 
The shejkh aud the mooret/d then redtad I' 
Fa't'hbah together; .-lod the latter L'oncluded 4 
ceremony by kissing the aheykh's hand. 

The relip'tnts exercises of the durwee'shea chieQ) 
consist in the repetitbn of tikrs. Somelimes Uoai 
ing in the form of a circular or oblmig ring, oe $ 
two rows, facing each other, and Hoinetimea .EJUing 
they exclaim, or chant, La! itt^ha il'lwll^k (Tiwnil 
no deily but God), or Aglt^h! APlMI AP^J/Hi 
(God! God! Godl), or repeat oUier invOcalioHII 
&c., over and over agtun, >intLl tlieir Gtrenglli j 
almost exhausted ; accompanyia^' their ejacuhtisnii 
or chants with a motion of the liead, gr of the wtlj^tV 
body, or of the arma. From lon^ hiiblt, Uwy <v 
abie to continue these exeicii^s for a snrprisinic leng . 
of time Mithout inlermission. They ure ol^«n')B» 
ONnpanied, at intervals, by one or more ptayerB.UfirW 
a kind ol' flute, called »a',v, or a double reed'iiyn 
culled ar^hodl, and b> persona sing'ing rel^giMl 
oArs : and some durwee'slii.>s use a little drum, (<*lj,tP - 
Wi*> or u tainbuiirjnc, during their Kikrs; S|ime, 
KfcM, {KTliirm a pti^djl ice ; file description of 

■ fVi doeriptiuna 

nffHWItF'SHHS, 3Sl 

'hfcti, as well as of several' diflerenl ilkw, I r*Mrvo 
fbr B future chapter. 

Some of tbe rites of durwee'shes (as forms of 
rrayer, modes of aikr, &c.) are observed cndy by jiar- 
tculor orders: others, by members nf various orders. 
Imoiig the latter may be mentioned the rites of tlic 
'httl'icr^een and Shaf^nfeea ; two grent classes ; each 

'which hiiR its she>kh. The chief difference be- 

reen these is that eiich has its particular form of 
■ayer to repeat every morning'; and that the former 
tktinguish Ihemselves by occasional peclusion j 
rhence their appellation of " Khnl'ivet'ees *;" Ihe 

uyer of this cla-is is repeated before day-break ; and 
c&lled mir'd saliar: that of the Sha'zilees, which 
_ called hke^b enk-Sha'silee, after day-breah. Some- 
line*, a Khal'wet'ee enters a solitary cell, and re- 
nains in it for forty days and niirhts, fastins; from 
by'break til! sunset the whole of this period. 
Imnedmefl also a number of the same class confine 

lemselves, each in a separate cell, in the sepulchral 
bosque of the sheykh Ed-Dimut'da'shee, on the 
|Orth of Cniro, and remain there three days and 
%falB, on the occasion of the moo'lid of that saint, 
n^ only eat a little rice, and drink a cup of sherbet, 
u the evenintf: they employ themselves in re[>eating 
Krtuin forms of prayer, &e. not imparted to the lUi- 
vitiated I only coming out of their cells to tmile in 
he five daily prayers in the mosque ; and never 
kisweriug any one 'who speaks to them but by saying 
'There is no deity but God." Those who observe 
K'toly days' fast, and seclude themaclves durinsi 
hat long period, practise nearly the same rules ; and 
Haphj their time in repeating the testimony of the 
Uttti imploring; forgiveness, pndsing God, &c. 
• Almost all the durwee'shes of Egypt ore trades- 

■ Ftma Mai^tmlt, a ceW, 01 e\in«V. 


men or artisans or B^riculturists ; and aniy bccuiOM"' 
ollynsaist in the riles nnil ceremonies of their r<9p*P 
live orders ; but there are some who Itavfe nit Otho 
occupatioits ihan those or perfor'tnmc^ zikrS at lU!' 
festivuls ol' saints and at privnte entertiiiniilents; mi 
of chanting in funeral proce!^(ons. These are terinri' 
foock' ara, oi facket^Tn ; wbkhis an appellatibtt^^iMi' 
also to the poor in general, but especially to pooled*" 
»otees. Some obtran their hvelibood as water^M- 
riers, by supplying tbe pttS9eHg:ers in the ^tMcU'lif 
Cairo, and the visitors at rel^jous fe.^timls, vnlb 
water, which they oarry in an earthen Tessell W» 
goat's skin, on the back. A lew lead a wandeAtf 
life, and subsist on alms ; which they otlen deniWn ' 
with great importunaey and eflronlery. Son^ of 
these distinguish themselves in the same msnner u 
eertain reputed saints before mentioned, by tke dUtli 
or coat of patches, and the stafTwith shreds nf cMb 
of different colours attached to the top : others wW 
(kntastic dresses of various descriptions. ' 

Some Rita"ec durwcc'shes (besides thoee '«( 
follow the occupation of charming away serpents &i 
houses) pursue a wandering life; travelling «Wk 
Egypt, and profiting by a ridiculous snpetfStitiMl 
which I must here mention. A venerated saAi^ 
called See Da-oo'd El-"Aa'ab (or Master DavM'tlM 
Bachelor), who lived at Tefa'hineh, a villagc'SA 
Lower Egypt, had a calf, which always attendeS 
hint, brought him water, &c. Since his death, MtM 
Hifa''ee durwee'shes have been in the habit of rearlAqg 
a nnmber of calves at his native place, or bniM 
place, above named; teaching them to Walk Tfp 
stairs, to lie down at command, fie; and then gotttf 
about the country, each with his calf, to obtain alMs. 
The calf is called '£gl JU-'A^ab (the Calf of ■**• 
*At'ab, or of the Bachelor). I once called iiit^-ffly 
house one of these durwe^shea, -wKfti ^W ^K^.; *fift 

DUitWRS'SHES, 337 

ojity one I have seen : it was a buQitlo calf; &ail liad, 
two belU EUKperided to il; one attached tu a cgUar 
round its ueck, and the other, to a girth round its 
body. It walked up the sUiir^ very well; but showed 
tfaal it had not been very well trained in every re- 
qpecL' The 'Eg\ Kl-'A/.'ub is vulgarly believed to 
Wing' into the bouse a blessing from the saint uflei 
whom, it is called. 

; Tliore are numerous wundering Turkish and Per- 
siftQ durwee'shes in Kgypt ; and to lliese, niwe than 
\0 tbe few Egyptian durwce'shes who lead a siniilai; 
iifn, must the character for impudence and inipoi> 
lunacy be ascribed. Very often, particularly in 
Riun'ada'n, a foreign durwee'sb goes to the nios<iUB 
Bf th« Hhas'aney'n, which is that moat freciuenleil 
by tbe TivIie and Persians, at the time of the Friday- 
nrayers; and, when the Khatee'b is reciting; the lirst 
Hhool'bch, passes between the ranks of persons who 
«c^ atting upon the floor, aiid places belbre each a 
little slip of paper upon which are written a, few 
wwds, generally exhortative to charity (as " He who 
gJHfth alms will be provided for" — " The pooc dur- 
3|Fe^sh asketh an alms,'' &c.) ; by which proceeding' 
))9 lusually obtains from eacli, or almost every pep- 
poih a jnece of five or ten iiid'dahs, or more. Many 
*4 the 'Persian dunvee'shes in E^pt carry an oblong 
1k)wI of cocoa-nut or wood or metal, in which ih^ 
JteCieive their alms, and put their food ; and a wooden 
(On; and most of the foreign durwce'shes wear 
.^eeses peculiar to Ibeir respective orders. They ^;e 
KhMly distini^ished by the cap : the most commo^ 
Inscription ,of cap is of a sugar-loaf, or conical, 
«hbpe, and ..made of felt: the oiber articles of die^ 
-■r^' generally u. vest and full drawers, or Irowsersj-or 
^isbictand belt, and a coarse ckjak, or long ^^> 
.The Persians here all atfect to be Soou'iie<i«, "Epib 
,iSar}(s are the jnore intrusive of t\ic Iwo c\>.,.v.. ■■, 


s u PEHsnr I ONK — ron liniud. 

Orb of tlie most renwirkoble traits in modern Kgj 
tmo superstition is the belief in written cliannH. 'rf 
composition of most of these nmulets in founded up 
magic; and occasionally employs the pen uf nlini 
every village schoolmasler in Kgjpt. A person d 
this protessioA, however, seldom pursues die atudya 
magic further than to acquire the forniulce of a f« 
charms, moat commonly consisting, for the gteitt 
part, of certain passages of the Ckoor-a'n, and namfl 
of God, tf^ether with those of spirits, genii, propheH 
or eminent sDints, intermixed with combinations! 
numerals, and with diagrams, ail of which are bU] 
posed to have great secret virtues. 

The most esleemed of all khega'bs (or charms) igi 
mnofhhaf (pt copy of the Ckoor-a'n). It used to lii 
the genera! custom of the Turks of the middle ao) 
liigher orders, ami of many other Moos'lims, to wM 
a small moo«/hhaf in an embroidered leather it! 
velvet case hung upon the right side by a wlk slrinj 
which pnssed mer the left shoulder : but this custotj 
is not now very eomtnon. During my former vinttl 
this country, a respectable Turk, in themilitnrydreiri 
Was seldom seen witliout a case of this descriptiof^ 
upon liis nde ; though it often contained no hh(^ttth> 
The moo^hhaf and other hhegafl's are still worn W 
many women; generally enclosed in cases of gold, op 
of gilt or plain silver. To the former, and lo many 
otlwr cliarms, riost extensive efficucy m aLiributed; 
they n re esteemed prefiervntives aguivst d\?«»j»,eBJ 



I CHARMS. 335 

li CfaantmMit, the evil eye, nnd a, variety of other evils. 
' The ehitriTi next in point nf estima^on to the nioo^- 
I' hhaf is H book or scroll containing certain chapters of 
jl'flie Ckoor-a'n ; ub the Cth, 18th, 36th, 44tli, 55th, 
LSTth, and 78lh ; or some otherB; generaliy seven. — 
r Another charm, which is believed lo protect the wearer 
Plfwho usually places it within his c^) from the devil, 
V'gfenii, and many other ohjects of lear, is apiece of 

(wper iui^ribed with the fojluning passages from the 
I Clnwr-a'ii*, " Anrf the prnmrvatimi of both [heaven 
f «nd earth] is no burden unto Him. He is the [li{;h, 
/ ^ Great"(chap. ii.,ver. S56}. " But God is the beet 
i jprofeclar ; and He is the most mercilul of those whci 
f jJtoW tnercy " (chap, sii., ver. 64). " They Kntch 
f pun by tiie commatid of God " (chap, xiii., ver. 12). 

* J\nA we guard them from every devil driven away 
j with stones'' (chap, xv., ver. 17). " And a ffurirk 
I agaiRBt every rebellious devil '' (chap, xitxvii-, ver. 7). 
f rAnd a guard. Tliis is the decree of the Miglily, 
r -flie Wise " (chap, ki., ver. 1 1). '■ And God eucom- 
rbaaseth them behind. Verily it is a glorious Choor-a'u, 
Vlnritten] OH a yprcsercerf tablet" (chap. Ixniv., ver. 
J.M, 21, 22).— The ninety-nine names, or epitheta, of 
L ^kid,comprisiQg'all thedivuie attributes, if frequently 
P'' Repealed, and written on a paper, and worn on the 
i^rspn, are supposed to make the wearer a particular 

Inject fiDi the exercise of all the beneficent attributes. 
V'^T^D like manner it is believed that the nuiety-nine 
U- names, or tides, &c, of the Prophet, written upon 
i I0iy,l}ki(ig, eompoiie a ctiarm whicli (according to his 
V iamn,assertion, as recorded by his son-in-law the Ima'ni 
i|^J4'ee) will, if pliiced in a bouse, and fretjuently read 
i bpm D^inning to end, keep away every misfortune, 
I ^tilence and all diseases, infirmity, the envious eye, 
' kutment, burning, min, auiJety, grief, and trou- 
*. Called •'jo'/ e/-A*./» (the vran 



blc After repeating each of ihese nun^^ 
Moos'Um adds, " God favour and preservie liiiii !*-*■ 
Stiuiliir virtuea are ascribed to a chann campowd Ol 
the names of Ihe As-htiafb el-Kahf (or CompiHitoni* 
of the Cave, also called tlie Seven Sleepers), tOgtVa^ 
wjlh the name of their dog •. These names are «mt* 
limes eii^riived on the round tray of tinned coppd^ 
which, placed on a stool, forms the table ftir dinniff)' 
supper, &c. — Another charm, supposed to-haw^ 
Hiinilar efficacy, is composed of the names tif Ik**' 
|»Ury articles of properly which the Prophet fcift' lit 
hiB deceaee. These relics t were two stffhhahtfy 
rosaries), his mooJlihaf (in unarranged fragmenHj 
his tnool^-hhootdh (or the ves!;el in which lie Itcf 
the block powder with which he painted the ea^es^ 
his eyelids), two iegga'dfhs (or pmyeiscarp^J, ^ 
hand-mill, a slaff, a toolh-stick, a suit of clothn^ 
the ewer which he used in ablution, a pair ofst 
a boor'deh (or a kind of woollen covering §%' It 

* These, it ii said, weic CbristiaD youths at Ephoauiji 
took refuge from the jiotsecution of Iha uinjierot DecIuBii,^^^ 
ctve, BQil ilept there, |;iianieil by their dog, fur the ipaae ( 
sua [solu] OE 309 [ItuuiTJ y«a[9. (Si^e the Ckooc-a'n.'duij 

»vm.( ■ ■■ ' "^ 

f Culled mmkhallafa't ta-neb'tt. . >., 

I A shirt which U said to havp been worn b; the PtD«kq| 

is ptewrved in the mobque o! KUfihoo'reir, in CuRii l/fl 

wispped in a. KuhmeeV ihuwl^ auil nut slioim to^anvfem 

petBOiw of very high tank. '" •'■■■■I 

} The bw^deh, which is vrom by iDino of the peaduiWlJ 
Egypt, i> an oblong piece of tbii^k mollcn ituff, . ie*eqiblil|| 
tlu hhm/m, txce]>tin|; in coluui. beinK fjenerallj; broMii^j^ 
i:re]-i)h. The I'loiihet'i is described ua about geven fe'etani 
a halt' in length, and ruur and a half in width. It Wait \it6i 
by him, B» boor'dEhs are at ptenenl, batli to unvelop th^Mrij 
by day and hi h night-eovering. I may be cscuaeil &i< i* 
mnrkiuf; here (na it »KL>ma to bu unknown to aome AiaMe 
prhuUis) ihnlthe terms oAA'ifnfand aM'ninr,iFhic'hBie fqi|kUM 
by rliilL-ient bistorinni (a the PropbBl'a bour'deb, nn u«lM to 
Hghifjtespeciivrlyffrfy andiroim, as wrll na j«o( and'IrWJ 

CHARMS. 341 

mttls, a coat of muil, a lonv woollen coat, hie whit^ 
taitie dool'dool,aud his camel 'adfba. — Certain versei' 
ot'the Ckoor-a'ti are also writteu ui>o:i slips of paper. 
a^d worn upon the peraon as safeguards agaiQsi 
varkiiiB evils, aud to procure restoration to health, 
lofVB and friendship, food, &i:. These and other 
cbpj:iQs, enclosed in cases of i(oid, silver, tin, leather, 
oi; slk, &c., are woru by many of the. modern Egyp- 
tians,, men , women, and childreu- 

Jtia very common to sec children, in this country, 
wiUiacharm against theetiV e^e, enclosed in a case, 
^nerajly of a triangular fnrm, attached to the lop of 
tlM cap; and horses oileu have similar appendages, 
'Die. Egj-ptians take many precautions against the 
evil eye; and anxiously endeavour to avert its ima- 
gined eoose^uences. When a person expresses what 
is.cpn^dered improper or envious admiration of any- ' 
ttuRSfhe is ^nerally reproved by the individual whojn 
he has thus alarmed, who says to him, " Bless the 
Prbpbet*!"; and if the eiivier obeys, saying, "O 
<^, bvour liim f I ", no ill etfects are apprehended. 
It is', considered very improper for a person lo express 
hi^ admiration of another, or of any object which is 
not his own property, by saying " God preserve 
uSf!" "How pretty!" or, "Very pretty!": the 
njbst approved expression in snch cases is " JUa' 
ihd-tUi'h!" (or " God's will !") ; which implies boA 
adniration, and submi^sioa to, or approval of, the 
nill''(jf God. A person who has exclaimed *' How 
pfetty! ", or used aimiiar words, is often desired ta 
Kii^', rather, " M a' shu-Ila'h ! " as well as to bless Ihe 
Prophet in the second chapter of this work, a re- 
markable illuslralion has been given of the feat 



which Tnothers in Bgypt enleriain of the «ft 
evil eye upon their children. It is the eiielom ii 
this country, when a. pursuu takes ibe child uf aoottw 
jntii hisonns, tuaay, " lu the name uf God, lheCe» 
piiBsioiiate, (he Merciful ! " and, " O Cod, favoiiiwr 
lord Mohham'mad 1 " ; and then lo add, " Mb' ti 
IWh!'' It is aiHo a common custom of the peof 
of E^ypt, when admiring a child, to say, "!«< 
refuge with the I.urd of the Day-break for (Iwa^ 
alluding to the ChajiUr of the Day-bri-<ik (the ItlH 
chapter of tlie Cl<oor-a'D)i in the end of which,]) 
tectioii is implored against the mischief of the ennH 
The parents, when tliey see a person stare atj Or iM 
to envy, their young oHspring, sometimes cut offf 
piece of the skirts of his clothes, bum it with a lill 
salt (to which some add coriander- seed, aluiiin,&n 
and fumigate with the smoke, and sprinkle wilh & 
ashes, the child or children. This, it is said, shos* 
lie done a little before sunset; when the ai 

Aiumn is very generally used, in the fi^tonirVi 
manner, by the people of Egypt, to counteract Jbf 
effects of the evil eye, A piece of about the sixei 
a walnut is placed upon liurning coals, and left uuj 
It has ceased to bnbbla. This should be doiMi 
Bhnrt time before sunset; and the person who p(l 
tarms the operation should repeat three times, wliil 
the ulumn is biuniug, the first chapter uf the CkMi 
a'n, and the lust tliree chapters of the same ; aiU 
which are very short. On taking the alumn Off ttl 
fire, it will be found (ive are told) to have aasm 
the form of the person whose envy or malioe ,| 
given occasion for this process i it is then to . 
pounded ; put inio some food ; and ;[iv«n to a black 
d(^, to be eaten. I have once seen this done, \fn 
man who suspected his wife of having looked iiphj 
him with, ap^evil eje ; an^dj t«ae,v\* «!anEA AW, 

CHARHB. 343 

1 form much resembling that of a woman, 
jn what ihe man detlareil was a petuliiir posture in 
which his wife was accusiomert lo sit. Hue [he shape 
irtlich the aluinn takes depends almoet entirely upon 
the dispiwition of the coafs; und can hitrdly be Ructi 
that the imagination may nui see in it some resem- 
lilance to a human being. — Another supposed mode 
of obviating the efleets of the envious eye is, to prick 
a paper with a needle, saying', at the xame lime, 
" This is the eye of auch a one, the envier ;" and 
dien to bunt the paper.^ — -Alumn is esteemed a very 
-nluable charm ajrainst ttie evil eye ; sometimes, a 
nnall, flat piece uf it, ornumented with tiissels, is bung 
lb the top of a child's cap. A tassel of little shells 
Uii beads is also oseii in the same manner, and for 
the same purpose. The small shells called cowriea 

i considered preservatives against the evil eye ; 
«nd' hence, as well as for the sake of ornament, 
they are often attached to ifie trappings of camels, 
horses, and other animals, and sometimes to the caps 
nf (ihildreo •. 

To counteract the elects of the evil eye, many 
perWms in Egypt, but mostly women, make use of 
Ithat is called mej/'ah moobafrakaJi (or blessed 
Morax), which is a mixture of various ingredients tluit 
irtU be mentioned below, prepared and sold only 
during the first ten days of the month of Moh- 
tur'rtm. During this period, we often see, in the 
UrebtB of Cairo, men carrying about this mixture of 
infcy"ah, &c. tor sale ; and generally crying some such 
%onte as the following — " Me/'ah mooba'rakah ! 
A tiew year and blessed 'A'shKo'raf ! The must 
Missed of jears [may this be] to the believers ! Ya' 


nw/'ali mboWrBkah ! " — The tnan wlm, sefcil 
bears upon his head a round Iray, covered wilt ^ 
I'erent- coloured sheets of paper, re6, yellow, &>; 
upon which is placed the vuluable mixture. In ibl 
mJdille is a large heap of ti^ (or refuse) of a ctijl 
reddish malerlul lor dyliic;', mixed wiili a little fftf^^ 
(of storax), coriander seed *, and seed of Ihe fen^ 
tiuwer-f.' ruund this large he iip iirc smaller l^u)i 
one consiiiting of salt riycd blue with indigo; ammfli 
of milt dyed red; h third, of wait djed jelioWj-A 
riiurlh. of » (a kind of wormwood) ; a m&,li 
dust of libcin (or frankincense). These are all'l^ 
ingredients of the " Mey"ah inooba'rakah,'' '.^ 
seller is generally called into Uie house of thepu^ 
chnser. Uuviiig placed his tray before Lim, and i^ 
ceived a plate, or a piece of paper, in which Id (W' 
the quantity to be purchased, he tskes a little fiqp 
one heap, then from jinolher, then from a thiril^ B^ 
so nn, unlil lie lias taken some fruin each hei^i 
alter which, again and again, he takes an addttioaal 
quantity from each kind. While he does thi^ w 
chants a long spell, generally commencing Ai 
" In the name of God ! and by God ! There js 
conqueror that conquereth God, the Lord of 
East and the West : we are all Ids servanls'i 'm 
must acknowledge his unity: hi» unity is aii'|t|ue- 
triquis attribute." After some words on the virfiifl 
'jOtBalt, he |iroceeds to say — " I charm thee from^^ 
' ii^ bf girl, sharper tban a spike ; and fi om the eM 
'bf t^uman, sharper than a prurn'ug-knifi: - and t^i/jfi 
Hi/B e^e of boy, more painful than a whip ; und ftim 
theeyeof man, sharper than u chopping-kuLliE j"aiid 
'1^' OB, Then he relates how Solomon deprived lite 
'i^] eye of its influence ; and aflerwarris euumerai^ 
'Vvery article of properly that the houMe is likefy to 
• Koat'cBT'i./,. ■':. , 

I Hkab'bth •a'rfB,o,r likaWfM ci-bar'aluAJ 

coutain, and that the person who purciioees his non- 
derfiil mixture muy hti conjectured to possess ; all of 
which he thBrms agaiiut the influence of the eye. 
Man; of the expressions which hu employs in this 
Spell are very ridiculous; words being iniroiluced 
merely for the sake of rhyme. — The mej-"ah inooba'- 
j'sksh, a handful of which may be purchnsed for five 
■ftid'dahs*, is treasured up by the purchaser during' 
' tbe ensuing year; and whenever it is feared that a 
'child or other person is ufl'ecled by the evil eye, a 
"little of it is thrown upon some burning coals in a 
cbofin^iEh ; and the smoke which results is gene- 
Hilly made to ascend upon the sup|X)sed sufferer. 
' It is a custom among the higher and middle 
Classes in Cairo, uu the occasion of a marriage, to 
bang chandeliers in the street before the bride- 
groom's house ; and it often happens that a crowd is 
collected to see a very large and handsome chan- 
delier suspended; in this case, it is a common prac- 
, tice to divert the altenlion of tbe spectators by throw- 
■ i(ig down and breaking a large jar, or by some other 
anlGce, lest an envious eye should cause the ctan- 
delfer to fall. Accidents which confirm the Egyp- 
tians in their auperstitions respecting the oil eye 
often occur: for instance, a friend of mine has just 
telaled to me, that, a short time ago, he saw a camel 
Carrying two very large jars of oil : a woman stopped 
'before it, and exclaimed " (jod preserve us ! "What 
large jars!"— the conductor of the camel did not tell 
TieE to bless the Prophet; and the camel, a few 
'iminu^es after, fell, and broke both the jars, and oiie 
'IJP'ils o)!^ legs. 
'.'While writing these nates on modern Egjp'iau 
"'silperstiiiOns, 1 have been amused bv a complaint of 
^diie of my Mua'reet friends, which will serve, lo 

* Non equivalent to a faitliiug ulil one Sltb. 
t Tb»t is, Caiieen. 


illuatrale what I liavfl juat stated. — "The DrfaW 
he said, " having, a few days ago, g-iven up his B»' 
Dopoly of the meat, the butohera now slaaghler tt 
ihetr own Hhops ; anil it is quite shocking to see fir' 
sheep hung up in the streets, quite whole, tatl*a 
all, before the public eye; so that every bcg^BTVi 
passes by envies them ; and one might, therefon^v 
well eat poison us such meat." — My cook hasma^''' 
the flame complaint to me ; and, rather than puicfafl 
from one of the Ehopa near at hand, takes the tj^ 
of going to one in a dintaiit quarlfr, kept by a 
who conceals his meat from the view o( the p 
ger.s in the street. 

Many of the tradesmen of the metropolis and otfaeT' 
towns of Eerypt. place over their shops (genen " 
upon the hanging shutter which i« turued up is fin] 
a paper inscribed with the name of God, or tbtt v 
(he Frophel, or both, or the profession of th« fiiw* 
("There is no deity but God: Mohhain'mad isGoc|!l* 
Apostle"), ihe bi»niflak ("In the name ol'GcMl,t])ii( 
Compaaaionate, the Merciftil"), or some maxin tP 
the Prophet, or a verse of tlie Ckoor-a'n (as. " VelflfA 
we have granted thee a manifest victory " [ch> ahiiiiy 
ver. 1], and " Assistance from God, and a specif 
victory : and do thou bear good tidings to the Uf 
believers '' [ch. Ixi., ver. 13] ), or an invocation to tl 
deity, such as, " Oh thou opener [of the doois- d 
prosperity, or subsistence]! O thou wise! C "' " 
supplier of our wauia ! O thou bountiiul " ! "■ 
iUTocation is ofleii pronounced by the trad 
when he first opens his shop in the momiog, ijad h 
the pedestrian vender of small commodities, bnMJ 
vegetables. fi(c., when he sets uut on hia daiil) 
rounds. It is a custom among the lower orders [a 
put the first piece of money ibat tUey leteive in. m 

' TliG fat of the lull is esteeinaii a daiiilv. 

t Ya' /Malkk! Ya'^atit'ml Ya' rc^a'ai! ¥a' turn'm! 

B lip! and forehead before putling( it ju the 

Bemdes the insoriptjuus ovtr sliops, we otlen see, 
.vociilioii "O God T' sculjitured over 
B donr of a private buuse ; and the words "Tbe 
iBtor is the Kvorlastiiig," or " He is the Creator, 
B Cvef lasting','' pointed in large characterB upoii 
B door, buth us a charm and Ip remind the manter 
^4he house, whenever lie eiilerti it, <jf his own mor' 
"lilityt. ThesfiVHirda are otten inscribed upon the 
3. liouse when its furiner master, and many , 
F oil of its former inheUlants, have been removed 

iTiie most approved mode of charming away sick- 
Mis or disease is lo write certain passages of the 
5^iMir-a'n } on tlie inner surlaee of an eartlienware 
IP or bow! ; then to pour i|i some water, and stir it 
Itil the writing is quite washed oif; when tbe water, 
|ttt the sacred words thuH infused in it, is to be 
|uak by the patient. These words are as follow.' 
iftod he will lieal the breasts of the people who be- 
we" (chap, ix., ver. 14). " O men, now hath an 
Imanitioa come unto you from your Lord ; and a 
medi/ for what is in your brea±>ts'' (cliap. \,, vvr. 
|). " Wherein is a rtmedy for men" (chap, xvi., 

Ki71). " We send down, of the Ckoor-a'n, tliat 
oti js a remedy and mercy to the believers " 
[bap- xvii-i ver. 84). " And when I am sick he 
pieth me " (chap, xxii., ver. 80). " Say, it is, to 
Dae who believe, a guide and a remedy" (chap, xli., 
r. 44). Four of these verses, notwithstanding; they 
^^* thus used, refer not to diHeuftes of the iorfy, but 
ftbe mind; and another (the third) alludes to the 

*• Ya' M'ia^U! 

f'f Seb the eueiaviug of a door oitli thia inscripbon inuerteil 
la ihe iatraductKjn. 
t- OUnl n'jfl'/ ak-iki/'i (the saiMi lA iwtaii'iwtf). 


virtues iif honey I — On my applying *" , _ 
(or tutor) U) poiut oul lo uic in what ch^MnlfiK 
verses were to tie found, bti bemxred me ml U 
irauolule lliem into my own lao^ua'^ ; becMiseAe 
trtmslalion of tlie Ckoor-Wn, unaccompaaicd Iiylk 
original text, is prohibited : not that lt« 
ashamed of tUe practice of employiuir these i 
a charm, uod did nut wish my (»untrymeD lo bejk- 
formed ol' the cnatoni ; for lie CKpresBcd tiia ftfffe 
lief in their efficacy, even in the case of on "■■"" 
pntient, provided he hod proper confidenoe ii 
virtue ; " seeing," lie observed, " that the ftOfU 
(God favour nnd preserve him!) bas said. 'If^lH 
confide in God, wiili true confidence. He will m^ 
tliec as He suslaineth tbe birrls.*" I sitencedV* 
Rciuples ou the subject (if translating these v 

telling him, ihat we had an English traiud. 

the whole of the Ckoor-a'n. — Sometimes, for the 6i» 
of diiieaiws, and to uninteract poisons, &c., ad 
o'' water from a metal cup, having certain p n 
of the Ckoor-a'n, and talismanio characteM tfll 
figures, engraved in the interior, la adminis ~ 
the patient I have a cup of this de!tcrq>ttoa(<li 
given to rae* here (in Cdro), much admired li~ 
MoDs'lIm acquaintances. On the exterior isa 
ficription enumerating its virtues : it is said la^ 
charms that will couuteroct all poisons Sic, asi 
nil eye, and cure "all sicknesses and diseaUB,! 
ceptiu^ the sickness of death," 1 have seen,jii 
onulher cup which ap)>eared to have been ekn 
Hmilar to that above mentioned; but its inscti_ 
were partly efibced. — Tlie secret virtues «'J 

Ckoor-a'nf are believed to be very numerOUk. '<9 ^ 

day, on my refusing to eut of a dish that I feaie 

CHARMS. 349 

i do me htirin, I was desired to repeut the Soo'riLt 
ire/8)t (106th diapler of the C-kuur-&'ii) to Uie 
end of the words " supplictb thetu with food against 
" and to repeat these last words three times. 
IS asBured, would be u certaiD preventive of 
y harm that I might liave feared. 
There are various things wliich are ri^garded iu 
hti same light as written cUarms ; such as dust fioni 
ha tomb of the Prophet, water from the sacred well 
ibfZem'zem, in theTemple of Mek'keh, and pieces of 
"' e black silk covering of the Ka'abeh ". Th# water 
'. Zem'xeni is mui'h valued for the purpose of 
^liakliiig upon grave-clothes. — An Arab, to whom 
* '' d given some medicine which had been beneficial 
im, in the Sa'ee'd, during my former visit to this 
ittomttry, heard me inquire for some Zem'sem-water 
ffoB several boats full of pilgrims on their return from 
dlek'Iceh were coming down the Nile), and perhaps 
itfaought, from my making this inquiry, that I was a 

K'om Moos'lim : accurdingly, to show his gratitude 
me, be gave me what I was seeking to obtain, 
biviug gone to his house, he returned lo my boat, 
blinging a small bundle, which be opened before me. 
Hiljere," said he. " are some things which, I know, 
n will value highly. Here arc two tin flasks of 
B Kater of Zem'zem : one of them ;'ou shall havR : 
MbMi nay keep it to sprinkle your winding-sheet with 
ik . This is a minoa'k (a tooth-stick) dipped in the 
hw fcj t of Zem'aem : accept it from me: clean your 
Mh with it. tind they will never ache, nor decay. 
PJi^ here," he added (showing me three smdl, 
riblong and flat cakes, of a kind of greybb earth 
ScMh abont an inch in length, and stamped with 

^*' Erety yeat, on tliu diiy after the 
MNaag'} a sew cotninc id hung iiiiun 
WS one is cut I 


Arabic charaeteri, ' In Ihe name of God ! Dm4 
our land [mrxptl] with the saliva of seme of t»1l 
"these are composed (it'eurtii IVom over the gravoll 
the Prophet (God favour and preserve him !) ; I pBi 
Phased them myself in the noble tomb, on myrfin^ 
from the pilffrimBge: one of them I give tojiOH 
you will find it a Lure for every disetise : Ifae WOBIl' 
I Bhall licep for myself; and the third we will 4 
together." — Upon this, he broke in halves one oflM 
three cakes ; and we ettch ate our share. J tgntt- 
with him (thoug:h I had read Ihe inscription) ikrf 
it was delicious; nnd I gladly accepted his presO' 
— I was afterwards enabled to make several addille 
to mj Mek'Iceh curiosities ; comprising' a fiieot __ 
the covering of the Ka'abeh, brtmght from Mtk'kA 
by the blieykh Ibrahee'm f Burckhiirdt), and ^veD Bf 
me by bis leE^alee 'Osma n. — A cake composed rf 
dust from tlie Prophet's tomb is sometimes sewed op 
in a leather case, and worn ivs an amulet, it is ulw 
formed into lumps of the shape of a pear, and ol'l^( 
size of a small pear; and hung to the r&iling. oq 
screen which surrouuds the monument over Ml 
grave of a suint, or to the mnnumtnt itself, or lotfefl 
windows or dour of the apartment which coubiiBSijfl 
So numerous are the charms which the £g>'^tj|a 
employ to insure good fortune, or to prevent arinS 
move evils of every kind, and so various an Ibflj 
snperetitious practices to which they have recoi^vH 
with these views, that a larg« volume would MW^ t^g. 
suffice to describe them in detail. These modeii.M'i 
endeavourin": to obtain good, and to avoid or diqU^f' 
evil, when they are not founded i^pon religi0n,,ilii 
magic or astrology, are termed matters of 'Um ef«~ 
rool'lcek,ot the science of the disiulf (tliat is^of Ahe 
women); wfaiuh designation Is given La imply th^itf 
absurdity, and lieciiuse women are the persdiwwbo 
most confide in Jl This term in considered, bf 


It'u a vulgar cowuplion of " 'ilm er-roocV'yeh," 
dence of eutliuutinent :" by others, it is 
3 be substituted for ilie latter term by ffny 
Same praciio'es of the nature just de- 
bribed have already been iucideiitally mentioned : I 
liall pnly give a. fen other specimens. 

It is a very comniott custom in Cairo to hang an 
joe-plant over the door of a house ; particularly over 
)Bt of H new house, or over a door newly built ; and 
regarded iis a, charm to insure long and 
purishing lives lo the iniiiale!^, and long continuance 
i the house itself*. The wonieii ulsn believe that 
Prophet visits the house ^here this plant is 
jBpended. The aloe, Ihus hung, without earth 
^ water, will live for several years; and even 

When any evi! is apprehended from a person, it is 

ptomary to break a piece of pottery behind his 
" a also done with the view of preventing' 

jrlher intercourse with Hueh a person 

■As ophthahnia is xery prevalent in Egypt, the 
larant people ot Ibis Lountry resort tu many ridi' 

tous practices ot a 4uperbitiuw> nature tor its cure. 

itne, for this purpose take a piece ol dried mud, 
Ui the bank of the Nile at or near Boo'la'ck, the 
tiolpai port (.( Ciiro and, crossmg the ruer, de- 
^t it on the tppcsite bank at Imba'beh This 
considered sufficient to injure a cure — Others, 
h ttie same mew hang to the head-dress over the 

phead, or over the diseased eje, a Venetian 
tlfn-fi but It must be one of a particular descrip- 
i,'tn which the figures on each side Lorreipund, 

^t h^iB bee 1 KB 1 b) :i tmieller that this i; only done at 
riliis' liou«i!i ; liul such IS nut IKe caaB ut least iu Kgypl. 


head U> head, and feet to feet *. Tet U a ptm 
having a Venetian sequin, or a dollar, ia tils pui^ 
enter the room of one who is sofTerJng from opMW 
mb or fever, his prescuee is thought to ^ffvA 
the complnilit. It also is a general belief, here,^ 
if an individual in a. state of religious uudeunfll 
enter a room in which is a person aRUctnt A 
ophthaliiiiiL, the pRtient's disease will conseqiteniyll 
aggravated, and that a speck will apper- '— ""'' 
eweh of his eyes, A man with nhom 1 arr _.. 
has, at the lime I write this, just come out o^i 
in which he had confined himself, while miStHit 
from oplithalmia, for about three months, frot* l"- 
fear i never allowing any person to enter ; hJB a 
vant always placing his food outside his door: 
has, however, come out with a speck in one oT 

Another practice, which is often adopted in sinii 
eases, but mostly 1^ women, and frequently with L. 
view of preventing barrenness, is very singular alii 
disifusling. The lai^ open place called the" ' 
e/leh, on the west of the Citadel of Cairo, is 
mou scene of the e)Lecution of criminals ; and Ihi 
decapitation uf persons convicted of capital oSki^ 
in the metropolis was formerly almost always' W- 
fbrmed there, rather ihau in any other part ofiW 
town. On the south of this place is a building caJfiK 
MugUdl cs-Soolla'n, or the Soolta'n's ivashing-|Ja^ 
for the dead ; where is a table of stone, upon wlil^i 
the body of every person who is decapitated is vyasbwi 
previously to its burial; and there is a trough lb fi- 
ceive the water, whicli is never poured out, but re- 
mains tainted with the blood, and fetid. Mai^y e 

• A fuquin ot this dcieriplitfn is termeJ brn'itiiaci'et ffoailK^' 

CHARMS. 333 

^„_ _. S"**" Ibilher, and, for the cure of ophlhalinia, 
' to obtain offspring, or to expedite delivery in Itw 
iKC ol' a protracted pregnancv, without sjieakiHg (fdr 
fence is deemed absolutely necessary), passes under 
^ Btone ulile above mentioned, with ilie lell foot 
iremosf, aad Ihen over it; and does this Sfven 
pies; uft^r which, she wgshes lier lace wiLli the 
illlited water thai is in the trough, and (rives five or 
q fud'duhs lo au old man and his wife, who keep 
B place ; then goes away, slili without speakinif. 
^a, ill Ihe case of ophthalmia, often do the same. 
Mftlogh'si] is said to have been built by the famous 
cybur's, before he became Soolta'n ; in consequence 
fais observing that the remains of persons decapi- 
ted IB Cairo were often kicked about, and buried 
thout being previously washed. 
Some women step over the body of a decapitated 
^ seven times, without speaking, to become preg- 
lOt ; and some, with the same desire, dip, in the 
ood, a piece of cotton woo], of which they after* 
1— J- iniie use in a manner I must decline men- 

JV ridiculous ceremony is practised for the cure of u 
aiple on lite edjre of the eye-lid, or what vte com- 
jcuv call a " sty," and which is termed in E^ypt 
a^-hht/teh ; a word which literally signifies " n 
lale "beggar." The person affected with it gijes to 
y s(*ven women of the name of Fa'i'ineh, in 8ev«n 
^^nt houses, and begs from each of them a 
^isel of bread : these seven morsels constitute the 
npdy.^-Sometinies, in a similar, and for tlie 
me purpose, a person goes out before siuirise, awj, 
tbout npeakiiig, walks round several tombe, fvom 
pi fo left, which is the reverse of tbe reguiar 
f made in visiting tombs. — Another supposed 
e secure in a case of the sbrib kind Is, to biifd a 



bitof-'otton on the end of a stick; UieiiWd|^] 
one of the troughs out of svhich the <i(hr* dr' 
the streets of Cairn, and to wipe the eye wL, 
The patient w thus cnrefiil to prescno his hiinifi^ 
the polluted wattr, when he is about to applvUi 
another pitrt of his person. ■ ■ 

As ail imaginary cure Tor ague. 
Women of Egypt (I mean those of the Mobifliaiy 
hang to their necks the fiiiger of a Climtiaii or A 
cut off ft corjiae, anddrieil. This and other pr»?^ 
rnenlioiied before are striking-proofs of (hedeg' 
effeuts of superstition , and of its poweri'iir inL„., 
over the mind : for, in general, the Moos'tims wTl 
BCrupulously careful to conform with that prettplw 1 
their religion whith requires them to a.b<ttaJi) Uoi" 
everything polluting or unclean 

When u child is unable to vf-ilk after (nvmg al 
tained the i^ when il is usual !u begtn lo do so it 
is a common custom for the motlier to bind iLsftel 
together with a palm leal tied in tlires UnoLs, aiid lu 
place it at the door of a moEque during- the petwci 
when the congregation are engaged ni peitormiiu[ 
the Friday prayers when the prijers arc en led, she 
asks the first second, and third pir ong n[ > (.(m« 
out of the mosque to untie each a knot oJ rhe pjli^ 
leaf; and then carries the child home confident thai 
this ceremony will loon ha%e the effect of enabl Uj 
the litileone to walk 

There are seiera! pretended iniidote^i for poi' 
and remedesfor certain diseases to which thefegJ 
tians ollen have retour e, <ind whc! 
haw some efficHcy but supcrstitiCLi 
them incred ble virtues The be/c-i.r stone * la us^ 
as an antidote for po son, by rubbing i> ■" * 

■ HKag' ar tl'-htrtzaketr. 

with a £Ul<t water : tbe cup is ihen fifled with muter, 
xOhicH the patient drinks. In the same mantier, and 
for the same purpose, a cup ntude of the horn of the 
thin0ceros* is used : a piece of the same material 
(the ,IioriO is rubbed in it. — As a cure for the 
Jaundice, many persons in Cuiro drinlt the water of 
a wel! in this city, called Ifeer ••l-yaraxh^ii, or " the 
^ell of the jaundice." It is the property of on old 
Woman, who reaps cuiisiderable advantage from it: 
for it 1ms t<v« moulhfl, under one of which is a dry 
receptacle fur anything that inuy be thrown dowuj 
aiid the old woman desires the persons who come to 
use the medicinal water to drop through this mouth 
whatever she happens to. be in need of; as sugar, 
coffee, &.C. 

TheMoos'liins have recourse to many superstitiouit 
practices to determine them when they are in doubt 
as to any action which they contemplate, whether 
they stiail do it or uot. Some ipply, for an answer, 
iq a table culled a xa'ii'geh. There is a table of tbis 
kind ascribed to Idree's, or Enoch. It is divided 
iino a hundred liule .squares; in each of ntiicb is 
written some Arabic letter. The person who con- 
aiills it repeats, three time a, the opening chapter of 
the Ckoor-a'n, and the 58tti verse of the Sui/rat eU 
Ari'a'm (or 6th chapter)—" Wilh Hira are the keys 
pPthe secret things : none knoweth them but Him : 
He inoweth whatever is on the dry ground or in the 
sea : there falletb no leaf but He knoweth it ; neither 
Is (lieie a single grain in the <lark parts of tile earth, 
lior a green thing nor a dry thing, but it is [wriUen] 
in' a perspicuous book." — Having done this, without 
looking directly at the table, he places his finger upon 
i(:.he then looks to see upon what letter his tiugei 



' is placed i writes thai letter; the fiAb followinff it:'l 
ibe fiflK following this : Md so on, uDta he amiSm 
again to llie first whjcli he wrote; and these' !(!>■ 
"I ers together compose the aoswer. The constractionl 
















































^Fbr an example, suppose ihe finger to be pbcetT^^I 
tlie letter e in the BJsth line : we lake, from the' laf^H 
Ihe letters evjoypeaceabttit < t'^'ffjH 

peace :" Ihe sentence always coninieneing- with 41 
first of the letters taken from the uppermost linfe. ''U 
will be seen that the table gives only tive ansfV^^H 
' and that, if we prgceed as above directed, we nlt^B 
obtain one of these answers, with whatever le^tftHM 

ttiat Ihe framer of the ubie, knowing that men 'fgW 
frequently wish tii do what ta wrong, and setdon'wH 
do what iH ri^ht, and that it is generally,.BiAr<aH 













Uiem to abstain when in doubt, has given but ooe 
aHirmative SDSwer, aurl four negative*. 

Some persons have recoiirue to ihe Ckoor-a'ii for 
an answer lii tlieir doubts. This they call makiui^ 
an istiA'hi^rah, oc application forthefavinu-of heaven. 
Repealing, thrett limps, the opening chapter, the 
113th chapter, and the verse above quoted, Ih^ let 
the book Tall opeir, or open it at random, and, from 
the seventh line of the lighi-hand page, draw their 
answer. The words often will not tonvey a direct 
answer; but are taken as afiirmativc or negative ac- 
cording a£ their general tenor is giiod or bad; pro- 
mising a blessing, or denouncing a threat, &c. In- 
stead of reading the seventh line of this psge, tome 
count the number of the letters kha and ilienn which 
occiir in the whole page ; and if the khat predinninate, 
the inference is favourable : tha represents klityr, or 
goiyd : xheeii, shurr, or evil. 

lliere is another mode of islibha'ruh ; which is, to 
lake hoki of any two points of&scb'hkah (or roary), 
afttir reciting the Fa't'bhuh three times, and then to 
GOunt-the beads between these two points, saying, in 
passing the first head through the Angers, " [I 
assert] the absolute glory of God;" in passing the 
second, " Praise be to God ;" in passing the third, 
f There is no deity but God;" and repeating these 
expressions in the same order, to the last bead ; if 
)the first expression fall to the last bead, the answer 
is affirmative and favourable : if t^e second, indiffer- 
ent; if the last, negative. Tius is practised by man; 

Some, again, in similar cases, on lying down to 
^Bleep| at night, beg of God to direct iliem by a 
.,3ream ; by causing them to see something white or 

"'* The more EppRired za'i'r'gehs SM extremely complicilvd ; 
BDil the procc»5 of coaBulliiig them iavolvB* intikaJie 'KAxoNa- 
gii:al oleulafi 



ereen. or water, if the ocliou which they oonl 
be approved, or if (hey ore to expect approaching 
goad fortune ; and if not., by causing them to fee 
something black ur red, or fire : tliey then recite the 
Fu't'hhah ten times; and continue to repeat thew 
words — "O God, favour our lord Moliharn'madr'-n 
until they full asleep. 

The Egyptians place ^at faith in dreams, whiol 
often direct them in aome of the most imporiaiit ai 
tions of life. They have two large uad celebrBU 
works on the interpretetioii of dreams, by It/n Kh 
hee'n and Ib'ii Seeret'n; the laiterof whnm was d 
pupil of the former. Tliese books are con suited, en 
hy Uie learned, wiiU implicit confidence. When oi 
persou says lo another, " I have seen a dream," tl 
iatler usually answers, " Good*" (i. e. may it ba I 
good omen), or. '' Good, please God f" When 
person has had an evil dream, it is customary for hil 
to say, "0 God favour our lord Mohhain'maiiM 
and to spit over his left shoulder three times, to pr 
vent an evil result. 

In Egypt, as in most other countries, auperstitiui 
are eaterloined respecting <lays of the week ; son 
being considered fortunate ; and others, unfortunat 
— The Eg'vptians regard Sujtday as an unjbrtuna 
day, on account of the night wluch folbws it. — ^Tb 
night, whicli (according to the system already mei 
tiooed) is called the night of Monday, the leami 
Moo^iims, and many of tlie inferior classes, constd 
Hitfortunate, Ijecause it was that of the deatb of thi 
Prophet ; hut some regard it as forlunaiK, part" 
lariy for the constimmB'tion of marriage; thoii^ 
so auspicious for this alfair as the eve of Ir'ridi 
The day following it is also considered, by some, 
jiiriuiiate ; and by o^era, as w^'ortunate. — jTuetd 

ADfiVRATtON. 399 

I to gcBerally thought unfortimate, and called "the 
day of bloorf;" as it jssairl that Beverel eminent mar- 
tyrs were put to death on this day ; uml hence, also, 
it is commonly esteemed a proper diiy for being Ucd, 
— fVednexday is regarded as indifftmil.— ThuriKiay 
is called tl-moabahak (or the blessed) ; mid is consi- 
dered fortunate ; particularly deriving a blessing 
from the following night and day.— The eve, or 
ni^t, of Friday is vfrg fnrtimate ; especially for the 
cuttsummation of marrioge. Friday la blessed above 
all other divs as being the Hubhaih of the Moos'lims : 
it is called el-fudefflrk (or the encelleiil)'— So(uriay 
is the mo&t miforlniKilt of days. It is considered 
very wrong to commence a journey, and, by most 
people in E;g>pt, to shave, or cut the nuils, on this 
dsy,— A friend of mine here was doubting whether 
he shtiuld bring nu action against two persons nn so 
unfnrtunalt ii day as Kuturday : he decided, at last, 
that il tVBS the best day of ibe week for him to do 
thietfis the ill fortune m»st iitll upon one of the two 
parties only. Bud doubtless upim his adversnries, \x- 
CMiae they were two to one. — Thi're are some days 
of the year which are esteemed very fotlanale; as 
those of the two ijTand festivals, &c. ; and some 
which nre regarded as unfbrtunate ; as, for inslaui'C, 
the last Wednesday in the month of Sufar; when 
many persons make a piiint of not going out of tlieir 
housed, from the belief that numerous afftictio'is lull 
upon nmnkind on that day, — Some persons draw 
lucky or unlocXy omens from the first objict ihej 
Bee on going out ol' the house in the morning ; ac- 
cording a« that object is pleasant nr the reverse, they 
say, '■ our morning is good'' or " — bad." 



If we might believe some sloiies which 
monly related in Egypt, it would appear that, 
moderu days, there have beea, in this country, not less skilful than Pharoah's " wise 
and sorcerers" of whom vve read in the Bible. 

The more inielligent of the Moos'lims diatii _ 
two kinds of magic, which they term Ev-&odhM\ 
(iTilgo. Rou/hka'iiee) and Es-Sa'tniya: the fom 
is npiriiual magic, which is believed to eSeet: 
wonders by the ageiicy of au^ls and genii, and 
the mysterious virtues of certain names of God, • 
other supernatural means: the latter is natural n 
deceptive magic ; and its chief agents, the leas a 
dnlous Moos^lims believe to be certain perfumes a 
drugs, which atfect the vision and imaginatioD n 
manner somewhat similar to opium : this drug, 
deed, is supposed, by some persons, to be empT 
in tlie operation! of the latter brunch of niagic. 

Mr-Roo'hha'iKe, which is universally coQwi 
vuong the Egyptians, as true ma^ic, is of two li 
'itwee (or high) and noof'iee (or low) ; winA 
aiso culled rah/ttnt^ttte. (or divine, or,hteralIy, reli 
to " the Compassionate,'' which is an epithet of ( 
and sheyttt'nee (or aatanic). The ' i I' wee, or 
hma'nee, is said to be a science founded on 
agency of God, and of bis angels, and good % 
and on other lawful mysteries; to be always 
ployed for good patpusea, aad ovil'j ftU&ioed 

UMtC, &c. 3G1 

pnelised by men of probity, who, by tradition, or 
from books, learn the names of those superhuman 
agents, and invocations which insure comphance 
with their desires. The writing of channs for good 
purposes belongs fo ;th^ .luwch of nitts^ic, and to 
astrology, ami to the science' of ttie mysteries ofoum- 
bers. The higliest attainment in divine magic con- 
aists in the kftowlei^ of the faitt d-A'axOm. This 
is "the most great name'' of Ood, which is gene- 
•ibI^ be^eved, by tfa« leatned, tii be known to noita 
i^t' prophets snd apostles of Ood. A person aC- 
quninted with it con, it is said, by merely uttering^ it, 
.raise the dead to life, kill the living-, transport him- 
self instantly wherever he pleases, and perform any 
Dtlier miracle. Some snppose it to be known to 
onliasnt wel'ees. — The sooPlce is believed to depend 
-<m Uie agency of the devil, ami evil spirits, and un- 
believing genii; and to be used for bad purposes, 
and by bad men. To this branch belongs the 
issience called, by the Arabs, es-ieh/ir; which is a 
Jenn they give only to wicked enchantment, — Those 
who perlbrm what is called durb et-men'dd (of wtieh 
'Iputpuse to relate some examples) profess to do it 
Jjy^lhc •gency of genii ; that is, by the science -called 
ep-Toe'hhii/nee ; hut there is another opinion on this 
Aobject whidi will be presently mentioned. 

En-St^iniya is generally pronounced, by the 
lannud, to be a false science, and deceptive art, 
.vUeli produces surprising efiecfs by those natural 
neans-which have been above mentioned ; and the 
ihafJtel'mei^drl, us perfumes are employed in the per- 
^rtaance of it, is considered, by such persons, as 
pertniniug' to es-see'miya. 

■■.'Jim, en-Noogoa/m, or Astrology, is studied by 
mamj persons in Egypt. It i^ chiefly employed in 
easting nativities, in determining fortuniAc ■^t\Q&!i, 
&£.; aad very eommiHily, to divine b^ w\ttvl «?,■» cR 



the Eodiac b permn is iafluenced { which li UiMIIJ 
done by a calculation founded ujion the numerio&l 
V&lues of the letters composing' his or her aame, tXti 
that of the mulher: this is otl«D done in the ca«eet 
two persons who coniemplale becoming; man ai 
wift, with the view of ascertaiaing whether they * 
agree.— The stience called itiirb cr-ftnU, or gM^ 
mancy, bywhich, from certain marks made at nil* 
dom on paper, or on sand (whence ite name), d 
profesBoni pretend lo dincover past, passing, and 11 
ture events, is, T am informed, mainly f'ouniUd I 
astrology. * 

El-KK^miya, or Ali^hymy, is also studied, by raa 
persons in Egypt, and by iiome poasessed of talM 
by which ihey might obtain a better reputalfon ihi 
this pursuit procures them, and who, in opite of tl 
derisiuD which they experience from a few man ' 
sounder minds, and the reproaches of those WhH 
they unintentionally make their dupes, L-ontinne) t 
old age, their I'ruiiless labours. Considerable Itntir 
Vd.H'e oC Chymislry is, however, sometimes itcqUtM 
in the study of this false science ; enri In the pr«8e~ 
degraded Hiate of physical knowledge in this count! 
it ralhrr evinces a superior mind when a perai 
gives his attention lo alchymy. ' ' 

There is, or wtis (for 1 am informed that he died 
few weeks ago), a native nf Egypt very hig^hly e«] 
brated for lus performances in the hiijher kiad-l 
that branch of magic called er-roo'hha'iiee ; it 
sheykh iBma'ee'l AWoo Roo-oo's, of the lowo i 
Desoo^ck. Even the mure learned and sober of U 
people of this country relate most incredible e 
of his magical skill ; Ibr which some of them accain 
by asserting his huvinii: been married to a ginne^ff 
(or female genie) ; and others, merely by his havii 
gitin at his service, whom he could menially conii 
lUid eommau *<hout lua^ng v»e o^ vx% am 

^■«ihu«i u thi 

■Vhusi u the Ismp of Ala' ed-Deen*. He is said 
tu have always eiDjiloyed this supcrnatunil power 
sither for good or innocent purposes ; and to have 
heea much favoured by the present Ba'sha, wlio, 
'Borne say, ollen consulted him. One of the most 
■enwble of my Moos'liin friends, in this place (Cairo), 
tufbrms me that he once viaited AL/oo Hod-oo'b, ut 

I Desoo'ck, in company with the sheykh Et-Emee'r, 

' son Of the shejkh El-Kmee'r El-Kebee'r, sheykh of 
the sect of thr. Ma'likees. My fnend's coinpiiniou 

' Asked their host to show Ibem some proof of his skill 
in magic ; and the latter complied with the tequext. 
f Let cotlee be served to lis," said the sheykh El- 
£mee^r, "in my I'atller's set of finga'ne and zurfa, 

I Ithieh are at Musr." They waited a few miniitesi 
ted then the coffee was brought; and the sheykh 
'jgl-Erae^r looked at the Ungu'us and surfs, ami said 
that they were certainly his father's, tie was next 
Ireated with sherbet, iii what lie declared himself 

'tetisHed were his fatlier'n ckool'lehs. He then wrote 
'1^ letter to bia father, and, giving it tu Ab'oo Itou-oo's, 
llcJted him to procure an answer to it. The magi- 
i^an took the letter, placed it behind a cualiiiin of his 
'*" iwa'ii, and, a few mlimtes after, removing the 
hion, showed him that this letter was gone, und 
tfafU another was in its plax;e. The sheykh EI- 

ISmee'r took the latter; opened aud read itg and 
tbund in it, jn a handwriting which, he saivl, he 
,^ttld liave sworn to be that of his father, a complete 
1|wswer to what he had written, and an account of 

' (be State of his family which he proved, on his return 

.'to Caii'o, a few days aller, to he perfectly true. 
jii A curious case of magic fell under the cognizance 

[ ' • 1 mint be emusBil for tleviallng ftnm our olil and etro- 
<lp*iu iBDda of apalUns the name of themnitsr of "Ihetniit' 
'fffftul Ump." XI in (ulguly eraaeuiuad 'Alu'y ed-Qeao. 

of the government during iny furmer viMt ta thi« 
country ; and became a subject of geneml talk and 
wonder throughout ihe metropolis, I sball give (he 
Gtory uf this uccuvreui^e, precibiely as it was relaled 
(o me by several persons in Cairo ; without curtaf' ' 
ing it of uny of ihe eKnggeratjons with which t^ 
embellished it ; not only because I am ignorant hi 
lar it is true, but Iweauae I would show ho* 
degree of faith the Egyptiims in generu! phicej 
mugic, or enchuntmenU 

Moos'lul'u Ed-Dig'wee, chief secretary 
Cku'dec's court, in this- ciiy, wus dismissed from | 
office, and succeeded by another person of the. q 
of Moos'tiif'a, who hud been a. sey'refee 
charter. The furmer sent a petition to the "B^a 
begging lo be reinstated; but before be reueivec 
uiiswer, Ite whs attacked by a severe illness, ' 
he believed to be the effect of euchaatment : hi 
auaded himself that Moos^tuf*a the sey'refee had ei 
ployed a Diagivian to write a spell which i' 
cause him tu die ; and therefore sent a second ti 
to the Ba'sha, charging the new secretary with tffl 
crime. The accused was brought be lb re the Ba^s)i 
confessed that he had done so ; and named i 
magician whom he bad employed. The latter n 
arrested; and, not being able lo deny the 
brought against him, was thrown into prison, I 
to remain nntil it should be seen whether or, iiot, 
Dig'wee would die. He was locked up in a s 
cell ; and two soldiers were placed at the door; 
one of them might keep watch while the other ilepi 
Now for Lbe marvellous part of the story. At ni 
after oue of the guards bad fallen asleep, the qll^ 
heard u Etrange, niuniiuring noise, and, lopkitlM 
through a crack of the door of the cell, saw tbe.n~ 
giciuT) sitting in Ihe middle of the fioor, ivutt^ 


f « 


9 1 . 

'.ni* jr ir: 

» "U: 



■•: «- 

•0 . » 

tktti'^ va 'ad.^'jKT 



.«- - ^ 



rr ".ar: 

I r - • 

.1 ^. 

■ ^■w •« 

... •■ 


committed the thefla to appear to any 70UA H 
urrived al the a^ of puberty ; and desired tbe mM 
ter of the house tn cull in ajiy boy wtium he mig 
cliouse. As tieveral boys were tben empluyed in 
(rorden Bdjucent to the house, one of them was calh 
tor this purpose. In the palm of ihis boy's rig) 
hand, tlie nia^eian draw, with a pen, h certain di 
grsm, in the Miilre of which he poured a little ' 
Into Ibia ink he desired the buy etedfastly to 1 
He then burned some incense and several bits 
paper inscribed with oharma ; and, at the sama tin 
called for various objects to appear in the ink. 1 
boy declared that he saw all these objects, and, M 
of all, the image of the guilty person : he descrihf 
hlf stature, countenance, and dress; said that 1 
knew him g and directly ran down into the g^ardei 
and apprehended one of the lahoiirers, who, who 
brought before the master, immediately conftsM 
that he was the thief. 

Tlie above relation made me desirous of witnessln 
a similar performance during my first visit ti* tU 
eounlry; but not being acquainted with the nam 
of the magician here alluded to, or his place 1 
abode, I was nnable to obtain any tidings of bin 
I learned, however, soon after my return to Enrj 
land, that he had become known to later travellei 
in Egypt; was residing in Cairo; and that he 
called the sheykh 'Abd El-Cka'dir El-Mugh'retf« 
A few weeks after my second arrival in Ejrypt, nj 
neig;hbour 'Osma'n, interpreier of the British coi 
sitkte, brought him to me ; and I fixed a day for h 
visiting me, to give me & proof of the skill for whle 
he in fo much famed. He came at the time a^ 
pointed, about two hours before noon ; but seeme 
uneasy ; frequently looked up at the sky, through >A 
window; and remarked that th<; weather was unpni 

MA6IC. 3« 

pitionK ) it w»B dull and cloudy j and th« wind wu 
boisUrous. The experiment was performed wiUi 
three boya ; one after another. With the first, it 
was partly successful ; but with the others, it com- 
pletely ftiiled. The magician said tbtit be could do 
nothing more ihut day ; and thut be would come in 
the evening of ik sufasequent day. He kept his ap- 
pointment ; and udmitted tbat the lime was favour- 
able. While waiting for my neigbbour, before men- 
tioned, to come and witness t)ie performances, we 
took pipes and coBee; and the m^^ician chatted with 
me on indifferent eubjecta. He is a fine, tall, and 
stout mui, of a rather i'air complexion, with a dark 
la^wn beard ; is shabbily dre^ed ; and generally 
wears a large icreen turban ; being a descendant qf 
the projihet. In his conversation, be is allable und 
unaffected. He professed to me tbat his wonders 
were etfected by the agency of good spirits; but to 
others, he has said the reverse : that his magic is 

In preparing for the experiment of the magic 
nirror of ink, which, with some other performances 
if a similar nature, are here termed durb el-men'del, 
the magician first asked me for a reed-pen and ink, 
a piece of paper, and a pair of scissors ; and, having 
cut oS* a narrow strip of paper, wrote upon, it cer- 
tain forms of invocation, together with another 
chiuin, by which he professes to accomplish the ob- 
ject of the experimsnt. He did not attempt to con' 
oeal thette; and on my asking liini to give me copies 
of them, be readily consented, and immedjalely 
wrote them tor me ; explaining to me, at the same 
time, that the object he had in view was accom- 
plished tliroitgh the influence of the two first words, 
"Tor'sboon'' and " Turjoo'shoun," which, he said, 
were the names of two genii, hia " tamVi\M «^ 
4 cBJUpwwj tiie copiea with the origmaia^ s^^ i 


cemmitleil the IheHs to appear to any youtli « 
arrifed at the age of puberty ; and desired the mi 
ter of ttie huiise to call in any boy whom he m\g 
rlioose. As several boys were then cmpluyed in 
garden adjuoeitt to (he liotise, one of them waB caXb 
for this purpose. In the palm of ihis boy's rig 
hand, the magician drew, with a pen, a certain di 
gram, in the centre of which he poured a liltle la 
Into this ink he desired the boy stedfastly to loO 
He tlien burned aome incense and several bits 
paper inscribed with charms ; and, at the sami 
c«lled for vEiricnis objects to appear in the ink. Tl 
bo]F declared that he saw all these objects, and, 1 
of all, the image of the guilty person : he descril 
his stature, countenance, and dress ; said that 
knew him ] and directly ran down into the guards 
and apprehended one of the labourers, who, wh< 
brought before the master, immediately conltm 
that he was the thief. 

The above relation made me desirous of witnesii 
a similar perfbrmance during my first visit Id (fa 
country; but not being acquainted with the nan 
of Ihe magician here alluded to, or his place 
abode, I was unable to obtain any tidings of tni 
1 learned, however, soon after my return to Bn) 
land, that he had become known to later travetle 
in Effypt; was residing in Cairo; and that he wi 
called the sheykh 'Abd El-Cka'dir El-Mugh'Tetfe 
A few weeks after my second arrival in E^ypt, n 
neighbour 'Osma'n, interpreter of the British eoi 
Eulate, brought him to me ; and I fixed a day fiir ti 
visiting me, to give me a jirool' of the skill tor whii 
he is so much famed. He came at the time a 
pointed, about two hours before noon ; but seem< 
uneasy ; frequently looked up at the sky, through tl 
window; and remarked that the weather was unpri 

UABK. 38r 

' pitioiu 1 it was dull and cloudy ; and the wind «w 
boiBterouB. The experiment was perfonned with 
three boysi one after another. Willi the first, it 
was partly successful ; but with the others, it uara- 
pletely failed. The wuigiciaii said that he cuuld do 
nothing more ihal day ; and IhuL he would come in 
the evening of a subsequent day. He kept his ap- 
pointment ; and admitted that the time was favour- 
able. While waiting for my neighbour, before men- 
tioned, to come and witness tJie pert'urmances, we 
took pipoB and coffee ; and tlie m^iciun chatted with 
me on mdill^reut subjects. He is a fine, tall, and 
stout man, of a rather fair complexion, with a dark 
brown heard; is shabbily dressed j ""d generally 
wears a large green turban ; being a descendant ^f 
the prophet. In his eonversatiou, he is alfable and 
unaffected. He professed to me that his wonders 
were effected by the agency of good spirits; but to 
others, he has said the reverse : that his magic is 

In preparing for the experiment of the magic 
mirror of ink, which, with some other performances 
of a similar nature, are here termed dvrb el-men'del, 
the ma^cian first asked me for a reed-pen and ink, 
a piece of paper, and a pair of scissors ; and, having 
cut off a narrow strip of paper, wrote upon, it cer- 
taiiL forms of invocation, together witli another 
charm, by which he professes to Dccomphsh the ob- 
ject of the experimsnt, lie did not attempt to con- 
oeal these; and on my asking liim to give me copies 
of them, Lie readily consented, and immediately 
W[ote them for me ; explaining to me, at the same 
time, that the object he had in view was accom- 
pUshed tiirtixigh the influence of the two first words, 
" Tur'shoon" and " Turjoo'shoon," which, he said, 
weie ttie names of two genii, his " farnvbax «e' 

P^fiOKRjwvd lite coiues wiUi the on^oa^i w 



cemmitted the thellH to appear to any youtli nxb 
arrived at the age of puberty ; and desired the mu> 
ler nf tlie hiiusu to call in any boy whom he niigtit' 
elKinse. As tieverul boys were then empbyed in 
garden adjauent to the house, one of them Was ealli 
tor ihia purpoae. In the palm of Ihis boy's rigl 
hand, tlie magician drew, with a pen, a certain & 
gram, in the centre of which he poured a little in' 
Into this ink he desired the boy stedfastty to loi * 
He then tHirned some incense and several biU 
paper Inscribed with oliarms ; and, at the same tin 
cftlled for various objects to appear in the ink. T 
hoy declared that he saw all these objects, and, 1 
of all, the image of the guilty person : lie descrit 
his stature, covmtenance, and dress ; said that 
luien him ; and directly ran down into the 
and apprehended one of the labourers, who, whf 
brought before the master, immediately confesa 
that he was the thief. 

The above relation made me desirous of witneasli 
a simitar performance during my first visit to tb 
country ; but not lieing acquainted with the mxa 
of the magician here alluded to, or his place 
abode, I was unable to obtain any tidings of hli 
I learned, however, soon after my return to Bh 
land, that he had become known to later travel 
in Egypt ; was residing in Cairo ; and ihat he ' 
called ihe sheykh 'Abd El-Cka'dir El-Mugli'reH 
A few weeks after my second arrival in Esypt, 
neighbour 'Osma'n, interpreter of the British c 
snkte, brought him lo me ; and I fixed a day for h 
visiting me, to give me a proof of the skill for whi 
he is so much famed. He came at the time j 
]x»nted, about two hours before noon ; but seem 
uneasy ; frequently looked up at the sky, ttvough ( 
windotv; and remarked that thft weather was unpRf 

MA6tC. 3ftr 

pitknu ) it waa dull and cloudy ) aiid the wind wu 
boisterous. The experiment vox perfomied with 
three boys ; one after another. With the first, it 
was partly Euccessful ; but with the others, it com- 
pletely fttkkd. The magician suid that he could do 
nothing laore that day ; and that he would cume in 
the evening of a. subsequent day. He kept his ap- 
poiutment; and admitted that the time was favour- 
able. While waiti[ig fur my qeighbour, before men- 
tioned, to coiae and witness the performances, we 
toolf pipes and coffee ; etnd the niaf^ician chatted with 
me on indifferent subject'^. He is a line, tall, and 
stout man, of a rather fair complexion, with a dark 
brown beard; is shabbily dresaedj and generally 
wears a large green turban ; being a descendant t^f 
the prophet. In his conversation! be b affable and 
utmffected. He professed to me that bis wonders 
were effected by the agency of good spirits; but to 
others, he has said the reverse ; that his magic is 

In preparing for the enperiment of the magic 
mirror of ink, which, with some other performances 
of a similar nature, are here termed chirb el-tiien'del, 
the magician tirst asked me for a reed-pen and ink, 
a, piece of paper, and a pair of scissors ; and, having 
cot off a narrow strip of paper, wrote upon, it cer- 
tain forms of invocation, together with another 
charm, by which he professes to accomplish tlie ob- 
ject of the experlmenl. He did not attempt to con- 
<mal these; and on my asking him to give me copies 
of them, he readily consented, and immediately 
wrote tbem fur :ne ; explaining to me, at the same 
time, that the object he had in view was accom- 
plished through the influence of the two first words, 
"■ Tur'shoon'' and " Turjoo'sho on," which, he said, 
were the names of two genii, his " fa.tvntia.v ¥^n) 
J eomp^red the copi&a with the onginai^-, w ' 


Committed the tliefls lo appear ta any yvuA 
arrived at the age ol' puberty ; und desired the mav' 
ter of tile huusu to cull in uny boy whom he mijttrt' 
ciiooEe. Ag lieveral boys were then einpbyed ju 
garden adjaoent lo Ihe houiie, one of them was aaSi 
Ibr this purpoHe, In the palm of ihis hoy's riff 
hand, the magieiuu drew, with a pen, a oertain dt 
gram, in Ihe centre of which he poured a bttle in 
Into thJB ink he desired the boy sledtaslly to loo 
He then burned some incense and several bits 
paper inscribed with oharms ; and, at the same tJRl 
called for various objecte to appear in the ink. "SI 
boy declared that be saw ell these objects, and, li 
of all, the image of the guilty person : he descr^N 
his stature, countenance, and dress; said that I 
knew him ; and directly ran down into the garde 
and npprehended one of the labourers, who, wh< 
brought before the master, immediately conftssi 
that he was the thief. 

The above relation made me desirous of witnessh 
a similar performance during my first visit 19 th 
country; but not being acquainted with the nan 
of Ihe magician here alluded lo, or his place ' 
abode, I was unable to obtain any tidings of bit 
I learned, however, soon aller my return to Bii( 
land, that he had become known to later travelle 
in Ecypt; was residing in Cairo; and that he wi 
called the shcykh 'Abd El-Cka'dir El-Mugh'retfe 
A few weeks after my second arrival in Efrypt, n 
neighbour 'Osma'n, interpreler of the British col 
«ulate, brought him to me ; and 1 fixed a day for b 
visiting me, to give me a proof of the skill for whit 
he is so much lamed. He came at the time a{ 
pointed, about two hours before noon ; but seem* 
uoeaay ; frequently looked up at the sky, through tt 
window ; and remarked that the weather was 

MAeic. 3ir 

pitioaii I it was dull and cloudy ; and the wind ma 
boieterous. Tim experiment was perfurmed with 
three boys ; one after another. With the first, it 
was partly eucccssruj ; but with the others, it com- 
pletely faUed. The maf^kian said that lie ciiuld do 
nothiii": more (hat day; and that be would come iit 
tlie evening of a subsequent day. He l^epl hia ap~ 
poiiitment ; aiid admitted tbat the lime was favour- 
able. While waiting for my iieigbbour. before mea- 
tioned, to come and witness tlie perlbrmances, we 
took pipes and coKee ; ^nd the maciciau chatted with 
me on indiRerent subjects. He ib a fine, tall, and 
stout mail, of a rather fair complexion, with a dark 
IvowD beard ; is shabbily dreased ; and generally 
wears a large ip'een turban ; being a descendaat 6S 
the propheE. In his aonversatiou, he is allable and 
unaffected. He pruletised to me that his wonders 
were effected by the agency of good spirits; but to 
others, he has said the reverse : that his magic is 

In preparing for the experiment of the magic 
mirror of ink, which, with some other performunceB 
of a similar nature, are here termed durb tl-men'del, 
the magician first asked me for a reed-pen and ink, 
a piece of paper, and a pair of scissors ; and, having 
cut off a narrow Urip of paper, wrote upon, it cer- 
tain forms of invocation, together with another 
charm, by which he professes to uccomplish the ob- 
ject of the esperimint. lie did not attempt to con- 
ceal these; and on my asking liim lo give me copies 
of them, he readily consented, and immediately 
wrote them for me ; explaining to me, at the same 
time, that the object he had in view was accom- 
pUsbed through the influence of the two first words, 
" Tur'shoon" and " Turyoo'slioon," which, he said, 
were IIk names of two geuii, his " fanvi^vai ^^fA&V 
-iaucfaiviliiiecopi^a witli the oii^nu^; a;a.^^o\uA 



that they exactly agreed. Foo-aimiles of thee 
here inserted, with a tmiislatlon. 


MdrIc iDTMUlioU 

" Tut'shoon ! Tucyoo'ahoon ! Comedown^ 

Come down ! Be present ! Whither are gone .,,j 

the prince and his troops? Where are EI-Ahh'w^i 

Ihe prince and his troops? Be present j 

je servants of these names!" ,^^^ ^ 

" Aud this is the removal. ' And we have rejiK<vM 

from thee ( | 

thy veil; and thy sight to-day 

is piercing.' Correct, correct." , . 

Haviag written tkeBe, the m%^ cuX luRi 'foe: \.vi«t 

MAfllC/^'" "• Ml 

conltining the fbnns' of invocalJDii frnm that apoA 
which the olher eliarm was written ; and cut thfe 
foriner inln sis strips. He then explained to me 
that th^ object of Oie latter charm (v(hich contains 
part of tfee aiat veree of the SotAal Cka'f, or 50th 
chaptet of the Ckoor-u'ii) was to open the boy'a 
eyes in' a supernatnral manaer; lo liiake.ihis sight 
pierce into what is to us the invisible world. 

I had prepared, by the magician's direction, some 
frankincense and coriander -seed*, arid a chafing- 
dish with some live charcoal in it. These were now 
brought into the room, together with the boy who 
was to be employed; he had been Called in, by my 
desire, frgm among some boys in the street, return- 
ing Irom a manufactory; and was about eight or 
nine years of age. J n reply to my inquiry respecting 
the description of persons who conid see iu the magic 
mirror tX' ink, the mag;Lciau said that they were a 
boy not arrived at puberty, a virgin, a black female 
slave, and a pregnant woman. The chafing-dish 
was plated before him and the boy ; and the latter 
was placed on a seat. The magician now desired 
my seHikht lb put some frankincense and cori- 
ander-seed into the chafing-dish; then, taking hold 
of the boy's right hand, he drew, in the palm of it, 
B magic square, of which a copy is here given. The 
figurcB which it contains are Arabic numerals. In 
ihe centre, he ponred a little ink. and desired the 
boy to Innk into it, and to tell him if he cotdd see 
^hfti face relleclcd in it; the boy replied that he Saw 
his face clearly. The magician, holding the Imy's 
hand all the while t. told him to continue tooliing 
'Mently into the ink ; and not to wise hia head'.' 

He then look one of Ihe little sirips of ^Vaper in- 



t 7 








scribed with the Garais «f imocation, and droppedll 

intii the chafinn^.dish, upon llie burning coala uwl 
perfumes, nbicb had already filled the room with 
their smoke; aud as he did this, he commenced tt 
indistinct muttering of words, which he contiw 
during the whule process, excepting when he bad K 
asly the boy a question, or to t«li liim what he « 
tQ say. The [Hece of paper containing the wo 
from the Ckoor-a'n, he placed inside (he fote pat 
of the boy's ta'ckee'yeli, or scull-cap. He then Mkf< 
him if he saw anyttiing; in the ink ; and was ■ 
^wer«d "No :" but about a minute after, the b . 
trembling, and seeming much frightened, said, " G 
S(!e a man sweeping the ground." " When be h« 
doqe sweeping," said the tnagiaiaQ, " tell me.'' PM 

I It 

aenl)y, the boy said, " He has dune.'' The magi- 
cian then again interrupted his mullering to ask 
the boy if he knew what a bei/Tuck (or flag) was t 
and, b«ing answered, " Yes," desired him to say, 
*' Bring a Sag'" The boy Hid mi ; and soon said, 
"He has broi^ht a flaa;." "What colour is it?" 
Bsked the magiciau : the boy replieii, " Red." He 
nae told to call for another flag -, wtiich he did ; and 
soon after he said that he saw another brought; 
and that it was black. In Uke manner, he was told 
to call for a ttiird, fmirth. llAb, sixth, and seveiith ; 
which he described as hrat^ successively brought 
before him; specitying iheiv colours, as white, green, 
black, Kd, and bhie. The magician ihen a.sked him 
(as be did, also, eaeh time that a new flag was de- 
scribed as bein^ brought), " How many flags hftve 
you now before you ?" " Seven," answered the boy. 
While this was going on, Ihe magician put the second 
and third of the small strips of paper upon which 
the forms of invocation were written, into the chaf- 
ing-dish ; and, fresh frankincense and coriander- 
seed having been repeatedly added, the ftiraea be- 
eame painflil to Ihe eyes. When the boy had de- 
bfribed the seven flags aa appearing to him, he was 
d«s>red to say, " Bring the Soolta'n's tent; and 
pitoli it." This he did ; and in about a niiiinte 
alter, he said, " Borne men have brought the tent ; 
K large, green tent: they are pitching it;" and pre- 
sently he added, " they have set it up." " Now," 
a!iiA the magician, '' order the soldiers to come, and 
to plch their camp around the tent of the Soolta'n." 
ThJa boy did as he was desired; ond immediately 
said, "Isee a great many soldiers, with their tents: 
tbey have pitched (he tents." He was then told to 
order that the Roldieis should be drawn up in ranks ; 
ae so, he presently atud-thaV W wasi 
ingeii. The ma^d , j^yft. 'tefe 



fouctb of the Utile strips of paper into the chafing 
dish ; and sgon alter, he did the same with the fiiU. 
He now said, "Tell some of the people to brin§;« 
biilL" The boy gave the order required, and Eeidi 
" I see a bull: it is red; four men are draggin^ic 
along ; and three are beating it," He was told' ~ 
desire (hem to kill it, and cut it up, and to put t 
uieHtin saucepans, ant! cook iL He did as hen 
directed ; and described tliese operailons as «ppf 
rently performed before his ejes. "Tell the sa* 
diers," said the magician, " to eat it." The ba 
did so; and said, "They are eating it. Theyhan 
done; and are washing their hands.'' Thema^da 
then told him to call Ibr tlie Sooltu'n ; and the'boi 
having done this, said, " I see the Snolta'a riding^ 
bis tent, on a bay horse ; and he has, on his fani 
a high red cap : lie has iilighted at his lent, wi 
eat down wiihin il." " Desire them to brin^ edffe 
to the Sooka'n," said the magician, " and to fonn tli 
court." These orders were given by t)te boy ; an 
lie said that he saw them performed. The magidai 
had put the last of the sin little sirips of paper int 
the chafiug-dish. In his mutteriugs 1 distinguish^ 
nothing but the words ofthe written invocation,^ 
quently repeated, excepting on two or three. oca 
sions, when 1 heard him say, '' If they demandiioj 
iurmatioii, inform them; and be ye veraeious." i'mi| 

Ue now addressed himself to me ; and aalied 
ifi wished the buy to see any person who waS'< 
sent ur dead. 1 named !Lord Nelson ; of whom' 
buy had evidently never heard ; foe il was wiihrnuak 
difficulty that he pronounced the name, after isestM 
trials. The magician desired the boy to say lo thfj 
Sooltft'o — " My master salutes thte, and S^irfi 
thee to bring Lord Kelson; bring liim before jig 
eyes, that 1 may Eee^ needily?' The bojitljeE 
said so; and almtH ^4 oAisA, " h.«&«« 

MAGIf. 373 

sengn Is gone, &nd has returned, and bnm^ht a 
nan, dressed iu a black* suit of European dolbeii: 
the man has lost his left ui'ti>." He then paused Ibr 
a mmneiit or two; aiid, looking ninie intently, nnd 
more dosely, into the ink, said, ■' No, he has not 
I'OBt his ied arm ; but it is placed to his breai^t/' 
This correutioik maOe his dcacription more striking 
than it had been withotit it ; i^ince Lord Netsoti 
geflerally had his empty sleeve attached to the breast 
of his coBt : but it WHS the ri^lil arm that he harl 
lost. Without saying that I su^ected the boy had 
made a mistake, 1 asked the mBgician irhether the 
objects appeari'd in the ink an if actually before tlK 
eyes, or as if in a glass, which makes the right ap- 
peal left. He answered, that ihcy appeared as in 
» mirror. Thi rendered the boy's destriptioii fault- 

The ne^tt person T called for was a native of 
£^ypt, who has been for many years resident III 
£nglanH, where he has adopted our dress; and who 
had been long coiiflne<l to his bed by illness before 
■mburked for this counlrv: I thought that his 
Tie, one not very uuc»mii-on in Egspt, might 
fflake the boy describe bim incorrectly ; though 
wiother boy, on the former visit of the magiL'ialD', 
had described this same person as wearing a Eurtv 
pcan dress, bke that in which I last saw him. Ib 
the present case the boy said, " Here is a liiaii 
Imiutrht on a kind of bier, and wrapped np in a 
sheeL" This description would suit, supposing' the 
person in c|t>e9lioii to be still confined to his bed, or 
if he be (lead-|-. The boy described his face us 


enveT«<); and was lold to order that it should 1 
uncovered. This lie Hid ; ami then snid. " His f8«l 
is pale ; and he has mustaches, but no beard :** 
ifliich i« correct. 

Several other persons wfre sutcessiveiy called for^ 
but the boy's descriptioua of them were iRiperrecti 
ihotigh not allng^ther incorrect. He representetf 
eseh object as appearing less dislinot than the fmf 
ceding one; as if his sig^ht were gradually beeOBiln^ 
dim: he was a minute, or more, before he couM gtva 
any account of the persons he protessed to see t^i' 
wards the closie of the performance ; and the mag4<r> 
cian said it was useless la proceed with hint 
Another boy was then brought in ; and the mtf ' 
square, &c. made in his hand ; but he coutd a 
nothing. The magician said that he was too oid. 

Thou^ completely puzzled, I was somewhat Htm 
bppointed with his performances, for they fell bJ 
of what he had accomplished, in many instaneea, ii 
presence of certain of my friends and couBttyin 
On one of these occasions, an EnglishmHii pre» 
ridiculed the performance, and said that nothtB 
would satisfy him but a correct description of " 
appearance of his own father, of whom, he was 
no one of the company had any knowledge. 
boy, accordingly, having called by name for the p 
eoa alluded to, described a man in a Frank dres^ (t 
conree, with his hand jilaced lo his head, weari^ 
spectacles, and with one fuot on the ground, and A* 
other raised beliind him, as if he were stepping dow' 
ftnm a seat. The description was eiactly true i 
wery respect : the peculiar position of the band wim 
ucvaw>iied by an almost constant head-ache ; and 
ttutl of the foot or leg, by a stilf knee, caueedbj'^ 

All ttoia a horse, in hunting. 1 am ogeured that, on 
this occasion, the hoy accurately described each pev- 
Bon and thing ttiat was called fur. On another oc- 
casion, Shakspeare was described with the most 
minule correctness, both an to fiejson and dr«BB ; aiid 
I might add several other cases in which the same 
magician has excited astonishment in the sober 
minds of Englishmen of my acquaintance. A sbon 
time since, after performing' in the usual manner, by 
meant) of a boy, lie prepared tkie magic mirror in llw 
Land of a young: Englisii lady, who, on looking into 
it for a litttle while, said that she saw a broom 
sweeping the ground witliout anybody holding it, 
and was so much frightened that she would look no 

I have statM these facts partly from my own expe- 
rience, and partly as they came to my knowledge on 
lUti authority of respectable persons. The reader 
may be tempted lo think, tijat, in each instance, the 
Imy saw images {produced by some reflectioQ in the 
ink ; but this was evidently not the case , or that he 
waa a confederate, or guided by leading queslionx. 
Hat there was no confederacy, 1 satisfactorily tkscer- 
tained, by selecting the boy who perlbrmed the part 
shove described in my presence from a number of 
others passing by in the street, and by his rejecting 
& present which I aderwurds oHered him with the 
view of inducing him to confess that he did not really 
see what he had professed to have seen. I tried the 
veracity of another boy on a Hubse^tient occasion in 
the same manner ; and the result was the same. 
The experiment often entirely fails ; but when the 
Iny employed is right in one case, he genemlly is so 
in all : vihen he gives, at first, an account altogether 
yijOD^, the magician usually dismisses him at once, 
saying that be is too old. The perfumes, ov eufa)i& 
lagination, or fear, may be sa'[tfic»e& \o aSoa. ^^ 


Tision of the boy who describes objects as appearing 
to him in the ink ; but, if so, why does he see ex- 
actly what is required, and objects of which he can 
have had no previous particular notion ? Neither I 
nor others have been able to discover any clue by 
which to penetrate the mystery ; and if the reader be 
alike unable to give the solution, I hope that he will 
not allow the above account to induce in his mind 
any degree of scepticism with respect to o^er por-^^' 
tions of this work. 

• - 



TsE natoTBl or iunate diBiacter of the moderit E^gyp- 
tians ia altereJ, in a remarkable degree, b.> llidr relj- , 
glon, lams, and g'OYernment, us well as iiy the climate 
and other causes; and to form it just opiDioii of it i», 
therefore, very diflicuk. We may, however, contidenlly 
state, that they are endowed, in a higher degree than 
most other people, with some of the more important 
mental qualities, particularly, quickness of apprehen- 
sion, a ready wit, and a retentive memnry. In youth, 
they generally possess these and other intellectual 
powers ; but the causes above alluded to gradually 
.'essen their mental energy. 

Of the leading features of their character, none is 
more remarkable than their religious pride. They 
regard persons of every other fuiih iis the children o( 
perdition ; and such, the Moo^lim Ls early taught to 
despise*. It is written in the Ckoor-a'n, " O ye 
who have become believers, take not the Jews or 
Christians for your friends : the; are friends, one to 
another; but whosoever of you taketh them for his 
inends, he, surely, is one of them+." From motivea 
ofpoliteness, or selfishinterest, these people willsome- 
times talk with apparent liberality of sentiment, and 
even make professions of friendship, to a Christian 

* I am eierlibly infonSEd that cliililren in Ef^pt are oltea 
taught, at Bchool, a legulnr set of ciirsog to ilenounEP upon ihe 

SersDiui and pioperfy of Cbustians, Juws, anil uU other vnhe- 
BveiB in the religiun of Monbun'mad. 
t Ch^ r., fer. fi6. 



(particularly to a European), whom, in their heartif 
lliey contemn : but as ihe Moos'lima of Egypt judgrf 
of the Franks in general fnim tile majority of ihose' 
ill their towns, some ofwliom are outcasts from theiCf 
native countries, and others, men under no morab 
restraint, they are hardly to be blamed for despising 
them. The Christians are, however, generally treateS 
with civility by the people of Ep:ypt : the Moos'liin* 
being aa remarkable fur their toleratioa as for tfaelM 
contempt of unbelievers. 

It is considered the highest honour, among thi 
Moos'lima, to be religious ; but the desire t 
eo leads many into hypocrisy and pbarisaical o 
tation. When a Jdooslim is uuoccupied by bus 
or amusement or conversation, he is often heard b 
utter some pious ejaculation. If a wicked ttioughti O 
the remembrance of a nicked actiuu that he has cora 
mitted, trouble him, he sighs forth, " I begforgivenM 
of God, the Great*!" The ghopkeeper, when n 
engaged with customers, nor enjoying his pipe, ofl 
employs himHetf, in the sight and hearing of the p 
sengers in the street, in reciting u chapter of thc 
Ckoor-a'n, or in repeating to himself those expreaaioac 
in praise of God which often follow the ordinttij 
prayers, and are counted with the beads; and in tM 
same public manner he prays.— -The Mooyiinas & 
quently swear by God (but not irreverently) ; w 
alao, by the Prophet, and by the head, or beand _ 
the person they address. When one is toid Mj* 
thing that eiLcites his surprise and disbelief, he gen 
mlly exclaims, " wa-i'lah?" or, " worUiihi?^ (1. 
Q«d /) J and the other replies, " wa^lla'tii /"^-A» on 
Utdinnry occasions before eating and drinking, 
■Ih^ou taking medicine, commencing a writimfOll 
' ' ■ " "" y atriums 

BUOitant undertaking, and before ni 


act, It la their liabH to say, " In the name of Oo<1, tite 
CompuaaitNiate, Ibe Merciful ;" and nSier the act, 
" Praise be to God." — When two iiersona make any 
considerable bargain, itiey recite together tlie llrst 
diaptur of the Ckoor-a'n (Ihe Fa'l'hhah). In case of 
u debate on any matter of buiiness or of opiuioit, it 
is common for one of itie parlies, or a third person 
wlio may wish to settle the diapule, or to cool Ike dis- 
putants, lo exclaim, *' Blessing on the Prophet*!" — 
" O God, favour him t ''' i' said, in a low voice, by 
the other or others ; and they then continue the argu- 
ment ; but generally with moderation. 

Religious ejiLcututioDS often interrupt conversation 
upon trivial and even licentious subjecla, in Egyjitian 
Kociety ; Eometimes, in such a manner that a person 
not well acquainted with itie ohnraelcr of this people 
would perhaps iniugine that Ihey intended to make 
religion a jest. In many of their most indeuent songs, 
the name of God is frequently introduced; and this 
Is certainly done without any profane motive, but from 
tbe halnt of uden iiientioning' the name of the Deity 
In train, and of praising Him on every trifling oucu- 
skm of surprise, or in t4Siimony at admiration of 
snythiog uncommon. Thus, a libertine, des'oribing 
hia impressiuns on tbe first sight uf a charming ^rl 
(in ene of Ihe grossest soiigK i have ever seen or 
heard even in the Arabic language), exchtinix, " Ex- 
tolled be He who Ibrmed thee, U full n 
ihi« and many similar expressions are c 
many other songs and odes; but what ii 
markable in the sung pBrticuiarly alluded to above 
is a profane comparison with which it terminates. I 
uhall adduce, as an example of the strange manner 
in which licentiousness and religion are often blended 

iie groceHil offiirifi, . 
I kissed herWii J 

J in her hand. The I 
were difiused ^ i J 
the elegance of 


to^lher in vulf^ar Egyptian poetry and rhjming prose, 
a traaslation ol' the last three stanzas of an ode oa 
lore and wine ;— 

'* She graiiLed me a reception, the graceUd of Iotb^ 
ufter her distance and coyness. 
and her cheek; and ihe cup ran_ 
odouia of musk and ambergris were 
person whose form aurpassed the elegi 
straight and itlender branch. She spread a be4 
brouade ; and I passed the time in uniatemipli! 
happiness. A Turkish fawn enslaved me. ' 

" Now I beg furgivenesa of God, my Lord, for ^ 
my fiiults and ains ; and for all that my heart ha 
said. My members testify against me. Whene 
grief oppresses me, O Lord, Thou art my hnj 
from whatever afllicls me. Thou knowesl what' 
say, and what I think. Thou art the Bountifi 
the Forgiving I I implore thy protection: ther 
don me. 

"And I praise that benignant being* whpm.J 
eloud was wont to shade; the comely: how g' ' 
was his comeliness ! He will intercede for us on 
day of judgment, when bis haters, the vile, the p 
tbeists, shall be repentant. Would that I tnlcl 
always, as long as I live, accompany the pIlgrimaTl 
perform the circuits and worship and courses, and U 
in uninierrupted happiness !" 

In translating the first of the above stapza& 
^have substituted the feminine for the masculuie ^n 
' noun: for, in the original, the former is meaT' 
though the latter is used; as is commonly the'^ 
in Bimilor compositions of the Egyptians. — "Orie'o 
< my Moos^lim li'iends having just called on me, i^{U 
. my writing the above remarks, I read to him (lie 1|e 
four Btaozos of ttiis ode ; and asked Uim if he cbiv- 

• The Prophat. 

dderWl it proper thus to mix up religion with de- 
bauchery. He answered, " Perfectly proper : a maa 
reliile^ his having cnmiiiicted sins; anil then prays 
to God for forgiveness, and blesses Ihu Pmphel." — 
" But," said I, " this is on ode wrilt«i lo be chanted 
far the amusement of persons who take pleasure in 
unlawful indolg'ences : and see here, when I close 
^he leaves, the pa^ which celebrates u debauch 
Gonies iu contact, face to face, with that upon which 
are written the names of the Deity ; the coni- 
jnemoralion of the pleasures of sin is placed upon 
the prayer for forgiveness." *' That is nonsense," 
replied my friend ; " turn the book over: place that 
side upwards which is now downwards; and then 
^he case will be the reverse; sin covered by for- 
giveness : and God, whose name be exalted, hatli 
'said in the Excellent Book, ' Say, O my servants 
wlio have transgressed against your own souls, de- 
spair not of the mercy of God; seeing that God for- 
i^yeth all sins : for He is the Foraying ; the Mer- 
?ifiil'.' " — His answer reminds me of what I have 
pttea observed, that the generality of Moos'lima, a 
ttoiost inconsistent people, are every day breaking 
.^their law in some point or other, trusting tiiat two 
^Worda (" Astugh'fir Alla'h," or " I beg forgiveness of 
God") will cancel every transgression. He had a 
tcopy, of the Ckoor-a'n in his hand ; and on my turn- 
iOg it over to look for the verse he had quoted, I 
.found in it a scrap of paper containing some words 
' Irom the venerated volume: he was about to burn 
this piece of paper, lest it should tall out, and be 
Jtioaden upon; and on my asking him whelher it was 

K allowable to do so, he answered, that it might either 
be bttrnt, or thrown into running water ; but that il 
wasbelter to burn it, as the words would ascend in 

' Ckoot-i'a, chapi i 



the flatnea, and be conveyed by angels loluaW 
Sometimen the Ckoor-s'ii is quoted in jfst, eveni 
permniH nf strict religious principles. For iustanc 
the followino; equivocal and evasive answer WM o 
suggested lo me on a person's asliing of me Hpresei 
of a watch, which, I must previously mention, iscullj 
"sa"ah," a word which sigiiifiea an " hour," and If 
" jwriod of the general judgment;"—" Verilf, U 
iit'ak shall come : t will surely make it to a 
(chap. SK., ver. 15). 

There are often met with, in Egyptian society, pi 
sons who wilt inlroduce an apposite quotation frol 
the Ckoor-a'n or the Traditions of the Prophet i 
common conversation, whatever be the topic 
intcrniption of this kind is net considered, as 
be in general society in our own country, either h 
pucriticHl or annoying ; but rtither occaaiona expR 
sions, if not leelings, of admiration ; and oftj 
diverts the hearers Irom a trivial subject to n 
of & more serious nature. He Moos'liins of Eilgyfi 
and, I believe, those of other countries, are general! 
foud of conversing on religion ; and the most preVi 
lent modeof entertainingKpartyof guest-^ among ill 
higher and middle ranks in this place (Cairo) is iti 
reciiol of a khu^meh (or the whole of the Ckoor-a'n] 
which is chanted by fick'ees, hired for the purpose 
or the performance of a likr, which lias been bef(» 
mentioned. Pew persona among them would venl^n 
to say, (hat they prefer hearing a concert of music t 
the performance uf a khut'ineh or zikr; i 
uertaiidy do lake great pleasure in the latter pel 
formanues. The manner in which the Ckoor-a'n ' 
someiimM chanted is, indeed, very pleasing; tbouj 
I must say, that a complete khui'meh is, to rae, ex 
tremely tiresome. With the religiouB zeal of th 
daily struck : yet 1 have often won- 

dered that they so aeldo. 

D make converts 


to tiieir failh. On my e%pressing my surprise, ua I 
have frequentljf done, at llieir iniliilerence wUh respect 
to tb« prnpHgaiionot' theirreli^iuii.cotitrastingitwith 
tlie couducl of iheir iiiiceators of the early ages of 
£I-Isla'm, I have generally been answered — " Of 
wliat use would it be if I L-mild convert a Uiousand 
infidels? Would il increase the number of the fuith- 
fltl? By no means: the number of the faithM is 
decreed Ly tiod; and nu act uf man can iiicreaee or 
diminJEh it,'' The contending against such an an- 
swer would have led lo an interminable dispute : su I 
:r ventured a reply. I have heard quoted, by way 
of apology for tlieir negleetitig Ui make praselytesi 
the following words of the Ckoor-a'« : " Dispute not 
t^sinst those who have received the Scriptures*" 
(namely, Uie Christians and Jfvs), witliout Uie 
wordg immediately follDwInj;: — " unltsa in the mildest 
manner ; except ugainst such of Ihem as behave 
injurionsly [towards you] : and say [unto them] we 
believe in [tike revelation] that hath been sent down 
unto us, and [also In that] which hath been sent 
down unto you ; aad our Uod and your God is one-'' 
This precept is. however, generally considered us ab- 
rogated by that of the sword ; if it were acted upon 
by the Moos'lims, it might perliaps leud to disputee 
which would make them more liberal -mi tided, aod 
much better informed. 

The respect which most modern Moos^lims pay to 
their Prophet is almost idolatrous. They very fre- 
qiieally swear by liim ; and many of the most 
learned, ob well as the ignorant, often implore his 
inteicession. Pilgrims are generally much more 
affected on visiting his tomb thau in performing any 
ollter religious rite. There ere some Moos'Iims who 
will not do anything that the Prophet b not recorded 

■ Chap, udx.. Y«i>4&. 


to beitt done; und nho giarticuterly 
cUut|; Miythinir itmt he did not pat, thonii;li Its 
ftil(j«sa be uniimibwti. The linn'm Ahh'mnd Wt 
Uimm'haX would nol even eat \vater-inetons, beeuiMf 
alltaongb he knew tbii tlie Proy^t ale thon, W 
eould not kiim whether he ate iliem with oFwhbui 
the rind, or whether he brake, bit, or cut them J tfd 
he rat-Lad a wnmail, who queGttoned liim as to Il_ 
pmpricty of the ftcL, lo spia by the light of toieM 
pBaaing^in llie aireel by niifht; which were nuthll 
awn property, becatise the Prophet had ni 
whether it wufl lawftil to da so. and whs not knrtwnl 
huvc ever availed himseU of a light belonf^it^l 
another person, without that person's leavei. I «ir^ 
admiring aonie very pretty pipe-bowls, askei) I 
ii]alci>r why he did not stamp them with his MM 
He answered " God forbid ! My nume i» Ahl/Mad' 
(one of the names of the Prophet) : "would you'hB 
me put it in the flreV" — I have heard adduced 
one of the subjeets of complaint against the 
Ba'shn^ liis etinsin!; the camels and horses of 
government to be branded with his names of " Bft 
hham'rnad 'Al'ee." " Jn the first place," sikT' 
friend of mine, who mentioned this fact to me; "'fl 
iron upon wliich are engraved these names, 
which ought to be so much venerated, the nxm««' 
Ihe Prophet (God favour and preserve him ?), taiSt 
Nephew (may God be well pleased with him I), lap 
into the fire, which is shocking: then it is appKett' 
the' neek of a camel ; and causes blood, wtHctf 
impure, to flow, and to pollute the sacred nameft to 
upon' the iron and upon the animal's skin : andffiii 
the wound is healed, how probable is it, atrf atah 
certain and unavoidable, that the camel will, wbihrl 
lies down, lay his neck upon something imdi^atf.^ ' 
'milar feeling is the chief reason wFjy 

MoD^fims object t 


: their books. TheJ* 


h>ve acQTcely a book (I do not remember (o have 
Men line) tbat does not cMibiin the noitie of tiud : 
H is a rule aniutig Lheoi tu commence every book 
with the words " In the name ol' God, tiie Com- 
paeBumat^', the Mercilul," luid iu begin the preface 
M itttroductioa by praising God, aud blessing the 
Pmphet ; uid they tear some impurity might be con- 
Inuted by llie ink that is applied to the name of the 
Peityi in tlie process of printing, or by the p^>eT to 
be impressed with tbat sacred name, and perhaps with 
words taken from the Ckoor-a'n : they fear, also, that 
ibeir books, beeonuiig very cheap by beuig printed, 
would fiill into the hands of infidels; and are much 
sbocked at the idea of using a brush composed of 
tioga' hair (which was at tirst done here) to apply 
the ink to the name, and of^a to the words, of God. 
Hence, hooks have hitherto been printed in £!gypt 
only by order of the government : hut two or three 
persons have lately applied for, and received, per- 
mission to make use of the government-press. I am 
Acquainted with a bookseller here who has long been 
4lesirous of printing some books which he feels sme 
would bring him considerable proiit ; but cannot over- 
conje his scruples as tu the lawfulness of doing so. 

The honour which the Moos^lims show to the 
CJtoor-a'n is very striking. They generally take care 
never to hold it, or suspend it, in such a manner as 
t)tat it shall be below the girdle ; aad they deposit it 
V^a a high and clean place ; and never put anotlur 
liyjok, or anything else, on the top of it. On quoting 
ffom iti they usually say, " He whose name be 
galled" (or "God, whose name be exalted") "hath 
e^d, in the Excellent Book." They consider it ex- 
^pniely improper that the sacred volume should be 
touched by a Christian or a Jew, or any other person 
not a. believer iu its doctrines ; though some of them 
aje induced, by covetousness, but very rarely, to sell 



to ban done ; ami >ho partKularly mbstHin fVtMl 
«aiiap! knylhini; thut he dtd not eat, ihtnich Its hiw 
fulness tie iin<Joubte<t. The Ima'm Ahh'miid Ib'n 
llham'bnl wonM nui even eat water- in ekma. becauKB) 
altbongh he knew th&t the Pru^Atet ate thent,' IH 
could ttot leiim wlietlier be nte Itiem with or witto# 
the riml, or wlietlier he broke, bit. or Cut them ! Mdl 
he forbad a woman, who queelkmed him as' tO IMU 
pAiprlely of the ael) (o gptn by the lig^ht of toictt^l 
puBsiu^ in lUc street by nii^ht, which were not bM 
own property, beciiii<>e the Prti])het had nut loentldHtH 
whetliei' it was lawful to do so, and waa not knOwti^l 
have ever availed himseir of a light belof^iii^'fl| 
another persiin, without that person's leave. I OiR^| 
admiring some very pretty pipe-bowla, &>(ke<l flfl 
maker why he did not atamp them with ItiB MtdlH 
He answered " Uod forbid '. My name is Atfl/pfflfW 
(one of the luimes of the Prophet): "would yqti h rtH 
me put it in the fireV^I liuve heard adduced ^B 
one Of (he subjects of complaint against the pres^H 
Ba'sha, his causing the camels and horses ^'|Bfl 
g^nemment to be branded with his names of" M^| 
hham'mad 'Wee." " In the first place," ^AM TB 
friend of mine, who mentioned this fact to me; "'419 
iron upon which ore engraved these namef/, nmli^H 
which o«t;ht to be so much venerated, the naiiiet^^B 
the Prophet (God favour and preserve himi), atadV^fl 
Ng(^w (may God be well pleased vrith him !), fsfltH 
into the tire, wliich is ahockina; : then it is appHett iH 
the 'hedc of a- camel; and causes blood, whicH ^H 
imfture; to How, and to pollute the gaered tiamM ''^lH 
u|ion the iron and upon the animal's skin ; ftn<(irn^H 
the wound is heated, how proltable is It, and rfnMfl 
certain and unavoidable, that the camel wtlf, ivtMU'qfl 
liM down, lay his neck upon something imCliaify "5 
A similar feeling is the chief reason why ttM 
Mro^lims object to printing their books. Th^M 


)l*w waioely a book (I do not rememlier to have 
a one) thut iloes not contaJu the name at' Qod : 
a a rule amuiig them lo commence every bcNik 
with tbe words " In the iiuine of God, tbe Com- 
paiiEiouaK, the Merciful," mid to tieg-in the prefttce 
or iDtroductiou by pnuHing God, and bles&iuj the 
Prophet ; and they fear some impurity might be cou- 
trutted by the iitk tUat is applied to the name of the 
I>eity, in the process of printing, or by the paper to 
l>e impressed with that aacted uame, and perhaps with 
WurJs takcQ from the Ckoor-a'n : they fear, uiso, that 
their books, becoming very cheap by beiug printed, 
would faJL into the hands of infidels; and are much 
shocked at the idea of using a brush composed of 
toga' hmr (which was at tirst done here) to apply 
the ink Ig the name, and often to the words, of God. 
Hence, books have hitherto been printed in Egypt 
ouly by order of the government ; but two or three 
persons have lately applied for, and received, per- 
■oisaioD to make use of the govern me nt-press. I am 
acquainted wilh a bookseller here who has long been 
desirous of printing some books which he feels sure 
would bring him considerable profit; butcanaot ovet^ 
coDje his scruples as to the lawfulness of doing so. 

The honour which the Moos'lims show (o the 
Cltoor-ft'n is very striking. They generally take care 
never lo hold it, or suspend it, in such a manner bh 
l^t it shall be below the girdle; and ihey deposit it 
Vgpa a high and clean place ; and never put another 
l^k, or anything else, on the top of it. On quoting 
fTuni it, they usually say, " lie whose name lie 
ejialtefl " (or " God, whose name he exalted ") " hath 
s^, in the Excellent Book.'' They consider it ex- 
ti^nuly improper that the sacred volume should be 
loucfaed by a Christian or a Jew, or any other person 
i^tt a believer in its doctrines ; though some of tliem 
B(e induced, l^ covetousness, but very rarely, to sell 


tD-baw Hone; and who partHulnHy i 
eUin^ anythiiii; thai he liM not eat, Lboti^ its k . 
tulnois be uiidoubt^l. Th« Ima'm Ahti'tnad tl/ll 
Uham'b^ wuulil nut even est (Tnter-metons. lifecouttt 
aLthotig;h he knew ihirt the Prophet ate them, M 
ctnild not learn whether he ate them nrilh or «rtthoil 
the rind, or whether he brake, bit, ur cut tt 
he furbiul a woman, who questioned liini : 
pcopriety of the act^ lo spin by the lig-ht of to 
pssaing in the street by nitrht, which were twtifa 
own pn^ierty, because the Propliet lisd not irmttiOtH 
whether it was lawful to do ro. and vtns not ^owK ( 
hnve ever availed himself of » light beloHgit^l 
another person, without that person's leav^> X M 
admiring some very pretty pipe-bowh, oslceA 1 
maker why he did not stamp them with his nM^^^ 
He answered " God forbid ! My name is AbWm^ 
(oneol' the names of the Prophet) : "would you'h' 
me put it in the fire?" — I hiivp heard athlucOl I 
mie of the subjecta of complaint agaiuat the preB^ 
Ba'sha, his causing the camels and horses of tl 
government to be branded with hiti names Of " Mi 
hham'inad 'Afee." " In the first place," saWI 
friend of mine, who nientioned this fact to mfl^ "Jll 
iron upon which are engraved these oam«^ nSM 
which outfht to be so much venerated, (he ncnn^l 
Ihe Prophet (God fitvonr and preserve him'!), sfti^ 
Nephew (may God be well pleased with him IJ; li^ 
into the fire, which ia shocking; then K is ftppKetPI 
the' neck of a camel ; a.nd causes blOod, wMcA^' 
impure, lo How, Emd to pollute the sacred niunM 
upon the iron and upon the animal's skin •. «n(t<~ 
the wound is healed, how probable is it, and i" 
certain and unavoidable, that the camel wHI, Wl 
lies down, lay his ueck upon something wndteafl;,*' 

A similar feelinjr is the chief reason why t( 
MuD)>^li(ns object lo printinff their boiAs. Thi 



|5m ■eu«ely a. book (I do not remember to have 
seeu one) ihul iltieti not ccnitain the name of God : 
il is n rule among Lhem to commence every book 
with the wordE " In tUe nitme of Gud, the Com- 
imsslouate, the Merciful," and to beg'in the preface 
oc iittroductioa by praising God, acid blessing tlie 
Prophet ; atid they le&r sonic impurity oiig-ht be con- 
Intctetl by the ink that b applied lo the name of the 
D^ity, in the process of printing, or by the paper Ui 
be impressed wilJi that sacred uame, and perhaps with 
«orda taken from the Ckoor-a'n : tbey fear, also, that 
their books, becoming; very cheap by being printed, 
nould fall into the hands of infidels; and are much 
shocked at the idea of using a brush composed of 
ikogs' hair (whicb was at first done here) to apply 
the ink la the name, and often to the words, of God. 
Ueoce, books have hitherto been printed in Egypt 
only by order of the government ; hut two or three 
persons have lately applied for, and received, per- 
mission to make U!ie of the ji^ovcrnment-press. I am 
acquainted with a bookseller here who has long been 
desirous of printing some books which he feels sure 
would bring 1dm considerable profit ; but cannot over- 
come his scruples as to the lawfulness of doing so. 

the honour which the Moos'lims show to the 
CJtoor-^'n is very striking- They generally take care 
never to hold it, or suspend it, in such a manner as 
l)^t il shall be below the girdle ; and ihey deposit it 
Vfpfia a high and clean place ; and never put another 
twok, or anything else, on tbe top of it. On quoting 
ffpm it, they usually say, " Ue whose name be 
eX'^hed" (or " God, whose name be exalted") "haXh 
sfidi hi the Excellent Book." They consider it ex- 
t^ni^y improper that the sacred volume should be 
touched by a Christian or a Jew, or any other person 
iK)t a believer in its doctrines; though some of them 
are i*duced, 1^ covetousness, but very rarely, to sell 



|0 liaw done; and who piirt*cu)arl)i alMtai'ii thM 
eiiUn^ uiythinir that he dtil tmt cut, thoiiirh its iuh 
niloc«»be untinubtetl. The Ima'm Ahh'matl ll/d 
Hhikn/baJ woiiUI nut even eut w&ter-metonf, bei'auWj 
alUioD^h he knew that (ho Prophet ate Xhtm, h* 
couid not wlieUier he at« Ihem wiHi or «r)Aonl 
the rind, or whether he broke, bit, or cut them ; md 
lie forbad il woman, who questioned him as' to W 
propriety of the act. In spin by the light of tofiitl 
poBBJDg ia the street by ni^hi; which were iWA'fa 
awn property, because the PruiihM had not nrnttioiM 
whether it wqh lawfid to do so, und was not Icnowti * 
have ever availed himself of a light l)«lonsih|r' 
another person, without that i-ter^on's lea^^. I eiH 
admiring aome very pretty pipe-bowls, asked S 
mnker why he did not stamp them with Ims tiBkd 
He answered " Qod forbid ! My name is Aiil/ntt^ 
(one of the mimesof the Prophet) : '^noold ymi'hH 
me put it in the fire?"^ — I have heard adducM I 
one of the xubjects of eoniplaint a^inst tbe^ preM 
Ba'slia,' hia causing the camels and horses of* Il 
gmernmsut Ui be branded with his names of " M) 
liham'inad 'AKee." " In the first place," SaM" 
friend of mine, who mentioned tliis fact to me,'" N 
iron upon which are engraved thei^e names, nmG 
which ouj^hl tn be bo mnch venerated, tlie names'i 
(he Prophet (God favour and preserve him!), ah^ 
Nephew (may God be well pleased with him \). tijH 
into the fire, which ia shocking: then it is appKetfl 
the neek of u camel; and caoses blood, whkfef" 
impure, to flow, and to pollute the sacred nameft IkM 
uprm the iron and upon the animal's skin : andw^ 
the wound is healed, how probable is it, arid tSaii 
certain and unavoidable, that (he camel will, wbl^ 
lies down, lay his neck upon something tmcfcttit.'^ ' 
A similar feeling: is the chief reason why^ll 
Moos'lims object to irintin^ their books. ' Thi 


ii warcely a boolt (I do not remember to have 
seen one) thel does iiot aonUin [lie name of God : 
it is u rule smung them to commence every Look 
with the woids " In tlie name of God, the Cum- 
passiouvtf, llie Merciful," and to begin the prelaee 
w iutroductiun by praising God, and blessing Um 
Pruphel ; and tliey Tear souie impurity might be coo- 
tnicted by the ink that is apphed to the name of the 
D^tyi in the process of printing, or by ihe paper to 
be impreitsed with, that sacred uame, and pert^pa nith 
words t^eu from Ibe CLoor-a^u ; they fear, also, that 
their books, becoiiiing very cheap by being printed, 
would fall into the hands of intidelsj and are much 
sboiiked at the idea of using a brush composed of 
iogti' hair (which was at first done here) to apply 
the ink to the name, and often to the words, of God. 
Uenc«, books have hitherto lieen printed in Egypt 
only by order of the government: but two or three 
persons have lately applied for, and received, per- 
loissioa to make use of the government-press. I am 
acquainted with a bookseller here who has long been 
desirous of printing some books which he feels sure 
would bring him considerable profit ; but cannot over- 
come bis scruples as to the lawfubiess of doing so. 

The honour which the Moos'lims show to the 
C^oor-a'n is very striking. They generally take cure 
never to hold it, or suspend it, in such a manner aa 
that it ^all be below the girdle ; and ihey deposit it 
l)pon a high and clean place ; and never put another 
lyfok, ur anything else, on the top of it. On quoting 
fmui it, they usually say, " He whose name b« 
^(alteil " (oi " God, whose name be exalted ") " bttth 
a^idt ^ ^^ Excellent Book." They consider it ex- 
t^pmely improper that the sacred volume sliould be 
touched by aChristiaa or a Jew, or any other person 
QQt a believer iu its doctrines ; though some of them 
are induced, by covetousness, but very rarely, to sell 



copies of it to sach persoiiB. It is even forbiddeo _ 
the Moos'lim lo touch it unle«!i tie be in u slate of 
Ir^l purity ; and heuce, these words of the book 
itaelf — " None shall touch it but those who an 
clean * " — are often stamped upon the cover. 
same remarks apply, also, to anything upon wbkb 
inscribed it passage of tlie Ckonr-a'n. It is remi 
able, however, tbat most of the old Arab coins ' 
inscriptions of words from the Ckoor't 
testimony of the faith (" There ia no deity but Gi 
Mobfaam'mad is Goti's Apfistle"); notwithaUind 
they were intended for the use of Jews and CliL,. 
liana, as well as Moos'linis: but I have heard tIA 
practice severely condemned. — On nay once asking 
one of my Moo^lini friends whether tigs 
esteemed wholesome in Egypt, lie answered, 
not the fig celebrated in the Ckoor-a'ii ? God s 
by it : ' By the fig and the oUve !' " (chap, 
ver. I). 

Iliere is certainly much enthusiastic piety : 
character of tbe modern Moos'lims, notwitluts 
their inconssteodes and superstitions : such, at 
is generally the case. There are, I believe, very 
professed Moos'lims who are really unbelievers ; 
these dare not openly decide their unbelief. I bai 
heard of two or tliree such, who ba\e been 
BO by long and intimate intercourse with E\ 
and have met with one materiaUBt, whi 
long discussions with me. In preceding dittpten 
this work, several practices indicative of tite ref 
feeling which prevails among the Moo^llms of 
have been incidentally mentioned. Religious ^ipi 
are generally u'ied by the beggars in ibia coudI 
some examples of these will be given hereafter, 
a similar tiature, also, are the cries of many of 

* CkuQi-a'a, chup. Ivi., vcc. ?S. 



petMnB who sell vegelables, &c. The cry of the 
nig^lly watchman in lUe quarter in which 1 lived in 
Cairo during my first visit strutk me as remarkable 
for its beauty and sublimity— "I proclaim the abso- 
lute glory of the living King, who sleepeth not nor 
dielli*." The present watchman, in the same qxiar- 
ler, exclaimH, "O Lonl! O ETcrlastingt!" Many 
Other illustrations of the religious character of the 
people whom I am endeavouring to portray might be 
added. I must, however, here acknowledge, that reli- 
gion has much declined among theio and most others 
of the same faith. Whoever has been in the habit of 
conversing familiarly with the modem Moos'lims, 
must often have heard them remark, with a sigh, " It 
is the end of dme !" — " The world has fallen into infi- 
delity." — They are convinced that the present state of 
their religion is a proof that the end of the world is 
near. The mention which I have made, in a former 
chapter, of some of the tenets of the Wah'ha'bces, as 
being those of the primitive Moos'llms, shows how 
much the ^nerality of the modem professors of the 
feith of the tJkoor-a'n have deviated from the pre- 
cepts originally delivered (o its disciples. 

Influenced by their belief in predestination, the 
men display, in times of distressing imcertuinty, un 
exemplary patience, and afier any afflicting event, a 
remarkable degree of resignation and fortitude, ap- 
proaching; nearly to apathy } ; generally exhibitinff 
tiieir sorrow only by a sigh, and the exclamaUou of 
Aflah kere^m ! (God is bountiful !) : but the women, 

• SoMha'n el.nie{'ih tlJihti' eUez'et la' tjaa'm wfa 

t Ki' ruM / Ya' da'im. 
<' J Thuj &re uot, however, so apatbetic as some tiavallen 
^wva soppoaeil; for il U not nnconimon to acu them weepj 
and such a dumnnitcutioa of roeliDg tit oat cDnnideied bytliem 
MUiuiu.ii]y; even hi.-iae« are frequeDlly rvpimented, in tbei: 
~ and histflriiiB, as weeping unJot heavy afllictiDn. 



on the contrary, give vent to their grief by the taaA 
extravagant cries and shrieks, While the Christian 
blames himself for every untoward event which he 
thinks he has brought upon himself, or might have 
avoided, the Moos/Iim enjoys a remarkable sereniiy of 
mind in all the vicissitudes of life. When he sees his 
end approaching, his resignation ia sllll oonspicuoUfi: 
he exclaims, " \'erily to God we bftlong ; and veril 
to Him ve return '." and to those who inquire re^ 
ing his slate, in general his reply ia, " Praise t> 
God ! Our Lord is bountiful T— His belief in p 
destination does nut, however, prevent his taking s 
step to attain an object that he may have in view ; : 
being perfectly absolute, or unconditional: nord.^ 
it in general make him careless of avoiding dangef 
for he thinks himself forbidden to do so by thei 
words of the Ckoor*a n •, " Throw not [yourselvei 
with your hands into perdition;" excepting in son 
cases; as in those of pestilence and other sicknessa 
being commanded, by the Prophet, not to go inl 
a. city where there is a pestilence, nor to come 01 
from it. The lawfulness of quarantine is contestt 
among Moo^Iims; but the generaUty of them ct 
demn it. 

The same belief in predestination renders I 
Moos'lim utterly devoid of presumption with legi 
to his future actions, ot to any future events. He nev| 
^aks of anything that he intendi to do, or of " 
circumstance which he expecti and hopes may a 
to pass, without adding, " if it be the will of God f; 
and, in tike manner, in speaking of a past event.i 
which he is not certain, he generally prefaces or " ' 
eludes what he says with the expression " God it 

Benevolence and charity to the poor are vii 

' '• Chap, il„ TBt, 191. Imha-I'M, \ Alla'h-xi a' 


which the Egyptians possess in an eminent degree, 
' Uid *hicfa are inatilled into their lieartB by religion ; 
Inrt from their own profession it appears that they ate 
as much excited to the sivinir of Qlms by the expec- 
tAtJon of enjoying: corre(fpondin;r rewards in heaveu, 
OS by pity for the dislreBses of Iheif fellow-crea lures, 
or a disinterested wish to do the will of God. It may 
be nltributed, in some' measure, to the charitable dis- 
position of the inhabitants, that beggars are no 
numerous in Cairo. Tlie miiny handsome Srhi^k, 
or public fountains (buildings erected and endoweil 
tor the gratuitous supply of water to passengers), 
which are seen in this city, and the more bumble 
Srtroctures of the same kind in the villages and fields, 
OK monuments of the same virtue. 

In my earlier intercourse with the people" of Egyprt, 
J WBS much pleased at observing their humanity lo 
duttib Hliimals; to see a person, who gathered toge- 
ther the fblds of his loose clothes to prevent their 
■Camitig in contact with a dog, tbrow, to the impure 
'judmal, a portion of the bread which he was eaUrig, 
Murders, burglaries, and other atrocious crimes, were 
then very rare among tliem. Now, however, J find 
the generality of the Egyptians very much changed 
for the worse, with respect to their humanity (o brulfia 
Slid to then- fellow-creatures. The increased severity 
of the government seems, as might be expected,' to 
>iate engendered tyranny, and an increase of every 
cHme, In the people. It is shocking to see fln; 
, miserable asses which are used for carrying dust, &c. 
in Cairo ; many of them with large crimson wouuds, 
Kke carbuncles, constantly chafed hy rough ropes of 
the fibres of the palm-tree which are attached lo the 
back part of the pack-saddle. The dogs in the streets 
are frequently beaten, both by boys and men, ffom 
tnere wantonness; and I otlen see children amusing 
themselves with molesting the cats, which wer^ for- 
z3 ' 



m«tlj hiuch fsvoured*. Robberies andmunlMi 
during two or three monthB after my last uni* 
lierc. were ot-cunvncep oftklmoBl every week. Hi 
of the Turkish govenwrB of dUlricts used to exere 
great oppression over the lella'hhee'n ; but sin 
persons of the latter class have bceti put in thepliio) 
of the former they have exceeded their predec^ 
in tyranny ; and it is a common remark, li^t t] 
are " more execrable than the Tnrlis +,'" 

Though I now frequently see the hotieeleaa dif 
l«aten in the streets of Cairo, and that ivhen q ' 
innffensive and quiet, I litill olten observe men fi 
ing them with bread, &e. ; and the persons (rtio d 
HO are mostly poor men. ]n every district of this dl 
are many small troughs, whieh arc daily replennk 
with water for the dogs. In each street where tbc 
ore shops, a sack'cka receives a small monthlyiBu 
from each shopman for sprinkling ihe street. andS 
ing the trough or troughs tor the dogs in that etrci 
There is also a dogs' -trough under almost every ab 
of a shurbet'lee, or seller of sherbets.— It may Jm 
be mentioned, that the dogs of Cairo, iew of whti 

* Ithmk itprop«Tto remark here, that I have good maa 
for believias Burckhardt la have twen siisinfariDed'Wh 
■tatiD^ (seeliii Ambie Pmiethi, Na.3U3) thuC childcennit 
Hast (la Egypt, &c.) torluro surpenla by putting them iplo 
lualhet bag, tTieo throwing unslaked lime upon the«, ti 
poaring wolH on it. I tind no one who has heard of Mi 

enlaMy ; and it is not likely thai boja ia tliis (oiniity 
lUre to put a serpent in a bng (for they are excessively 
uf this reptile), or would give icveriil piuBl^m fm ^ t 
dpslioy ia this manner. 'Kie proverb upon which tltti 

serpent in a bag (fur the* aie 


ltd iroro the moalh <(f IIm 
ipplies tlielerm-'Am^ 
awBBs. Id whom itHrOpidS' 

e founded perhaps nlliideg to a inude of dfeilnyi^Kfl 
[WDti ; Ijul not for spurt. ' i ' it J) 

f ■■ The oppiesBion of the Turki, nthei Ibaa the jus(ic||.f 

the Arabs," is ■ proverb o" — ' ■' '- — " "- -'•'-- 

ArabpeaEanti who, in Ihi . . 

to his own clais, instead of the Bed'tti ^ ,- ^ 

belong!. See Burekhudt's " Arabic Proterbs," Na, \76i\. '0> 

1 •■'•emmii.emh ■■ wi- 

bave. masters, conipose reg^itar and disiincL tribes; 
and (be Aogs of each Iribe coutine themselves to « 
certain distriut or quarter, from which they invariably 
chiiae away any Btj'Bnge dog ibat may ventnre to 
intrude. These animals are -very numerous in Cairo. 
They are geoerally careful to avoid coming In coDtact 
with the men ; aa if they knew that the majority of 
the people of the city regarded them as uncleaa: but 
they often bark at persons in the Frank dress; and 
at night, thuy annoy every passenger, They are. of 
uae in eating the ottal thrown out from the butchery' 
shops, and from houses. Many do^ also prowl 
about the mounds ot* rubbish around the metropolis; 
and these, with the vultures, feed upon the carcases 
of the camels, asses, &c., that die in the town. They 
are mostly of a sandy colour; and seem to partake of 
the form and disposition of the jackal. 

The general opinion of the Moo^lims, which holds 
the dog to be unclean, does not prevent their keeping 
thJB animal as a house-^ard, and sometimes even aa 
a pf t. A curious case of this kind occurred a short 
time ago. A woman in this city, who had neither 
husband nor child nor friend to solace her, made a 
dog her companion. Death look this only associate 
fitmi her ; and, in her grief and her affe'ction for it, 
sTie determined to bnry it ; and not merely to commit 
it to the earth without ceremony, but to inter it as a 
Moos'lim, in a respettable tomb, in the cemetery of 
the Ima^m Esh-ShaTe'ee, which is regarded as espe- 
dally sacred. She washed the dog according to the 
rules prescribed to be observed in the case of a de- 
ceased Moos'lim, wrapped it in handsome grave- 
clothes, sent for a bier, and put it in ; then hired 
several wailing-women ; and, with them, performed a 
regular lamenlalion. This done (but not without ex- 
citing the wonder of her neighbours, who could noi 
conjecture what person in her bouse was deadi yet 


woulii not inlnide, because she never associated wilU 
Uwm), she liired a number of i)hunt«rs, (a bMbi» 
fiuienil-procesiinii. and Mhod-boys, tnahir, and^cai^ 
Ibe Ckour-n'n b«f«re the bier: tsod ilie train- mA 
fortti in rrapecuble order; htmelf end tM W 
wtuling-wmnen fiilldwing the blcr, and reodrnf; 
air with iheiv shrieks; but the procession hul-ai^ 
advanced mony slepn, ifh«n one of tbe femaIeiMigi<~ 
iMinrs ventured to ask the afflicted lady who th« panoA 
ifB» that was Head ; and nas annwcred, " It ia n^i 
poor cUiUl." The inquirer ehartted he? with utMciw 
a fitlsehondj and the bereaved lady confessed tbat'ft 
VM her di^i be^giti);, al the aame time, i" 
inquisitive ueighbour woatd not diva^e the 
bat, lor an Egyptian womau to keep e. secnt, 
auuh a secret, was impossible : it was immediaiely t 
kiiowu to the by-atanderB ; and n mob, in nn giool 
humour, aooD collected, and put a stop tu the funerd; 
The chanters and the singing-boys and waiHRgw 
women vented tlieir rage against their employer {(0 
■oon as they had secured their money) for ha^nf 
made tixils of them ; and if the police had not int**'' 
fiered, she would probably have fallen a victini ta 
popular ftiry*. 'I 

It is a curious fact, that, in Cairo, houselegS'Ulfr 
are ftd at the expense of the Cka^dee ; or.'mtlieiV- 
almoat wholly nt his expense. Every tttlernoan, t 
quantity of offal ia brought into the gicnt couit 
before the Mahh'kem'eb; and the cats are c^M 

* D'Herbelot mentionii a gomi^wliat similar caae, in wHicft 
aTorkihaTing buried, a favourite rtog, with »ome matkiaf. 
■mpnl, in his )rB'rd«D> "u acciueil, befcu^ tba (^ks<de*,<al 
hatii^ intened tliu anioiitl «ith ihe ceiemaniin piodj^ af 
1^ biirittl of a Mooa'lini, and escaped piiaiBlimeiit (jWiW"-» 
timt Wt) by mfocmini; tbe judge that his Sag had mada C 
«tB, Irwing to Mto (">« CWiee) a amn of mopey.'— (B MW i 


together lo eat. The Soolta'n Ez-Za'hir Beybwr'B 
(ns I learn from the Bo'sh Ka'tib of the Cka'dee) 
beqvtealhetl a garden, which is called gheyt el- 
choot'tah (or the garden of the oat), near his niosque, 
in the north of Cdro, for the beneBt of the cats: 
but this garden has been sold, over and over again, 
by the trustees and purchasers : the former sold it, 
on pretence of its being' too much out of order lo be 
rendered productive, excepting at a considerable ex- 
pense; and it DOW produces only a hkekr (or quit- 
Tent) of fifteen piasters a year, to be applied to the 
moinienance of the destitute cats. Almost the whole 
expense of their support has, in consequence, fallen 
upon the Cka'dee, who, by reason of bts ofhce, is the 
guardian of this and all other charitable and pious 
l^^cies, and must suffer for the neglect of his pre- 
decessors. Latterly, however, the duty of feeding the 
cats has been very inadequately performed. Many 
persona in Cairo, when they wish to get rid of a cat, 
•end or take it to the Cka'ilee's house, and let it loose 
in the great court. 

The aRability of the Egyptians towards each other 
has been mentioned in a preceding chapter. To- 
wards foreigners who do not conlbrm with their 
manners and customs, and profess the same way of 
thinking, they are polite in their axMress, but cold 
Biid reserved, or parasitical, in conversation. With 
eucb persons, and even among themselves, they ofWn 
betray much impertinent curiosity. They are gene- 
rally extremely afraid of making to themselves ene- 
mies ; and this fear frequently induces tliem to uphold 
each other, even when it is criminal to do so. 

Cbeerfulncsa is another remarkable characteristic 
of this people. Some of them profess a great con- 
tempt lor Irivolous amusements ; but most take plea- 
sure in such pastimes i and it is surprising tu see 
how easily they are amused : wherever there are 


CTOod^ RMse, Bnd bustle, they are delighted. 
Ibeir public festival, there is little to amuse a pi 
t^ HOoA tvliication ; but (he Hgypti'^DS enjoy tbpln 
moieh OS m du the best of our entertainments. T' 
of the lower ordera seem to be extremely happy 
tbtir pipes ami coffee, after the occupations of 
dkT, In Ihe Bocicty of the coflee-shop. 

^lo'^itality is a v'ntw for which the natives of 
Kart in evneral are highly BJid deservedly ttdmin 
aod the people of Egypt are well entitled to coininei 
dMktD on this account. A word which sigvif 
)itM«lly " a person on n journey" {jnooittdjir') ie i 
terai moM commonly employed in this country in i 
■case of K visitor or guest. There are very few o 
was herc wbo would think of sitting down, to a 
ITlhm were a etrao^r in the bouse, without invitina 
him lo part.ike of it, unless the latter were a. menialj 
in wbivh case, he would be invited to eat with th< 
wnsnls. It would be considered a shametiil violi* 
tioa of pwd manners if a Moos'lim abstained frooi 
otilertuic the tuble lo be prepared at the usual 
l)Manai> a \asiloT happened to be present. Persons of 
the middle classes in this country, if living in a retired 
^luatioii, sometimes take their supper before the do«^ 
of their house, and invite every passenger of respect' 
■b)e appearance to eat with them. This is very com- 
monly done amoDg- the lower ordew. In cities a 
large toffits, claims on hospiLility are uufrequeui; 
ther« lire many weka'lehs, or kha'ns, where strai^rs 
may obtidn lodging ; and food is very easily procured; 
bttt in the villages, travellers are oflea lodged sik) 
entertained by the Sheykh or sonie other inhabitant} 
and if the guest be a person of the middle or bighei 
cUases, or even not very poor, be gives a present (4 
his host's servants, or to the host himself. In th« 
flesert, however, a present is seldom received from a 
guest. — The account nf Abrahugaentertaining iht 

csARACTEa. sgj 

diree uigelK, related in the Bible, presents a peifect 
picture of the manner in whicli a modera Bed'awes 
aheykh receives travellers arriving ;tt hisenemnpinent. 
He immediately orders his wife or womeu to make 
bread ; slaughters a sheep or some other anim^, and 
dresses it in haste ; and bringing milk and any other 
provisions that he may have ready at haod, with the 
bread, and the meat which he has dressed, sets them 
before his guests. II' these be persons of high rank, 
he stands by them while they eat; as Abraham did 
in the case above alluded to. Most Bed'awees will 
auifbr almost any injury to themselves or their lami- 
lies rather than allow their guests to be ill-treated 
while under their protectiou. There are Arabs who 
even regard the chastity of their wives as not too 
precious to he sacrificed for the gratification of their 
guestE*; and at an encampment of the Bish'a'ree'n, 
1 ascertained that there are many persons io this 
great tribe, which inhabits a lai^e portion of the 
desert between the Nile and the Red Sea, who oBer 
tiieif unmarried daughters to their guests, merely from 
Inolives of hospitality, and not for hire. 

Tliere used to be, in Cairo, a numerous class of 
persons called Toofej/lei^yeh, or Toofey'lees (that is, 
Spuugers), who, taking advantage of the hospitality 
of their eountrymen, subsisted entirely by spunging: 
hot this class has, of lute, ^ery much decreased in 
number. Wherever there was an entertainment, 
some of these worthies were almost sure to be found ; 
and it was only by a present of money ttuit they could 
be induced to retire from the company. They even 
travelled about the country, without the smallest coin 
in their pockets, intruding themselves into private 
houses whenever they wanted a meal, or practising 
various tricks for this purpose. Two of them, lijtu 

* See BDxckbiiTdfs Notes on the BedouiohSc, Svo. editioo, 
tpL i., pp. 179 ftud lao. 


told,* little nbile since, determined to ^ bt theS* 
tivuf of the seyd El-Bed'awee, at Tua'ta; va Mf 
journey of two dajs and a lialf from Cairo. Wato» 
al their leisure, they arrived at Uie small town 4 
Ckalyot/L al the end of tbeir first day's journey ;iri 
there Ibund themselves at a loss for a supper. Qmi 
of them went to the Cka'dee ; iind, aAer sulutiugJiiit 
said^-" O Cka'dee, I am a traveller from the Shuif 
Itee'yeh, going lo Musr ; and I ha\e a cumpuiioi. 
who owes me fifty purses, which he Las with hiprf 
present, and refuses to give me ; and I am aCtiulh || 
want of them." " Where is be?'' suid the Ciw'wfti 
" Here, in this town," answered the CDmptaiDaiit..ljbt> 
Cka'dee sent a rasoo'l to bring the accusetl ; andA' 
the meantime, expecting caosiderable fees for a juk 
ment in such a ease, ordered a good supper lo iq 
prepared ; which Cka'dees of country towns or villHgi 
generally do under similar circumstances. Ttaetvl 
men were invited to sup and sleep before the case wi, 
tried. Next morning, the parties were examine^M 
the accused admitted that he hud in ~ ' 
the tifly purses of his companion ; and said that ll 
was ready to give tbem up ; for they were an eacillB_ 
brance to him ; being only the paper purses in whjcte 
coffee was sold. " We are Toofey'lees"— hr -JJ-J?" 
and the Cka'dee, in anger, dismissed them. „ 

TTie natives of Egypt in general, in common wil)| 
the Arabs of other countries, are justly cbargeaWn 
vrith a fault which is regarded by us as one of 
m&guitude : it is want of gratitude. Ttiis la _ 
cUued to consider a relic of the Bed'awee chancier^ 
and as arising from the very common practice a 
hospitality and generosity, and from tbe prevailii^ 
opinion that these virtues are absohitc duties wbicb i^ 
would be disgraceful to neglect. j 

The temperance and moderation of the Egjpdaatt 
with regard to diet, are very exemplary, ^ce m^ 



HMtaMtfal In Elgypt, I have scarcely ever seen a 
e pf this country in a stale of inloidcalion ; uulesa 
4t Wtrt a musidan at an eniertainmenl, or el dancing 
Vii^. or low prostitute. It hai'dly need be added that 
Siey are eitremely frugal. They show a great respect 
^brliread, aa the staff of life*, and on uu account suSe.r 
illie 'e)nalle!it portion of it to be wasted, if they cau 
•Wfd'tt. I have often observed an Egyptian talte up 
VSnnll piece of bread, which had, by nccideni, fallen 
(r the street or road, and, after putting it before his 
lips' and forehead three times, place it ou one side, 
in order that a dog might eat it, rather tban let it re- 
Matn (n be trodden under foot. The following in- 
M«nce of the excessive and unreasonable respect of 
this Egyptians for bread has been related to me by 
oeverfal persons ; but I must say that I think it hardly 
eredible. — Two servautn were sitting at the door of 
Ihtfir master's house, eating their dinner, when they 
observed n Mcmloo'k Bey, with several of his officers, 
ridKng along the street towards them. One of these 
*rvanls rose, from respect ti, tlie grandee, who, re- 
garding him with indignation, exclaimed, " Which 
is the more worthy of respect, the bread that is before 
yfni, or myselt?" — Without waiting for a reply, he 
mBde, it itj said, a well-understood signal with his 
hand; and the unintending offender was beheaded on 
Hit Jrpbl. 

'*Rib higher and middle orders of Moos'lims in 
Bg^qrt are scrupulously cleanly ; and the lower orders 
BTC'inoT^ so than in most oliier countries : but were 
not 'deanlinesK a point of their religion, perhaps it 
Would" not he so much regarded by them. From 
WSHi^ has been said in a former chapter of this work, 
ift(»ptfftl^ thafwe must not judge of them, with re- 
spect to thiii quality, from the dirty state in which ihey 

'^Ttietifine wliicli tliey give ti> it in WA, which literally 


generally leave their childreo. Their religious aUm 
(ion* were, certainly, very wisely ordained : pereoaal 
cliaoiincss beiug so conducive to health in a bid 
climate, Tbe ^yptians in genera! are part!cul»i1j 
cueful to avoid whatever their religion has piO' 
nouoced unclean and pulluLing. One of their objec- 
tions against wine is, that it is uaclcaa; and I 
believe that very few of them, if any^ could be inducwi 
by any means, unless by a considerable bribe, to eat 
the smallest piece of pig's flesh ; excepting the pea- 
sants of tlie Bohhey'reh (the province on the west of 
the western branch of the Nile), many of wlioin hI 
the flesh of the wild boar, and rats*. I was once 
amused wilh the remark of a. Moos'lim, on the sub- 
ject of pork : he observed l)tal the Franks were cer: 
laialy a much calumniated people: that ft was wt^ 
known they were in the hatnt of eating swine's fji 
but that some slanderous persons here asserted 
it was not only tbe flesh of the unclean beast 
was eaten by the Franks, but also its skin, and 
entrails, and its very blood: on being answered 
the accusation was loo true, he burst forth with a t 
heu-ty curse upon the infidels, devoting them to 
lowest place in hell. 

Many of the butchers who supply the Mooe 
inhabitants of the metropolis with meat are Jews, 
few years ago, one of the principal 'ool'ama here g 
plained of this fact to the Ba'sha; and begged hin 
put a stop to iL Another of tlie 'ool'ama, hearing . 
this person had gone to make the complaint oi 
mentioned, folioM ed him, and urged, beibre 

Ba'sba, that the practice was not unlawful. " Adi 
yoor proof" said the former. " Here," iinswered 

other, " is my proof, from the word of God — ' Ka 
« Rati, too, ate eaten by many Uugh'rub'coi wttled' 

Mraiudrii. mil by rlcscernU.rtu of ihc some jimiile; «(-'- 

fbei* ^rr •Uo ft few in Cairo, in thequartMi uf Tcylw/i 



ihat whereon the nftine of God hath been commemo- 
rated V" Tbc chief of the Jewish butchers was then 
■ummoned, and asked wheth<.r he said aiiythino; pre- 
riously Id slatightenng- an animal he answered, 
" Tea: we always say, as Ihe Moos'llms, 'In the 
Dane of God! God is most great' and we never 
Bll an animal in anv other wa) that) by cutting' its 
Broat." — The complaint was consequently dismissed. 
A few days ago, n raun, purchasmg a fiiiee'rch of 
H baker in this eity, saw him take out of his oven a 
fish of pork which he had been baking for a Frank ; 
fnd, supposing tliat the other things in the oven might 
lave been in contact with the unclean meat, and thus 
fontaminated, immediately brought a soldier fiom 

Ks nearest guard-honse, and canned the baker (who 
08 in no slight alarm, and protested that he was 
tnorant of there being any pig's flesh in his oven) 
» be conducted before the Za'bit, This magistrate 
itonsidered the case of sufficient importance to be re- 
ferred to the Ba'sha's deewa'n ; and tlie president of 
ijbis council regarded it as of too serious and difficult 
K nature for him lo dedde, and accordingly sent the 
Btecused to be judged at the Mahh'kem'eh. The 
ICka'dee desired the opinion of the Moof lee, who gave 
ttie following sentence ; — That all kinds of food not 
rfsseniially or radically impure were purified, i;f any 
ipollution which they might have contracted, by fire ; 
«iid consequently, that whatever thing of this de- 
icription was in the oven, even if it had been in 
enntact with the pork, was clean as i»)on as it had 
Seen baked. 

" A short time since, the Ba'sha received, from Eu- 
rope, a set of mattresses and cushions stufied with 
notse-hair, to form a deewa'n for his hharee'm. The 
ladies opened one of the cushions, to ascertain what 

• Clioor-a'u, ch»p,vi.,tat.\\a. 


gentndly leave their childrea. Thpir retigioua ahlifc 
tions were, certainly, verj wisely ordained; p«»onii 
cleBnIiness being so conducive lo health in a ht^ 
climate. The Kgyptiuus in general are pariicuiuljy 
careful to avoid wbatever their religion baa wk- 
nounced unclean and pulluting. One of iheir ob^efe 
tions aigainst wine is, that it is unclean ; and C 
believe that very few of them, if BJiy^ could be induicj^ 
by any means, unlesa by a considerable bribe, to Ml 
the smallest piece of pig's flesh ; exceplicg the pU' 
sonto of tlie Bohhe/reh (the province on the westn^ 
the western branch uf the Nile), many of whom ed 
the flesh of the wild boar, and mis *. I was OIM^ 
amused wiih the remark of a Moos'lim, on the sul^ 
ject of pork : he obsened tlvai the Franks were 
tftinly a much calumniated people : thai it was 
known they were in the haUt of eating swine's Beaiii 
but tliat some slanderous persons here asserted liitt 
it was not only the flesh of the unclean beast th^ 
was eaien by the Pranks, but also its skin, and 111 
entrails, and its very blood : on being answered (bA 
the accusation was (oo true, be burst forth with a mmH 
hearty curse upon the inhdels, devoting them to Lh^ 
lowest place in hell. , 

Many of the butchers who supply the Moos'liat 
inhabitante of the metropolis with meat arc Jews. 4, 
few years ago, one of the principal 'ool'ama here cohk. 
plained of this fact to the Ba'aha ; and be^ed him la 
put a stop lo it. Another of tlie 'ool'ama, hearing Uu( 
this person had gone to make the complaint aboTty 
mentioned, followed him, and urged, before thf) 
Ba'stie, that the practice was not unlawful. " Adduce 
your proof" said the former. " Here," answered tb& 
other, " is my proof, from the word of God — ' Ealc^ 

* I<OB>< toi>i are eBlan bjr many Mugh'riib'i^s tBttled at 

AleuuiliU, and by dcstvnilaiitj!, uf ih« iaiii« iihiiiIs; ul'wiioia 

'0 bIso a ftir ia Coiio, in the i|iiiiilifi uf Tcyluu'i]. 


flint whereon the name of nod hath beer commerao- 
i •-' " The chief of the Jewish butcher* was then 
■uu.Dioned, and asked whether he said anything; pre'- 
dously lo slaughtering ati animal ; he anHtt^red, 
~'es ; we always say, as the Moos/lims, ' In (he 
liune of God ! God is moat great !' and we nev»r 
HI an animal in any other way than by eutHiig it» 
ii^at." — The complaint waa conseouently dismisBed. 
A few days ago, a man, purchasmg a fatee'rch Of 
1>akeT in this city, saw him take out of hit oven n 
:h of pork whicli he had l«en baking for a Frank; 
id, supposing that the other things in the oven might 
^^ve been in contact with the unclean meat, and thus 
hiaminated, immediately brought a soldier fiom 
e nearest gvard-huuse, and cau^ the baker («*ho 
la in no slight alarm, and protested that he was 
Borant of there toeing any pig's flesh in his oven) 
be conducted before the Za'hit. This magistrate 
hsidercd the case of sufficient importance to be re- 
ared to the Ba'sha's deewa'n ; and the president of 
la council regarded it as of too serious and difficult 
Wture for him lo decide, and accordingly sent the 
Cueed to be judged at the Makih'kem'eh. The 
ka'dee desired the opinion of the Moof*iee, who gave 
b Ibllowing sentence: — That all kinds of food not 
Bentlatty or radically impure were purified, cf any 
Slution which they might have contracted, by fire ; 
^d consequently, thai whatever tiling of this ile- 
^iteption was in the oven, even if it had been in 
Aiitact v*ith the pork, was clean as Eioon as it had 
^a bnked. 

* A short time since, Ihe Ba'sha received, from Eu- 
of matiresBes and cnshions stnfied with 
■hair, to form a deewa'n for hisWiaree'm. The 
opened one of the cushioJis, to ascertain what 

• Ckoor-a'u, chap, ti., TW. 1 18. 

2 A 2 


gencnlly leave their children. Their r«ligioiia ald| 
tion* were, cerUiuly, very wisely ordaioed ; p«raoi]i 
cleanliness being so conducive to health in a b 
ctimate. The Egyptians in geni^ral are parlJcuiM 
careful to avoid whatever their religion has ps 
Dounced unclean and poUuliiig. One gf their objt 
tions against wine is, that it i» unclean j audi 
believethatvery fewof them.ifany, could heinduct 
by any meaus, imless by a. considerable bribet U* t 
the smallest piece of pig's flesh ; excepting the peL 
sants of the Bohhey'reh (the province on the west i 
the western branch of the Nile), many of whom 
the flesh of the wild boar, and rats*. I whs on 
amused wiih the remark of a Moos'lim, on the SH 
ject of pork : he observed that the Franks were c« 
taiuly a much calumniated people: thut it waawC 
known they were in the habit of eating swine's flett 
but that some slanderous persons here asserted llii 
it was not only the flesh of the unclean becist lh| 
was eaten by the Franks, but also its skin, and i 
entrails, and its very btood; tin being answered tlu 
the accusation was too true, he burst forth with a nioi 
hearty curse upon the infidels, devoting them t 
lowest place in liell. 

Many of the butchers who supply the Moos'Iin 
inhabilauls of the metropolis with meat are Jews. Af 
fe* yean? ago, oiic of the principal 'ool'ama here conK' 
plained of this fact lo the Ba'sha j and begged him b 
put a stop to it. Another of the 'ool'ama, hearing tha 
thin person had gone to make the cumplaini aboT& 
mentioned, followed him, and urged, before thi} 
Ba'sha, that Ihe practice was not unlawful. " Adduce 
your proof " said the former. " Here," unswered thft 
other, " is my prouf, from the ward of God — ' J£at Q 

* Viaei, too, are eaten by many Mugh'reb'cei MtttledtdT 
AiGiBudtia, Hnil by desuinilaiilx ul thi^ iami) ]ieo]i1e; ut wboiB 
there i.te also a levr in Caini, in the qusctilr uFTeyluo'a. 


thirfirtereon the name of God hath been commemo- 
rated ".' " The chief of the Jewish butchers was then 
amninoned, and asked whether he said anylhing; pre- 
viously to slaughtering an animal; he ansWerH, 
" Yes; we always say, as the Moui/ilms, ' Iti (he 
name of God! God is most great!' and we newr 
kiil an animal in any other way than by culliiiie: its 
throat."— The complaint was coDsemienllv dismissed. 

A few days Bgo, a man, purchasing a fut*e'reh rf 
a baker in this city, saw him lake out of hi* oven n 
dish of pork which he had been bttking for a Frank ; 
and, supposing that the other tilings in the oven might 
liave been in contact wilh the unrlean meat, and thus 
contaminated, immediately brought u tiOldier ftom 
the nearest guard-house, and caused the baker (who 
was in no slight alarm, and protested that he was 
ignorant of there being any pig's flesh in his oven) 
to be conducted before the Za'bil. This magiRtmie 
considered the case of sufficient importance lo be re- 
ftired to the Bu'sha's deewa'n ; and the preudcnl of 
Alis council regarded it as of too serionfi and difficult 
a nature for him lo decide, and accordingly leiit the 
accused to be judged at the Mahhlwm'eh. The 
Cke^dee desired the opinion of the MooPiee, who gai-e 
the tbilowing sentence : — That all kinds of (bod not 
essentially or radic»]ty impure were purified, if any 
jtollution which they might hiJre contracted, by- tire ; 
and consequently, that whatwer thing of this de- 
scription was ill the oven, *WlI if it had been in 
ctintact uilb the pork, was clua as eoon as il lied 
been bailed. 

A abort dme since, the Ba'elu receired, friim Eu- 
rope, a set of mattresses and cnshions stufttd with 
horsehair, toform a deewe'tlftr his hharee'iii. The 
ladies opened one of tbecodunis, to asceiuiii >^'>"' 

* Ckoi»«'u,4bqh tiller. 1IE 


ge&enlly leave their children. Their retigiou& a 
tioni were, certwuly, very wisely ordaiued ; pecBOB^ 
clfuoIiDess beiug so conducive to health in » hot 
climate. The Egyptians id genera! are paft!cul»rfj 
careful to avoid whatever iheir religion has Ptf- 
aoanccd unclean and polluting. One of itieii olnM-. 
tions a(^nst wine is, that it is unclean j umI 
believe Uiat very (ew of them, if any^ could be indaN^ 
by any laeaus, unless by a considerable bribe, to fi 
the smallest piece of pig's flesh ; excepting the p» 
sants of the Bohhe/reh (the province on the we^lof 
the western branch of the Nile), many of whom eat 
the flesh of the wild boar, and rals*. I wds once 
amused with the remark of a. Moos'lim, on the sub- 
ject of pork : he observed that the Franks were ctr- 
lainly a much calumniated people: that it wsa we^ 
knuwn they were in the haW of eating swine's fleslu I 
but that some slanderous persons here asserted Ibtt 1 
it was not only the flesh of the unclean beast thlM 
was eaten by the Franks, but also its Rkin, and,H|l 
entrails, and its very blood; on being answered O^M 
the accusation was loo true, he burat forth withaiDoi^l 
heuty curse upon the infidels, devoting them to 4^| 
lowest place in hell. ^M 

Many of the butchers who supply the MoofillaH 
inhabitants of the metropolis with meat are Jews. ,^| 
few years ago, one of the principal 'oul'ama here coijH 
plained of this fact to the Qa'sha ; and begged hjm hB 
put a stop to it. Another of tlic 'ool'ama, hearing ttM| 
this person had gone to make the complaint abo^f 
mentioned, folloitcd him, and urged, before tt^fl 
Ba'eha, that the practice was not unlawful. " AdduiSB 
your proof " said the former. " Here," unswered l)MJfl 
other, " is my proof, from the word of God—' Ji!pt)n|H 

* Dan, too, ue eaten by many Mugh'reb'res settled 1^1 
Aieiauilria. aaJ by ilvscimdaiits u! Ihv laiiiti ]mi\>\e \ wK irhaa fl 
there are alsa a few in Caicu, iu tbe ^uiuter <jf Tt^-luo'n. ^k 

HWitreon the name of God lioth b«en cummcnio- 
'.'" ThechiefoflheJewi'ili butcher* was then 
immoned. and aslted whether he said anything jire- 
ousty to skughlering an animal; he anaWFreH, 
Tts: we always say, as the Moos'lime, ' lu the 
aine of God! God \s most great!' and we nevfr 
ill on animal in any other way tbati by cutting its 
Iroal,"— The complaint was coBBeaueiitly dismissed. 
A few days ago, a niiin, purcliasmg a fatee'reli of 
balcer in this city, saw him btke out of hii oven n 
ish of pork which he had been baking for a Frank; 
nd, supposing that the other things in the oven might 
^ve been in contact with the unclean meat, and thus 
ftiDtsniinated, immediately brought a soldier fiom 
Ebe nearest guard-huuse, and caused the baher (who 
in no slight alarm, and protested (hat he was 
ignorant of tliere being any pig's flesh in his oTtn) 
Id be conducted before the Za'bit, This magistrate 
eonsidered the case of sufficient importance to be re- 
fferred to the Ba'sha's deewa'n ; and the president of 
^is council regarded it as of too serious and diKieult 
a nature for him Id decide, and accordingly sent the 
accused to be judged at the Mahh^eirfeh. The 
CMdee desired the opinion of the Monftee, who gave 
fte following sentence : — That all kinds of Ibod not 
^ntially nr radically impure were purified, nf any 
IMnution which they might bave contracted, by fire ; 
and consequently, that whatever thing of this ile- 
Scription was in the oven, even If it had been in 
cDntsct with the pork, was clean as soon as it had 
iMen baked. 

A short time since, the Ba'sha received, from En- 
rope, a set of mattresses and cushions stuffed with 
ioise-hair, to form a deewa'n for hishharee'm. The 
i opened one of the cusbioUB, to ascertain what 

• CkoBi>E'u, ch»p. ti.i 'nr- 1 18. 

2 A 2 


children. Their rdiEiot; 
inlj, very wisely ort!;ii 
cleanliness being so conducive io 1 < 
climate. Ttie Egyptians in getiei:il 
careful to avoid whatever iheir reli:, 
nounced unclean and polluting, Une ol II 
lions against wine is, that it i 
believe that very few of them, if BJiy^ a 
by any means, unless by a considerable^ 
the smallest piece of pig's flesh ; , . 

sunts of llie Bohhey'reh (tlie province on 
the western branch of the Nile), many r< 
the fleRh of the wild boar, and rats*, 
amused wilh the remark of a MiWjiin, 
Ject of pork : he observed thai the FVmi 
tainly a much calumniated people: tbv 
known they were in the habil ol eatine 
but that some slanderous persons liert 
it was not only the flesh of the uucL 
was eaten by the Franlcs, but also lis 
entrails, and its very blood : on beiilf 
the accusation was too true, he burM d 
hearty curse upon the intidels, devuKi 
lowest place in hell. 

Many of the butchers \\l'. 
inhabitaiils of the metropcil ■ 
fewyearsago, oiieofthe|u;i 
plained of this fact to the Li. 
put a stop to it. Another ol . 
this person had gone to ui. 
mentioned, followed him. 
Ba'sha, that the jiractice via- 
your proof" said the former 
other, " is my proof, from ll: 



hich tihey pay 

♦(> men- 





js in 



/eelinrr ; 

..'gree, to 

.ants. It 

iDg among 

'.vas induced 

lure world to 

ke of his reli- 

a proof of the 

lis have for their 

. this country will 

*w her, to marry a 

•ide with her in her 

it her think that the 

of abode in this case 

female incurs of want- 

lions. The Bed'awees 

its, and have so great a 

icside in towns, and for 

I matter of surprise that so 

xed to settle even upon the 

... The modern Egyptians, 

i\ llrom Bed'awees, while they 

• in love of their native coun- 

JLevitlcaSi lixt, 32. 


i*B3 tbe substance which rendered them so agreeabljlt 
elastic; and, disgusted iu the highest degree at seeM 
what they supposed lo be hog;'s-hair, insisted u|ii» 
throwing awuy the whole deewa'n, 

A Frenchman wlio was employed here, a few yeB* 
a^, to refine sugar, by the present Ba'slia, madeus^ 
Ot blood for this purpose ; and since that, very tew rf 
the people of this country have ventured to eat art 
EUS^ar made by the Franks: the Ba'sha was aW 
obli^d to prohiKt the use of blood in hia own sugi 
bakeries ; and the white of eggs has been empbytft 
in its Blead. Some of the Egyptians, seeing the l' " 
Topean sugar to be very snperiar to lliat made he 
use it ; holding the doctrine that what is ori^iwMi 
clean may become clean again after pollution; bv> 
I am obliged to keep the coarse E^ptian sugta fW 
Ihe purpose of making sherliet for uiy visittws; sontt' 
til" whom hold long discussions with me on thik 
subject, ' 

It is a general custom among the Egyptians, ttfiw 
washing clothes, to pour clean water upon them, and. 
lo say, in doins^ so, " I testify that there is no deilf 
but Goil ; and 1 testify that Mohham'mad is God's 
Apostle*.' ' Tn speaking of their religion, I have mtlh 
tioned several other practices instituted for the sUn* 
nf cleanliness; most of which are universally obsOWit. 
But, notwithstanding these cleanly practices and prj*- 
ciples, and their custom of frequently going tt) -tte 
bath, the Egyptians do not change their linen' so 
often as some people of more northern climatesi who 
need not so much to do this frequently: theyofle&ga 
10 the bath in a dirty shirt; and, after a thorough 
washing, put on the same again. 

Filial piety is one of the more remarkable virtuea 


oCtbis people. The outward respccl which Ihcy [joy 
to Iheir parents, 1 have already luul occaMon to meu- 
tion. Great respect is also shown by the young' U) 
those far advanced in age*; particularly to siich as 
are reputed niea of great piety or leaiiuiig. 

Iiove of their country is another predoniinant chu- 
TacteriBtic of the modern Egyptians. In general, they 
have a great dread of quitting their native land. I 
have heard of several determiniDg to visit a foreign 
coualry, for the take of cousiderabie advantageB in 
jirospect; but when the time of their intended de- 
parture drew near, their resolution failed them, 
Severe oppression has lately lessened this feeling; 
nhicb is doubtless owing, in a great degree, to 
ignorance of foreign lands and their inhabitants. It 
waa probably from the same feeling prevailing among 
the Arabs of his time that Mobham mad was induced 
to promise such high rewards in « future world to 
those who fled their country for the sake of his reli- 
gion. I have heard il remarked as a proof of the 
extraordinary love which the E^ptians have for iheir 
iiftlive place, that a woman or girl in this country will 
eeldoro consent, or her parents allow her, to marry a 
man who vrill not promise to reside with her in her 
native town or village ; but I rather think that the 
reluutance to change the place of abode iu this case 
4f isee from the risk which the female incurs of want- 
isg the protection of her relations. The Bed'awees 
.are so attached to their deserts, and have so grcut.a 
.ccntempt for people who reside in towns, and Ibr 
agricuUuiisIs, that it is a matter of surprise that so 
itiiaiiy of them were induced to settle even upon the 
fertile banks of the Nile. The modern Egyptians, 
though mostly descended firom Bed'awees, while they 
resemble their ancestors in love of their itative coun- 

■ Su LcTLticus, jix» Si. 


,'• Iwve a horror of the desert One }t«miBjM 

.e <1«Bvrt furiiishu» Lhem witli lales of «sa^;erBleJ 
liardsliipa, perils, ond wmtders, which tliey are u- 
tremely fond of rtlttling lo their less exptriewwii 

Indplcace perviules tdl cIbsscb of the Egyptiuti 
excepting those who are ohliged to earn Uieir livclit 
hou<l by severe manuul labour. Ii ia the resullgf 
Uu: cUniute, and of the fecundity of the sail. £v«i| 
lUo mechaiiica, who ma extreniely greedy of gain, will 
^uerally spend two days ia aworlcwhich tbeymigbt 
easily accomplish ia one; and will Itave the mi)4 
lucrutive employment to idle away their time nilh 
the pipe : but the porter, the groom, who runs hefoif 
his mutter'a horse, and the boatmen, who are ulten 
employed in towing the veEsets up the river during 
calm and very hot weather, bh well os many othet 
labourers, endure extreme fatigue. 

The Efcyptiaiis are obo excesaively obelinaU, i 
have mentioned, in a former chapter, that they hav^ 
been notorious, from ancient times, that is, from ttu 
period of the Bomnn domination, lor rehuing to pa|> 
their taxes until they have been severely beatea; an4 
that they often boast of the number of stripes tvhict^ 
ihey have received before they would part with theiii 
money. Such couduct is very cummoo among them.i 
1 was once told, that a fella'bh, from whom the valuQt 
of aboutfour shillings was demanded by his governoi^ 
endured so severe a buitlinadiug rather thaa pay this, 
paltry sum, which he declared he did not possess,' 
that the governor ordered him to be dismissed i bui^ 
stiiking him on hb face aa he limped away, there lelL 
out of his mouth a gold coin of the exact value ofi 
the sum demanded of him ; so that tiis beaiing, tert' 
rible as it was, fell short of what was necessary to: 
make him pay. This disposition seems a strange 
pecuharity in tbeii character j but it is easily ac- 


counted for by the fact that lliey know very well the 
more readily they pay, the more will be exacted from 
them, Iq other respects, however, they are ex- 
tremely obslinatfi and difficult to govern; thouffhvery 
obsenuioua in their manners and professions. It is 
seldom that an Egyptian workman can be induced lo 
nw;ke a tbin^ exactly to order : lie will ^nerally follow 
his own opinion in preference to that of his em- 
ployer; and will scarcely eier finiah his work by the 
time be has promised. 

Though very submissive to their governors, the i 
fella'hhee'n of Ejjypt are not deficient in eouraffe 
when excited by fends among eacb other; and they 
become excellent soldiers. 

In BBnaudity, as far as it relates lo the indulgence"^ 
af libidijioua'pfesio ns, the Egyptians, as well as other j 
natives ol not clim'ates,certainly exceed more northern | 
nations ; yet this excess is not to be attributed merely 
to the climate, but more especially to the institution 
of polygamy, to the facility with which divorcemeutB 
are accomplished whenever a man may wish to marry 
a new wife, and to the custom of concubinage. It is ) 
even said, and, I believe, with truth, that, in this ( 
respect, they exceed the neigbbouring nations, whose 
religion and civil institutions are similar; and that 
their country still deserves the appellation of " the 
abode of the wicked," which, in the Ckoor-a'n*, is, 
aceording to the best commentators, applied to an- 
cient Egypt, if we lake the word here translated 
" wicked" in its more usual modern sense of " de- 
bauchees," — A vice for which the Memloo'ks who 
governed Eg^pt were infamous was so spread by 
them in tliis country as to become not less rare here 
than in almost any other country of the East ; but of 
late years it is said to have much decreased. 

• Chaj. vii., vai. 143. 


t moat immijdest IVeednn) of coaTersnlina i« 
red ill bj personi! of both sexes, uuti of wtrj 
1 ef life, in Eg^-pt; even by the mosl -yirtiwui 
i REpectiible nomen, with Lhe eKceptiun of. a vaj 
», who often make use of coarse language, Lutuol 
atichftMc. From persons of the best education, eii- 
pre»iuiis are ofien heard so obscene as ojuly to bftlil 
tar « Io» brothel ; aiid things are named, and subject! 
talked of, by the most genteel women, without «By 
idea of their being indecorous, in the heariofj of tueo, 
■bat iDtmy prostitutes in our country would sbsbud 
hptn mentioning. , 

/^lie women of Egypt have the character of beinff 
f tbe most licentious in their feelings of all fenwJaB 
J who \*y tiny claim to be considered as members of a 
oixtUsed nation ; au<l this character is freely beetoWd 
upon ihem by their countrjinen, even in convenatjoP 
1 -wilib lorcagners. What liberty Ihey have, many ntf 
I thtm. it is said, abuse ; and most of them are tiot 
I ooBsdcred safe, unless under lock and key ; to whidi 
cntiadat, few are subjected. It is believed that tht? 
I<tva«£» s degree of cunning in the management « 
tbrtr iutrit^es ttiat the most prudent and carefvd hus- 
^oad cannot guard against; and, consequently, ' ' 
itw plots nre seldom frustrated, however great 
^ tte •pporent risk of the undertakings in whii^ 
tmt c^;*C^ Sometimes, the husband himself in 
^^t tbr iMKOUscious menus of gratifying hiswifWs 
~ 1 ux)fKUSities. Some of the etories of tlie 
'~ (oiacn in the " Tales of a Thousand nnd 
' present faithful pictures of accarreData 
■M in the modern metropolis of Egypt. 
, ^ As tacu of this city are of opinion Uut 
^^^ wuineo would intrigue if they could do 
j^,^ r^TT and that the greater proportion 
^ ^^ ^_ \ dw>uld be sorry t o thin k that the 
I -.■Mhati ondl am.rf^fckPMJBuadcd 

thdt it is OTer-wvere, because it appears, from the 
casloms with regard to women g;eiierally prevnilitig 
here, thai the ktter must be false. Tlie (iittinilljr of 
carrying on an intriijue with a female in this plum 
t-BU hardly be conceived by a person who ia not 
moderately well acquainted with Eastern' customs ahd 
habit.'!. It is not only difficult for a woman of the 
middle or liigher classea Xa admit her paramour into 
the house in which she resides, but it is almost im- 
possible for her to have a priTate interview with ti 
man who has a hharee'm, in his own house; or to 
enter the house of an unmarried man, oc one Who 
1ms not a concubine slaye, without attracting' the 
notice of the neighbours, andcausint; Iheir immCTliate 
interference. But iir it cannot be denied that many 
nf the women of Egypt engage in intrigues notwith- 
BtfMidlng such risks, it may be supposed Ihat the diffi- 
cullies which lie in the way are the chief bar to most 
others : for it is^certain that the women of this coun- 
trj- are, wTm\ery.rew Mcepirons,5niTghTjm 

'depositions. Among tlie iemales oTthe fnwer orders, 
rnlrTgttes are more easily accomplished, and freq\ient. 
■ The libidinous character of the women of Egypt, 
and the licentious conduct of a great number of 
them, may be attributed to many causes ; partly, to 
the climate; partly, to their want of proper instruc- 
tion, and of innocent pastimes and employments; 
pirdy, to the degree of restraint imposed upon them, 
and their seclusion from open intercourse with the 
flther ses, which undoubtedly has a tendency rather 
'to make women vicious than to secure them from 
'vice: but it is more to be attributed to the conduct of 
ttle husbands themselves; and to conduct far more 

■ disgraceful lo them than the utmost severity that any 

' of them is known to exercise in the regulations of 
' his hharee'm. The generality of husbands in Egypt 

: endeavour to increase the libidinous feelings of uieir 
2 a5 


4 by every meana in their power; lhougti,stthi 
Dume time, they aasiduoasky ^tudy to preheat tbeiriii- 
dulnping Ihoee feelings uolawlully. TbeMromtfUut 
pcrmiLUd lu listen, screened beiuDd thjeir wiadowBof 
wooden lattice*wark, to immoral aonjfs Rn '^ '"''^n gjM 
or related in the streetg by men whom tttey pay ftr 
UliB ent ertalunieut; and to vjow the yo^uptupus dMl*?? 

glee,wbo are prafe-^L'il [irip-ii' 

_ ^ 1 not merely to enitriiiiii ihr ,,.-■. 
IsitceSi but to tenth tliem Uiejr voliiptiioiis arts: and 
eveii iudecent puppetit are sDmetimes IJroug'm intd 
such taliaree'ms for the amusement of the inuiales. — 
Innumerable stories of the artifices and inti%uesi)f 
the women of Egypt been relatedTome. Ike 
following; narratives of late otourrences will aervejis 

A slave-dealer, nha bad been possessed of proper^' 
which enabled him to live in comfort, but had lost 
the greater part of it, manied a young and haili- 
some woman in this city, who had sufficient we^lh 
to make up for his losses. He luion, however, a^ 
leuted her \ and sa he was pa«t the prime uf life, ^ 
became indiflerent to him, and placed her alTectiQiis 
upon another man.a dust-man, who had been in the 
habit of coming to her house. She purchased, kx 
this person, a. shop close by lier hou^e ; gave hiin ^ 
sum of money to enable bim to pursue a leas de- 
graded occupation, us a seller of grain and fodder; 
tbod informed him that she had contrived a plan for 
Ms visiting her in perfect security. Her bharee'm 
had a window with hanging- shutters ; and almost 
doss before this window rose a palm-tree, out-top- 
iiiiig the house: this tree, she observed, would afford 
her lover a means of access to her, and of egress 
fitom her apartment, in case of danger. She hod 


only one servant, n female, who «n;raged to UBiBt her 
in Ihe aocomplishment of her desires. Previously 
to hcT lover's lirst visit to her, she desired the sej^ 
vont to inform her husband of what was about to 
take place in the ensuing night. He determined to 
keep watch ; and, ha\ing told his wife that he waa 
going out, and should not return that night, concealed 
himself in a lower apartment. At night, the maid 
came to tell liim that the visitor was in the hharee^m. 
He went up; but found the hharee'm-door shut. 
On his trying to open it, his wife ecreamed; her 
lover, at the same time, escaping from the window, 
fay means of the palm-tree. She called to ber ofigh' 
hours — ''Come to my assistance! Pray come! 
There is a robber in my house ! " — Several of them 
aoon came ; and, finding her locked in her room, 
and her husband outside the door, told her there 
was nobody in the bouse but her husband and maid. 
She said that the man they called her husband was 
a robber : that her husband was gone to sleep ouL 
The latter then informed them of what had passed; 
and insisted that a man was with her : he brolie open 
the door, and searched the room ; but finding- no 
man was reprimanded by his neighbours, and abused 
by his wife, for uttering a slander. The nest day, 
his wife, taking with her, as witnesses of his having 
aCL'Used her of a criminal intrigue, two of the neigh- 
bours who had come in on hearine; her screams foi 
assistance, arraigned her husbaiul at the Mahh'kem'eh 
as the slanderer of a virtuous woman without the 
evidence of liis own sight or of other witnesses. Being 
convicted of this oSence, he was punished with eighty 
Ftripes, in accordance with the ordinance of the 
Ckoor-a'n '. His wift now asked him if he would 
divorce her ; but he refused. For three days after 

« Cfa^siiif.k-m<4. 

«fe iioa«iy rt>Wi AH8. 

this event, they lived peaMably together. O" 'flj 
third night, the wife, having' invited her TbvefttiS 
her, bound her husbsnd, hand and fool, while he'^ 
asleep, and tied him down to the matiress. SbSi 
Alttr, her lover came iip, and, wuking the liufl* 
threntened hi m with instant death if he ehoctld^ 
RDd remained with the wife for several hoiirBj'ln' 
presence, Ab kooti as the intruder had gim^ B 
husbnnd was unbound bf hia wife, and called cn)^ 
his neighbours, beating her al the same time wM 
such violence that f)he, also, began to call far taH^ 
ance. The neighbours coming in, and seeing 
in a fury, eonily beiie\ed her assertion that he' 
become raving mad, and, trying to aoothe him ' 
kind words, and prayers that God would restore 
to sanity, liberated her from his grasp. She proci 
as soon as possible, a raso</l from the Cka'dBc;' 
went with him and her husband and several c^ he 
neighbours who had witnessed the beating that sG 
had received, before the judge. The nei^boti^ 
unanimously declared their opinion thnt her huWbanl 
was mad ; and the Cka'dee ordered that he shtnlll 
be conveyed to the Ma'rista'n • (or common mad- 
hoUBe) : but the wife, atfecting to pity him, begged 
thai she might be allowed to chain him in ah apart- 
ment in her house, that she might alieviate hS 
BuSeringH by waiting upon him. The Cka'flt^ 
Msenled ; praising the benevolence of the womttli! 
and praying that God might reward her. She aC' 
conJingly procured an iron collar and a chaia from 
tl)e Marista'n, and chained him in a lower i 
menl of her house. Every night, in bis presence 
her lover visited her : after which she importune! 
him in vain to divorce her ; and when the. neighbouri 
Inline in daily to ask how he was, the only answer ha 


received to his complaints and BCcunations ag'nitist 
his wife was — " God restore thee ! God restore 
thee ! " Thus he continued about a month ; and im 
wife, finding that be still persisted in refiising to 
divorce her, Kent for a keeper of the Ma'riHta'n to 
take him. The neighbours came round as he left 
the house; one eiLclaimed—" There is no strength 
nor power but in God ! God restore thee!" — another 
said — " How sad '. He was realJy a worthy man : '' 
— a third remarked — "Ba'dinga'ns" are very abun- 
dant just now." — While he was confined in the Ma'- 
rista'n, his wife came dally to him, and asked bim if 
he would divorce her: on his anewering, "No," she 
said — "Then chained you may lie until you die; and 
my lover shall come lo me constantly." At length, 
after seven months' confinement, he consented to 
divorce her. She procured his liberation ; and he 
fulfilled his promise. Her lover was of too low a 
grade to become her husband i so she remained un- 
married ; and received him whenever she pleased : 
but the maid revealed the true hiitory of this affair ; 
and it soon became a subject of common l^ilk. 

When the wife of a man of wealth or rank en- 
gages in a criminal intrigue, both she and her para- 
mc^T generally incur great danfrefl-. — Last year,the 
wtfe of an officer of high rank in the army took ad- 
vantage of the absence of her husband from the me- 
tropolis (where he always resided with her when not 
on military duly) to invite a Christian merchant, of 

■ Ua^neai is SBi<l to 1>e more rapimon and more viul«nt in 
EfQrpt when thr btock lu'ilinga n (or black egg-pUnt) in in 
>ejuou : that IB, in Ibe hot treniher. 

I " Hnw amay men, in Mun,'' saiil one of my liituiils |u 
me, " hare lost Iheic lives on aFcouat of wumtiii ', A rer^ 
huudsome yotin^ libeitine, who \ivsA !n this houEe wliich you 
now ac<in|jy, vu beheaded here in the street, bvfure liis'owii 
dour, fui an intrigue with a wife of a Bey ; and all the womet 
of ItuH wsjit fi»luat,V-.v'i I I'l'^ r'-si" ' * 


wtlAin she bad been in the hiibit of buymp stlfa^ 
pay her ft visit. He went lo her hoiise at the tioW' 
appointed, and found a eunuch at the door, who UxAt 
him to another house, die^ised him in the 
outer garments and veil of a ludy, and then bl 
him back, and introduced him to his inistreM. 
passed nearly Ihe whole of Ihe nioiht wiUi her 
rieing before she awoke, put into his pocket a 
which he had given her, and went dowQ to 
c-unuch, who conducted him again lo the house wbM 
he had put on his disguise: having- here remimes 
his own outer clothes, he repaired to liia shop. 8 
after, the lady, who had missed the purse, came, 
taxed him with having taken it: she told him « 
she did not want money, but only desired his ci 
pnny; end begged him to come to her af^ain in 
ensuing evening; which he promised to do: bu 
the afternoon, a female servant from (he house oT 
tfaiK Udy came to his shop, and told him that het 
mistress had mixed some poison in n bottle of water 
which she had ordered to he given him lo drink. 
This mode of revenge is said to have been often 
adopted when the woman's paramour has given her 
evvn a slight otTeure. 

It is seldom that the wife of a Moos'lim is gaS,lT 
(\f a criminal intrigue without being punished wi(6 
death if there b« tour witnesses to the fact, ead ttief 
nr the husband prosecute h«r ; and not elvniys do^ 
she escape this punishment If she be detected by any 
of the officers of justice : in the latter case, four wil- 
oeiises are not renuired", and often the woman, if ofi 
respectable family, is put to death, generally in pri- 
vate, 00 the mere arbitrary aultiority of the gnvem- 
tnent: but a Ijribe will sometimes save her; totH 
will dways l^ "ted if it can with saftty, 
Drowning is Ufl ment now almost always m- 

CriAKACTEB, 4|] 

if Cairo and other large towns of Eg^ypt, instead 
q( that ordained by ihi; law, which is atoning. — 
fi few moiitha ago, a, poor woman of Ibis city mar- 
ried a man whose trade was selling fowla, and, while 
living with him and her jnuther, took three uiber 
Lgijgiiigs, and married three other hitebands ; all uf 4 
wlioin were generally absent from the metropohs ; bo 
she calculated that when any of these three persons 
BSine to town for a few days she might easily find an 
e^iCVse to go to him. They hap|)ened, unfortunately 
itff her, to come to town on the same day ; and all 
ijf them went, the same evening, to inquire for her 
at her mother's house. Being much embarrassed by 
tlieir presence, and her first husband being also with 
ber, she feigned to be ill, and soon to become insen- 
sible ; aod was taken, by her mother, to an innei 
room. One of the husbands proposed to give bei 
something to restore her : another wished to try i 
different remedy : they began to contend which was 
ihe best medicine; and one of them said, "I shall 
give her what 1 please : is not she my wife?" "Ifour 
wifel" eKclaimed each of the three other husbandaal 
the eame time: "ehe is my wife." — Each proved his 
marriage ; the woman was taken to the MahhTiem'eh ; 
tried; condemned to death; and thrown into Ihe 
Nile. — Some time ago, when I was belbre in this 
country, a simiiar case occurred : a woman married 
three soldiers, of the niita'm, or regular troops. She 
was buried in a hole breasl-deep ; ami then shot. 

A woman may sometimes, but very rurely, trust in 
palliating circumstances, or the support of powerful 
friends, to save her from Ihe penally of death, in 
case of her detection in a criminal intercourse ; as in 
th^ following instance. — The Ba'sha, last year, gave 
ooe of the slaves in his hliaree'm in marriage to a 
I'jfth slave-merchant, from whom he had purchased 
f^i^jr of hia memWIsB and female siaves. Tljie 


thej do not consider it necessary, or even dclicale, to 
tonsult the choice of a girl under age previouslj to 
■pvLng her away in matrimony ; but it is not less 
true that a man of the middle or higher classes, 
almoiit always, malvcs his choice of a wife from hear- 
say, or as a person blindfold ; having no means of 
seeing her until the cuntruct is matle, and she is 
brought to his house. It is impossible, iherefore, 
that tliere should be any mutual attachment before 
mairiage. Both seKes, in truth, are oppressed bj 
tyrannical laws and cusioms; hut, happily, they re- 
gard ttieir chains as becoming and honourable : they 
would feel themselves disgraced by shaking tliem olf. 
As to the restraint which is exercised towards the 
women, I have before remarked that it is in a great 
d^ree voluntary on their part, and that I believe it to 
be less strict in Egypt timn in any other cotmtry of 
the Turkish empire : it is certainly far less so than it 
has been represented to he by many persons. They 
generally look upon litis restraint with a degree of 
pride, as evincing the husband's care for them ; and 
value themselves upon their being hidden as trea- 
sures*. In good society, it is considered highly in- 
decorous to inquire, in direct terms, respecting the 
health of a friend's wife, or of any female in his 
house, unless she be a relation of the person wbo 
makes the inquiry. — One of my Egyptian acquaint- 
ances asking another native of this country, who had 
been in Paris, what was the most remarkable thing 
that he had seen in the land of the infidels, the 
hitter, thinking lightly of all that he had observed 
really worthy of exciting the admiration of an unpre- 
judiced and a sensible man, gave the following an- 
swer. " I witnessed notlung so remarkable as this 

* A If special lie fi-ma1ei3 generall;^ addressed, in n lettn 
Bi " the c'ltttiled \aij, and euiice«ltd jewel" (.conlt il^nuw) 


man was not only unfaithful to hpr, but tittwrly ni 
lecled her ,■ and she, in consequence, Ibrmed an i 
proper intiiracy with a merchant of whom she wb» 
frequent cr^&lomer. One day, when her husband w" 
out, B black slave belong^ing to him happened to S 
B man's head at a small aperture in a window rf t 
hharee'm. He immediately went up to searcitt 
room of the wife ; who, hearinit him comtng, lot* 
her paran-.our in an adjoining closet. The sld 
broke open the donr of (he closet; and the ni 
within nwhed at him wiih a dagger which he w 
in hiD frirille ; but the former seized Ihe blade in I 
hand; and the woman held him until her lover b 
escaped ; she then kissed (lie slate's hand, and ii 
plori^d liim not to cause her death by informing^ li 
husband of what had passed : she, however, tbtii 
him inexorable; he immediately went to his mi 
shotring his bleeding hand, and telling himtheeuu 
of the wound. The woman, meanwhile, fled lo H 
Ba'sha's hharee'm, for protection. Her husband d 
inanded of the Ba'sha that she should he jpven v 
and put to death ; and, the request being deemed' 
proper one, she was brought before her former mart 
to answer for her crime. She threw heraelf 'at h 
feet; kiitsed theskirt of hisclnthing; and acqna^M 
him with her husband's vicious conduct, and*'(l 
utter negflect of her. The Ba'sha, feeling 
insulted by the husband's conduct, spat in 
and sent back the wife to his own hharee'm.' H 
paramour did not live long after this; he waN 'sriil 
Ihered in the house of some couriesans ; but noijtrl 
these women were punished ; asft eoiildnot beprort 
which of them committed the acL 

For their sentiments with reirord to women, an 
their general conduct towards the fair sej, the £gyp 
tiaas, in coninioii with other Moos'lims, have ' 
reprehended witb too gieakbe^iei^'j. \ 


theyio not coataiet it necessary, ar et-en delicale, ui 
(^unsull the choice of a girl under age previouGlj to 
;pving her away in matrimony ; but il is not leu 
true that a mikQ of the mjddje or higher eiasies, 
almost always, makes his choice of a wife frotn hear- 
say, or as a pecson blindfold ; hadog no iiieB.QS of 
saeing her uatil the conlruct is made, and she is 
broug'ht to hb bouse. It is impossible, therefore, 
that there should be any mutual attachment before 
marriage. Both seses, in truth, are oppressed by 
tyrannical laws and customs; but, happily, they re- 
gard their chains as becomiog and honourable ; they 
would feel themselves disgraced by shaking them off. 
As to the restraint which is exercised towards the 
women, I have before remarked that it is in a great 
decree voluntary ou their part, and that I believe it to 
be less strict in E§^pt than in any other country of 
the Turkish empire : it is certmnjy far less so tban It 
has been represented to be by many perxons. ITiey 
generally look upon this restraint with a degree of 
pride, as evincing the husband's care for them ; and 
valne themselves upon their being hidden as trea- 
sures*. Id good society, it is considered highly in- 
dccoroua to inquire, in direct terms, respecting the 
Iiealth of a friend's wife, or of any female in his 
house, unless stie be a relation of the person who 
makea the inquiry. — One of my Egyptian acquaint- 
ances asking another native of this country, who had 
been in Paris, what was the most remarkable thing 
that he had seen in the land of the infidels, the 
latter, thinking lightly of all that he had observed 
really worthy of exciting the admiration of an unpre- 
judiced and a sensible man, gave the following an- 
swer- " I witnessed nothing so remarkable as (hia 

• A (cspvclalilB rwrialB ia genemll^ Hddl 
an " the RiiaiJed laJy, »nd cuneealefl jewel" {«mi 



ftct. It IB a custom of every person among the rki 
and great, in Paris and other cities of France, fre- 
quently lo invite his friends anri acquaintances, bolt 
men and women, to au entertainment in his house. 
The rooms in which the company arc received m 
lighted with a great nutnber of candles and UniMp 
There, the men and women assemble promiscuous^: . 
the wotnen, as you -well know, unveiled ; and a wtfj 
may sit next to another's wife, whom be has aev^ 
seen before, and may walk, talk, and even dftndt 
with her, in the very presence of her own husbauj 
who is neither angry nor jealous at such disgracefi 

The Egyptians are equally remarkable for geni 
roaity and cupidity. That two such (ipposite qualilj'a 
shoiiid be united in the same mind is not a little sd 
prising; but such is generally the case with tl 
people. An overreachinjjr and deceitful disposition 
commercial transactions, which is too common amoi 
all nations, is one of the most notorious faults of t 
Egyptian : in such cases, he seldom scruples to fnu 
a falsehood which may better his bargain. Amos 
people who groan beneath the yoke of a tyranuits 
and mpBcious government (and such, indeed, is U 
government of Egypt), a disposition tu avarice i 
riably predominates : for a man is naturally i 
tenacious of that whii^h is most liable to be taks 
from him ; and hence the oppressed Egyptiai 
he has a sum of money which he does not requi 
for necessary expenses, and cannot profitably emploj 
generally lays it out in the piuchase of ornaments n 
his wife or wives ; which ornaments he can easily coq 
vert again into money. Hence, also, it is a commo 
practice in this country (as it is, or has been, i 
almost every country under similar political circiun- 
Btances) for a man to hide treasure in his houses 
twdeL iiuved floor, or in fiomc tfOaet ^t\.-, a 


naiiy a person who does so dies suddenly, without 
being able lo iuforia his family where h his mukk'ba, 
or hiding-pliicc, money is not unfrequently discovered 
oil pulling down houses. A vice neur ulcin to cuih- 
ditj, namely envy, I believe to be equally prevalent 
among the modern Egj'plians, in common with the 
whole Arab race ; for many of them are candid 
enough to confess their own opinion thnt this hateful 
disposition is almost wholly concentrated in the minds 
of their nation. 

The Egyptians are generally honest in the pay- 
ment of debts. Their Prophet asserted that even 
martyrdom would not atone Ibr a debt undischarged. 
Few of tbem ever accept interest for u loan ol' money ; 
a; it is strictly forbidden by iheir law. 

Constant veracity is a virtue extremely rare in 
modern Egypt. Falsehood was commended by the 
Prophet when it tended to reconcile persons at vari- 
ance with each other : alia, when practised in order to 
please one's wife ; and to obtain any advantage in a 
war with the enemies of the faith ; though highly re- 
probated in other cases. This offers some little pal- 
liation of the general practice of lying which prevails 
among the modern Mooe'lima; for, if people are 
allowed to lie in certain cases, they insensibly con- 
tract a habit of doing so in others. Though most of 
the Egyptians otlen lie designedly, they are seldom 
heard to retract an unintentional misstatement with- 
out expressing themselves thus — " No, I beg for- 
giveness of God*: it was so and so;" as, in stating 
anything of which they are not quite certain, Ihoy 
saj, " God is all-knowing t." — I may here mention 
<aud I do it with some feeling of national pride) thatt 
Bume years ago, there was an Armenian jeweller in 
this city (Cairo) so nottd for his veracity that his ac- 

" La' ailugh'fir.Mia'h. i JUa'haa a' 

416 MODKBN lorrruNs. 

quaintaitces deteimined to grve him some appctb- 
tion significant of his possessing a rirtne so ran 
among ihem ; and the name they gave him was EI- 
Ingilr.t'zee, or The Englishman, which has becomf 
his family name. It is common to hear tjadesmen 
ill this place, when demanding a price whicli they ^ 
not mean lo abate, say, " One word ; the word of the 
English* :" they also often say, " the word of the 
Franks," in this sense ; but I have never heard mVf 
parlicular nation thus honoarahlv distingnished «f- 
cepting the English and the Mugh reVecs, orWestetn 
Arnha, which latter people have aoiuired this repuBi- 
lion by being rather more veracious than most other 

I have before mentioned the practice of swearing 
by God which prevails among the Egyptians ; 1 
must here add, that many of theni scruple nol fa 
make use of an oath with the view of obtain iogcK^I 
to a falsehood. In this case, they sometimes aj^ 
"Ifa-tyhir ("ByGod!"); but more common^, 
" tfa-l^lahl" : for, though the latter espresaion hw 
the same meaning an the former, they pretend th»t 
it may also be used as an ejaculation in praise'tf 
GoJ ; whereas " Wa-llo'hi " is a decided oath, i * 
if ottered to a falsehood, or violated, must be 
piatcd by feedin^or clothing ten poor men, liberal 
a captive Mooslim, or fasting three days f. ~ 
liowever, is the espiation allowed by the CI 
only for an inconsiderate oath ; yet the^ m 
Moos'lims sometimes observe it in order tt 
themselves from the guilt of a deliberate false 
and they generally prefer the fast to either of 
other modes of expiation. There are some oal 
which, I believe, few Moos'lims would falsely tak 
such as saying, three times, " By God, the Great J Ji 

I aai..the oath upon the mwKi'hbaf (or copy of Die 
Cltoor-a'n) — saying, " By what Ihis contuiiia of the 
word of God !" — Iwt 8 form of oalh Ihat is glill more J 
to be de^nded upoa ia ihat of saying, " I impose 
upon , myself divorceraent* " (that is, Ihe divorce of 
my wife, if what I say be false) > or, " I impose upon 
myaelf interdiction f!", which has a ^milur ineanitig 
0* My wife be unlawful to me!''); or, "1 impose upou 
myself a triple divorcementt ! \ wUch binds him by 
the irrevocable divorce of his wife. If a man use 
uny one of these three ibrtus of oath falsely, his wlf^, 
if he have but one, is divorced by the oath itself, if 
proved lo be faltie, without further ceremony ; and if 
he have two or more wives, he must, under such cir- 
cumstance!:, choose one of them to put away. There 
are, however, ubandoaed liars who will sweur falHcly 
by the oatlt that is ge«erally held most binding. A 
poet, speaking of a character of this deauription, \ 
says, ^ 

" But Ab'so-t-Mo'^l* !> uuMt tklse 
When be swesra bj the oath at difoice." 
The generality of the E^gypiians are easily aaltA 
to tiuarrel; particularly those of the lower nrdeni, 
who, on such occaaons, curse eatJi other's father*, 
mothers, beards, &c. ; sjid lavub upon eat^h other a 
variety of opprobrious epithets; siicli as "soil of llu' 
tiog, pimp, pig," and an appellalioii which they think 
filill worse than any of these, namely, " Jew." Wli*ii 
one curses the father of the other, tlie lalltr generJ^iy 
retorts by cursing the father and mother, aitd koitii- 
times Ihe whole household, of his advcreary. Hoy 
menace each other; but seldom proiceed (o Mi/wt. 
In a few instances, however, I haic »eea krw penon* 
in this country go enraged ■• to hitc, and gr^ ^^rfa 
other by the throat. X hate aba 




instances of forbearance ou ihe pni-t of individuals «( I 
the middle and lower classes, when grossly insulted: I T 
have often heard an Egyptian any, on receivin* i I 
blow from an equal, " Goii bless thee ! " " God requi» I 
theegood!" " Heat meafrain." In general, a ijuarnl I 
terminates by one or bolii parties saying "Justitti I 
dgaiuat me*:" often, after this, they recite the Fa*!'' I 
hhah together; and then, sometimes, embrace tat I 
kiss one anatl\er. I 

Tlie Egyptians are partiailarly prone to satire; and 
often display considerable wit In their jeers and jeeU. 
Tlieir languaj^ affords Iheni great facilities for pun- 
ning, and for ambiguous conversation, in which th« 
very frequently indulge. 'I'he lower orders some- 
times lampoon their rulers in eungs, and riciiculi^ 
those enactments of the government by which iha. 
themselves most suffer. 1 was once much amusil 
with a song which 1 fouTid to be very popular i 
town ond district of Aswa n, on tlie southern froiltM 

of Egypt : its burden was a plain invocation to t! 

plftgue to take their tyrannical governor and his Cop 
clerk. Another song, which was popular throu^ov 
Egypt during my first visit to this country, and whid 
was composed on tlie occasion of on increase of w 
inctime-tait called Jii'deh. Ijefjan thus : '■ You wh 
have [nothing on your head but] a lil/deh I -sell J 
and pay ttie fi/deh." The lib'deh, I have before meW 
liontd, is a lelt cap, which is wom under, or instead 
of, the turban ; nnd the man must be very poor «" 
has no other covering than this for his head. 

• El-Maci'ct -uWya. 



n 8, b[ter "above it," odd, "ThU upper windoir, if 

' ■ -■ >- ■- oftea rancifully wotliKd with Ihe 

1 busin with a awei aboT« ii, or the 
L fi|(uieof n tioii,a[ the name of God, or theworili 'Ood 
"■ mj hope,' &c.'" 
e 8, for " prs-^- 
e 14. The 

gantB the fmoiupei,pl< of Arabian orfniu, while tha 
L peoplit of the laiDe nice who dweit in tlie dtiirl wen 
~ called Jinrelb or Aara'ben. 

_ ote. Add, — "Some women pluck out the hair nftei 
|> tmrelf nibbiaK the (lart wiih the i^nof chiitcu&l." 
BlMeta, luie 3, lor " Futoot'meh," leiul '■ Futtoo'iueli," 

!Lina 23. Add, — " Btuid men ue genurKlly prafecred for 
the uffire of moa-ed'duui, Ihst thu hhireu'inB and ter- 
races of lunouuding hoiiaes may uut b«i uverlouked tcum 
the ma'd'nehB." 
Line IT. " JHrf A^o'.i " i> vuigarly conlraded into 
^Dle. It thoiilit he added, that the era doea not com- 
mence ilom llie day on which the Prophet departed 
Bf- fWa Meklieh (as moirt of our autbora «ho have a. 

d Ihi« >ubjec 

..). li 

ibject auopoai 
lonth of Mohha/rdi 
it is said that Mohhuin'mad, Bltu hating; renuined 
concealei] in a tave near Mek'keh threa djya, with 
Ah'oo liekt, begun hi« journay, or " the Bight," to Kl-'neh, oa the ninth day of the third month 
(Rabee'I fl-0*'wal), siily-eigbt daji after the com- 
meiicemcDt of ihe eta. Thu< the tirst two m.mlhs ate 
made of thirty days each, which is Dflen ihe cbsb when 
the calculution fiora 'be acluiil sight u[ the new muun 
ii followed) iLiid the flight itve\l.iiDmthecave,ii>uyba 
iafen,^il to have eummcnced on ihe ■i.-li of September, 

! and 343, lot " alumii." read - alum.^' 

1. Linu 17, 1'oi " oblaiucdi" read. " attained." 

69 42 66 5 

59 426fi5 

59 42 6'^:> 

9 42685 






1415) 7231493 

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